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Vol. XV.-No. 169. JANUARY I 5th, 1931. Price 3d. 


Entered as Second Class Matter, March 15, 1929, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass., under the Act of March 3, 1879 (Sec. 397, P.L. and R.). 


IT was not wholly a coincidence that in 1928 two proposals were made almost simultaneously 
for International Conferences. The narrow view occasionally voiced that Conferences 
were a waste of time, because Great Britain no longer had anything to learn from other 
countries, was evidently incompatible with the larger conceptions of social service and 
of patriotism which have been current since the war. Happily, it proved possible to 
reconcile Dr. Strehl's project of a European Conference for 1933, with Mr. Migel's and 
Mr. Irwin's plan for a World Conference in New York in 193 1 ; and the Executive 
Committee appointed by the pre-Congress at Vienna has been able to meet in conjunction with 
the Committee on Personnel and Programme which is making the arrangements for the attendance 
of European delegates at the World Conference in New York. 

From arrangements for Conferences to a plan for more regular international action was a 
natural step to take, and definite proposals for the organisation of an International Council for 
the Blind, working in conjunction with the League of Nations on the one hand, and on the other 
hand with the existing organisations for the blind throughout the world, will be laid before the 
World Conference in New York next April. 

The Object of International Action. 

The starting point was the resolution proposed at Vienna by Mr. G. F. Mowatt on behalf 
of the British delegates, to the effect that the League of Nations should be approached and asked 
to allow the 1933 Conference to be held under its auspices. This resolution was adopted with 
enthusiasm and the Executive Committee was given authority to approach the League. 

In the meantime, and to some measure independently, informal discussions had been 
taking place with a view to defining more exactly what was implied by an approach on behalf 
of the blind to the League of Nations. The recent publication by the League of the first Inter- 
national Handbook on the Welfare of the Blind seemed to infer that the League was prepared 
to take a special interest in the subject, and it was hoped that a permanent Bureau of Information 
of " Blindiana " might result, and with it the recognition of the blind as a community and of 
work for the blind as a social activity of international importance. It was agreed that there 
was wanted : — 


(a) A depository of information. 
(/;) An issuing office of information. 
(c) A permanent office for conferences. 
(<7) A headquarters for propaganda de- 
signed to raise the level of work for 
the blind in backward countries. 
(e) A centre of work for improving the 
condition of the blind in all coun- 
Further consideration brought home the 
importance, and the apparent feasibility, of 
making the International Bureau a clearing- 
house for literature, music, and apparatus, 
with the object of facilitating and cheapening 
the supply of technical apparatus, appliances 
and other articles required by the blind. 

The Approach to the League. 

To carry out the resolution of the Vienna 
pre - Congress, the Executive Committee 
appointed Dr. Strehl, Mr. Mowatt and 
Monsieur Raverat to act as its ambassadors 
and invited Mr. Eagar to accompany them as 
adviser. The delegation so appointed went 
to Geneva in June and interviewed officials 
of the League of Nations Secretariat and of 
the International Labour office. Opportunity 
was also taken to secure an interview with 
Lord Cecil, the delegate of the British 
Government to the League. 

The delegation was received by Monsieur 
Dufour-Feronce and Dr. Pantaleoni of the 
Secretariat of the League and by Dr. Carrozzi 
and other officials of the International 
Labour office. The actual proceedings were 
informal and private, but at the end of the 
discussions a clear understanding was reached 
of the way in which the good-will of the 
League towards work for the blind could be 
expressed. It was made clear that the 1933 
Conference could be held under the auspices 
of the League only if it were convened by a 
body formally constituted at the request of 
Member-Governments. If, however, the 
League could " give its blessing " to the 
Conference then it would be possible for the 
League to send an observer to the Conference 
and generally to " recognise " it. On the 
other hand, if an International Organisation 
for the Blind could be established and main- 
tainea by private resources, so as to be 
analogous to such bodies as the International 
Institute of Agriculture at Rome or the 
League of Intellectual Co-operation at Paris, 
the League would be able to recognise its 
work and co-operate. 



All this was rather negative or conditional. 
There was, however, one positive and 
immediate step which Mr. Dufour-Feronce 
was able to announce, namely, that the 
League would henceforth maintain, through 
its Health Section, a permanent Bureau of 
Information on Blind Welfare. The work of 
this Bureau would enable the Handbook to 
be reprinted from time to time, in order to 
make it as far as possible complete and to 
keep it up to date. A further interview with 
Dame Rachel Crowdy brought the delegation 
into contact with the Social Section of the 
League, which the delegation found had been 
carrying out certain investigations and pro- 
ducing reports which had not been brought 
into the general currency of information on 
the blind. In future, any work done by any 
Section of the League by the International 
Labour office will be co-ordinated, and 
through the Health Section brought to the 
notice of the International body representing 
work for the blind. 

Practical Politics. 

The interview with Lord Cecil, which has 
been referred to above, soon bore fruit, and 
Miss Susan Lawrence (Parliamentary Secre- 
tary to the British Ministry of Health), was 
able to report as follows to the Assembly 
this year : — 

" I may draw your attention to the 
completion last year of the collection of 
national data relating to the welfare of the 
blind, and take this occasion to express the 
hope of my Government — which, I feel 
sure, will be shared by other Governments 
— that the several organisations of the 
League, including the Health Organisation, 
will keep in touch with the efforts which 
are being made to develop international 
co-operation for the welfare of blind 
persons. The international conference on 
this subject, which is being planned for 
1933, may give a suitable occasion for the 
liaison desired." 

Further help was rendered by Sir George 
Buchanan (Member of the Health Committee), 
and the way now seems clear for the Health 
Section to assist in any international studies 
of the Causes and Prevention of blindness, in 
addition to maintaining an Information 

All this was substantial gain, but much 
remained to be done outside the limitations 
necessarily imposed on the Health Section. 


JANUARY 15th— DECEMBER 15th, 1930. 

Aberdeen Asylum . . . . . . 273 

Aberdeen, New Workshops . . 88 

Achievements of the Blind 6, 26, 48, 80, 

104, 128, 147, 165, 197, 224, 246, 272 
Advertisements . . 20, 40, 60, 84, 

108, 132, 156, 180, 204, 228, 252, 276 
Advisory Committee, Report on Un- 
employable Blind . . . . . . 8 

Advisory Committee, Eighth Report 


(Also see Scotland, The Blind in) 
Allen, Honour for Edward 
America, New Braille Monthly 

Magazine in 
American Experiment, An (M. G. 

Thomas) . . . . . . . . 157 

Announcements of New Publications 

19, 38, 59, 82, 

106, 131, 155, 179, 203, 227, 251, 275 
dArtagnan, An Appeal by . . . . 100 

Ashton - under - Lyne, Stalybridge, 

Dukinfield and District Home 

Teaching Society . . . . . . 226 

Athlone Blind School (South Africa* 101 
Auckland, Jubilee Institute for the 

Blind 130 

Audible Playing Ball, The New . . 203 
Authors ? Where are the Blind . . 191 



Baby Week Council, National 
Barclay Home and School. Brighton 
Barclay Workshop lor Blind Women 
Barnsley District Association for 

the Blind 

Belfast Unemployables, £12,000 for 
Birmingham Roval Institution for 

the Blind 

Blackpool and Fylde Societv for 

the Blind ' 

Blind Engineer recovers his sight. . 

Blind, Of or For the 

Blind Street Traders 

Blind Workshop Administration and 

Management (S. W. Starling) 
Blind World in the Thirties, The . . 
Blindness in Post War Literature 

(F. L. G. C.) 

Bolton Workshops and Homes 
Book Reader, The 
Bournemouth Blind Aid Societv . . 
Bradford Roval Institution lor the 

Braille, On Learning (Sylvia Chan- 
Braille Periodical Literature 
Braille Rotary Press . . 49 

Brass Band, Blind 

Brighton Societv for the Welfare of 

the Blind . . " 

Bristol Hostel . . . . 64, 

Bristol Royal School of Industry 47, 
British Wireless for the Blind Fund 
Brooklyn Centre for Braille MS. 

Bulgaria, Twenty-fifth year of Sofia 

Burma, Mission to the Blind of 








, 66 






Cape Town Civilian Blind Society 
Cardiff Institute for the Blind 
Cardiganshire Association for the 


Care of the Blind Child 
Carmarthenshire Blind Society 
Central Swiss Union for the Care of 

the Blind 

Ceylon, Mount Lavinia School 
Chester Society for the Home Teach- 
ing of the Blind 

Christmas Fare in the South-West 
College of Teachers' Examination 



Competitions for Blind Typists 

Composers, British Blind (E. Watson) 

" Concerning the Blind " 7; 

Cookery for the Blind 


Correspondence : 

Blind in Japan 

Certifying Clinics 

Compensations of Blindness 

Curiosities of Blindness 

Jig-saw Puzzle Lending Club 

Semi-Blind, The 

Shadowy Fear 

Unification of Collections. . 173, 

Uniform Braille .. 122,153, 

Courses for the Blind (M. Grant) . . 
Croydon Voluntary Association for 

the Blind 

Cupar, Opening of New Premises. . 

Delius and Braille Music 

Devon County Association for the 
Welfare of the Blind 

Dog-Guides for the Blind (Harrison 

Dogs, Captain Fraser's Views on . . 

Duke of Portland and Blind Gym- 

Dumfries Mission to the Outdoor 







.. 93 






Cambridgeshire Society for the Blind 200 
Canadian National Institute for the 

Blind 200 

Candidates for Fxaminations, Blind 95 

East Anglian Schools, Gorleston-on 

Sea . . . . 45 

East Ham Welfare Association for 

the Blind 130 

Education Week in Marburg . . 176 
Employment — An Urgent Necessity 

(B. Purse) 171 

Ephphatha House . . . . . . 260 

Errata. . . . . . . . . . 105 

Ervine, St. John, on the Blind (from 

Time and Tide) . . . . . . 77 

Esperantists, 9th Congress of Blind 

(P.Merrick) 181 

Evans, Dr. P. M., Presentation to. . 24 

Fifty Years of Service to the Blind 106 

Five Day Week for the Blind . . 19 

Foreign News . . . . 5, 138, 257 

Friend of the Blind, A True . . 239 
Furniture Making as an Industry for 

the Blind (A. R. Bannister) . . 84 

Gardening instituted for Blind Chil- 
dren 3 

Gardners' Trust .. .. .. 178 

Germanv, The Blind in . . . . 223 

Gibraltar, A Useful Holidav in 

(Canon Bolam) 163 

Glasgow, New Central Clinic for 3, 113 
Glasgow, Blind Employees in . . 164 

Gloucestershire Association for Care 

of the Blind 176 

Gown Returns, The (F. Picot) . . 243 
Greater London Fund .. 4,116,176 

Guildford, New Selling Depot for . . 232 

Halifax Society for the Blind . . 274 

Hanley, Proposed New Workshops 

for 256 

Hangchow Pharmacv and " pills for 

all ills" .. ' 258 

Harrogate and District Society for 

the Biind 273 

Hartlepools' Workshops for the 

Blind 177 

Hastings Voluntary Association for 

the Blind 101, 199 

Helen Keller, The Later Life of . . 127 
Helping the Blind (W. M. Stone) . . 133 
Holidays for Blind Children (H. 

Bergel) 218 

Holidays for Blind Children, A 

generous service . . . . . . 235 

Home News . . . . 3, 23, 43, 64, 

88, 112, 136, 160, 185, 210, 231, 256 
Hull and East Riding Institution for 

the Blind 212, 251 

Hymn- Writer, A Famous Blind (L. 

Rodenberg) 208 

111 Wind, An 71 

Impressions of the Esperanto Con- 
gress (T. Forster) . . . . 183 
Incorporated Association for Pro- 
moting the General Welfare of 

the Blind 178 

India, Blind Relief in . . . . 5 

Indigent Blind Visiting Society . . 250 
Institute of Ophthalmic Opticians, 

Conference of .. .. .. 137 

International Developments . . 265 

Island School, An 274 

Japanese Educationist, A Great . . 87 
Journalism as a Profession for the 

Blind (J. Porter) 253 

Kent County Association for the 

Blind 200 

Kent, Unemployable Blind in . . 185 

Language Teachers, The Demand for 239 
Language Teaching for the Blind (J. 

Patterson) 238 

Learning to Read . . . . . . 46 

Leatherhead, Roval School for the 

Blind . . .. 88, 112, 273 

Lectures at Public Schools (H. C. 

Warrilow) 1 94 

Leeds Blind Persons' Act Committee 47 
Leeds Institution for the Blind, Deaf 

and Dumb 201 

Leicester Blind, New Home for . . 136 
Leicester and Rutland Institution 

for the Blind .. .. 192, 199 

Lener Quartet Concert . . . . 44 

Liverpool Workshops and Home 

Teaching Society . . . . 225, 270 

Local Government Act Contributory 

Scheme "67, 71 

London Association for the Blind 250 
London Society for Teaching and 

Training the Blind .. .. 190 

Manchester — Henshaw's Institution 

for the Blind 249 

Marriage, The Blind and . . . . 186 
Masseurs, Association of Certified 

Blind ..199 

Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties 

Association for the Blind . . 271 

Middlesex Association for the Blind 200 

Montreal Association for the Blind 138 

Museum and Exhibition, A Blind . . 119 

Museums and the Blind . . . . 266 
Music Memorisation by the Blind 

(E.Watson) 261 

Music Notation, Paris Congress on 5 

Music Students, New Handbooks for 247 

Music Students Competition . . 222 

Musical Contests, Blind Entrants for 195 
Musical Aspirant, Encourage the 

Blind 49 

National Council of Social Service 225 
National Deaf - Blind Helpers' 

League . . . . . . 201 

National Institute for the Blind . . 220 

National Library for the Blind 10, 199 
National Maternity Service (N. 

March) 118 

National Notes .. 12, 30, 50, 72, 96 

National Ophthalmic Treatment 

Board 162 

National Society for Prevention of 

Blindness, New York . . . . 102 
National Union of the Professional 

and Industrial Blind . . 13, 189, 256 
Newcastle, Gateshead and District 

Workshops for the Blind . . 201 
Newcastle, New Training Centre for 211 
New York Lighthouse . . . . 82 
New York Institute for the Educa- 
tion of the Blind 47 

New Zealand — Jubilee Institute 

for the Blind 251 

New Zealand — Night Classes in . . 5 
Non - Industrial Blind, The (B. 

Pursel 138 

North London Homes for Aged 

Christian Blind . . . . 47, 274 
Northern Counties Association for 

the Blind 27 

Northern France Association of 

Friends of the Blind .. .. 101 

Norwich Institution for the Blind. . 225 

Obituary : 

Adams, Alfred 94 

Boyle, Arthur 242 

Brooker, Sydnev . • ■ • • • 58 

Brown, Mrs. C. G. .. .. 115 

Clarke, Amos .. .. .. 115 

Deason, William . . . . . . 242 

Gray, Sybil 26 

Haller, Alice 58 

Machida, N. 58 

Power, Margaret . . . . . . 217 

Readhead, James . . . . . . 94 

Rockville, Dr 172 

Rothery, William 242 

Taylor, Charles 263 

Tennant, John 

Wedgwood, Major 
O'Dwyer, Sir Michael 
Oldham, New Workshop Opened in 
Oldham, Workshops and Blind 

Women's Industries 
Organists, Bureau for Blind \ 

Organists, Employment of Blind . . 
Ottawa, Sight-Saving in 
Oxford, Society for the Blind 






9, 63 





Palamcottah Schools . . 5, 249 

Paris Home, Fire at 138 

Patna Blind School 47 

Pedestrians and Traffic, Blind . . 265 

Peking— Hill Murray Institute .. 250 
Pennsylvania Association for the 

Blind 47 

Pennsylvania Home Teaching 

Society 80 

Personalia . . 36, 68, 105, 152, 245, 263 

Pictures, Experiments in . . 215 

Placement in Canada .. .. 143 

Policy, a Progressive . . . . 9 

Pontypridd Workshops . . . . 65 
Postage of Braille Paper . . 13, 44 

Preston Industrial Institute . . 267 

Prevention of Blindness . . . . 95 
Professional Knowledge and the 

Home Teacher (M. G. T.) . . 69 

Professional Touch, The . . . . 145 


I 10 

I in 

Rationalisation in the Blind World 

1. Criticism of the Unifications of 

Collections Policy (G. Pol- 

2. A Defence of the Unification of 

Collections Policy (H. Preece) 

3. Personal Experience of the 

Unifications Policy (S. M. 

4. Unification in the Midlands 

(C. C. Macaulav) 
Recent Publications 37, 57, 102, 129, 219 
Record of Useful Work (see Advisory 

Committee, Eighth Report of) 
Rhondda Institution for the Blind 
Ritchie, Dr., on the Blind (see 

" Concerning the Blind ") 
Rochdale Society for Visiting the 




St. Dunstan's 

St. Helen's and District Society for 
the Welfare of the Blind 

St. John's Guild for the Blind 

St. Mary's, Dublin (M. G. Thomas) 

Scotland, The Blind in (Advisory 
Committee's Report) 

Scotland, Certification in 

Scotland, Blind Tuners in . . 

Scottish National Federation Con- 

Scottish Notes 

" Seen and Unseen " (A. J. Cohen) 
41, 78, 98, 126, 

Sensation of Obstacles, The 

Shadowy Fear, The 

Sheffield' Welfare of the Blind De- 

Sheffield Royal Institution for the 

Sheffield Workshops Opened 185, 

Shorthand Machines. . 




Sign of the Times, A 

Sound or Sight (Sir R. Paget) 

South African National Council for 

the Blind (East London Branch) 
South African Library for the Blind 

South Devon and Cornwall Institu- 
tion for the Blind 
Southampton Association 
Spain, The Blind in (B. Aitken) 
Sports for the Blind (G. Mowatt) . . 
Sports Club for the Blind 65, 89, 145, 170 
Staffordshire Association for the 

Welfare of the Blind . . . . 130 

State and Charitable Endowments, 

The (B. Purse) . . 205, 240, 268 

Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffs 

Committee 273 

Successful Blind Chess Players . . 230 
Surrey Voluntary Association for 

the Blind 199 

Sweeping Change, A. . . . . . 71 

Swiss Society for the Blind . . 82 

Swiss Association for Blind Welfare 177 

Tasmanian Institute for the Blind, 

Deaf and Dumb 82 

Taunton Home Teaching Society . . 273 

Those in the Dark Silence . . . . 196 
Torch-Bearing Tour, Mr. and Mrs. 

Rufus Mather's- 1929-1930 (E. 

Allen) 236 

Trade and Industry . . . . 38, 70, 92 

Trade Mark and Warning . . . . 49 

Trinidad Royal Victoria Institute . . 82 
Turpin Prize Awarded to Blind 

Organist 184 

Tynemouth Blind Welfare Society 101 

Unification of Collections . . . . 95 

(Also see Rationalisation in the 
Blind World) 

Uniform Braille . . . . . . 74 

Union of Counties Associations for 

the Blind . . 47, 114, 149, 174, 226 

Unemployable Blind, The (1) .. 259 

Unexpurgated . . . . . . 167 

Village of the Blind, A (N. Roger) 248 

West Ham Association for the Blind 

Westcliff Home Opened 

White House Conference on Child 


Who's Who in the Blind World 15 
55, 81, 
Wigan, New Workshops at 
Wilts County Association for the 


Wireless for the Blind Fund 
Wireless Performers, Blind 
Wireless Sets Needed, 18,000 
Worcester College Endowment Fund 
Word Pictures 

Workshops, Amalgamation of 
Workshops for the Blind, Association 

of 27, 

" World of the Blind, The " (M. G. 


World Conference in New York, The 

Worthing Society for Befriending 

the Blind . . " 

Zoo, Blind Party See the . . 

2 111 







An effective International Organisation would 
necessarily be concerned with many social 
and industrial matters and with propaganda 
which could hardly be undertaken by an 
officially constituted body. In any case it 
might take years to get " Member-Govern- 
ments " to move in the desired direction and 
it was decided, therefore, to report to the 
Conference Executive Committee that the 
most hopeful line to pursue was to aim at the 
establishment of an organisation maintaining 
touch with the League, but independent of 
it and not necessarily centred at Geneva, 
which would co-ordinate, extend, and inten- 
sify work for the blind wherever opportunity 

from existing agencies for the blind in 
different countries, and it became necessary 
to consider whether some individual or 
corporation should be approached. In sur- 
veying the possibilities it was impossible to 
leave out of account one existing corporation, 
which is in fact already an international body 
working for the welfare of the blind in many 
countries, and at present paying particular 
attention to the blind in those European 
countries where work on their behalf is 
backward, namely, the American Braille 
Press, of the Rue Lauriston, Paris. 

Considerable importance attaches, there- 
fore, to a speech made by Mr. Nelson Crom- 
well when he entertained representatives of 

Mr. Cromwell's Luncheon to Conference Representatives. 
(Reading clockwise) Mr. W. McG. Eagar (Gt. Britain), Mr. Cromwell's Private Secretary, 
Dr. Carl Strehl (Germany), Prof. P. Villey (France), Mons. G. L. Raverat, Senhor G. Drugman (Italy), 
Mr. Lundberg, Jr., Mr. A. Lnndberg (Sweden), Mr. Nelson Cromwell. 

The Question of Finance. 

This decision had the definite advantage 
that an officially constituted body could not 
in any case be expected to discharge all the 
functions which at the beginning of the dis- 
cussions were regarded as desirable ; for 
example, it could not itself do active propa- 
ganda for advancing the cause of the blind in 
countries where their condition is unsatis- 

Of the functions set out above, the first has 
now been undertaken by the League and the 
second to some extent. The performance of 
the others clearly require a permanent office 
and considerable financial support. Such 
financial support can scarcely be obtained 

the two International Conference Com- 
mittees to luncheon in Paris last October. 
Mr. Cromwell is president of the American 
Braille Press and has already earned the 
undying gratitude of the blind in many 
countries. He urged that the forthcoming 
Conference in New York should not be 
regarded as a " talk fest," but as a hard- 
working session fruitful in better organisation 
and truly international aid to all sightless of 
every race and creed. He went on to speak 
of the vital need for an organisation repre- 
senting the interests and necessities of the 
blind throughout the world " with a common 
purpose — intelligent, co-operative in fellow- 
ship, in action and result Among the 




blind there is not one single powerful, con- 
centrated organisation but here comes 

the opportunity, and with it the sublime duty 

Now has the time come when the 

blind must be represented by the combined 
intelligence of men concentrated on this 
object. Nothing can be accomplished by 

isolation This is a common purpose 

and endeavour, a common want I 

join you heart and soul without limit." 

This promise of co-operation with the Inter- 
national plan formulated by the Conference 
Committees was received with enthusiasm, and 
we are justified in hoping that it will be possi- 
ble at New York next April to form an Inter- 
national Council for the Blind, and that the 
American Braille Press will not only continue 
its present work, but act in the future as the 
instrument of the Blind World internationally 
in a number of agreed activities. 

Constitution and Scope of an International 

It is clearly desirable that the establishment 
of an International Council should not in any 
way interfere with the work already being 
done by the International Conference Com- 
mittees. The Conference of 1933 must be 
made a definite success and full advantage 
must be taken of the work now being per- 
formed by the commissions appointed at 

The delegates at New York, will, if they 
approve the plan, be asked to elect a repre- 
sentative Council which in the first place will 
act in harmony with the Executive Committee 
appointed at Vienna and will henceforth be 
responsible for the convening and holding of 
other International Conferences. 

Under such arrangement as that contem- 
plated, the International Council would be 
primarily a consultative body and would act 
for a number of purposes through the Braille 
Press. In agreement with Mr. Cromwell and 
his Committee and with Monsieur Raverat, it 
could arrange for the printing of braille or 
ink-print publications of international signi- 
ficance, including a periodical Bulletin of 
Information ; it could undertake research 
into technical apparatus and appliances with 
the object of simplifying and rationalising 
their production ; it could act as a clearing- 
house of music and literature and generally 
encourage and forward all fresh activities on 
behalf of the blind. 



The propaganda and development work 
of the American Braille Press would, of 
course, continue, but by acting in conjunction 
with the International Council it would be 
devoting its funds to the services of the blind, 
not so much as a private venture of American 
generosity but as an accredited agent of the 
Blind World as a whole. The situation is full 
of promise. It remains for the delegates from 
the world at large to go to New York next 
April with a clear conception of what is 
required in order that a practical plan may be 
put forward and discussed in detail. 

An International Council is needed. Lack 
of co-ordination between work for the blind in 
various countries is an obstacle to intelligent 
development of work for the blind in any 

The people who live in darkness are still 
numbered throughout the world in hundreds 
of thousands and many of the practical things 
to be done on their behalf can only be done 
effectively through international action. 



" Memories." 

" Memories " (by E. J. Sillett, 226, 
Stanhope Street, Newcastle on Tyne, price 
is. id. post free) is a little book of verse by a 
blind man, unpretentious and simply written. 
The writer is evidently a lover of the country- 
side, and finds in its scents and sounds a 
beauty that is intensified for him " when eyes 
no longer see " ; the song of the bird, the 
fragrance of field and flower, the murmur of 
the sea, and the movement in the crowded 
street are full of meaning for his listening ear. 
" Out of the Night." 

" Out of the Night " is a record of the work 
of the Hertfordshire Society for the Blind, 
and at the same time an anthology of prose 
and verse, with extracts from Shakespeare, 
Henley, Barrie, and others, specially appli- 
cable to blindness. It is illustrated with 
sketches in black and white, one by Fougasse 
of Punch being particularly striking, and its 
letterpress includes stories of individual blind 
persons who have been helped by the Society 
to secure hospital treatment, holidays, pen- 
sions, and wireless sets, or have been visited 
by its Home Teachers. 



Mr. McCurdy's Gift to the Blind. 

The Rt. Hon. C. A. McCurdy, P.C., K.C., a member of the Executive Council of 
the National Institute for the Blind, has made a gift to the Institute of all royalties from 
the sale of his new book " Empire Free Trade," recently published by Hutchinsons at 
half a crown. 

A Definite Attack upon Miners' Nystagmus. 

Mr. Shinwell, Secretary for Mines, has announced the issue of a new draft order to 
be submitted to the coal-mining industry which will constitute a definite attack upon 
the terrible affliction of miners' nystagmus. It will provide for better lighting of the 
mines by way of a minimum candle-power for safety lamps, a wider use of electricity at 
the coal face, and more illumination on the surface. 

A Pioneer of the White Stick. 

Mr. Martin Henderson, the well-known blind musician and entertainer, has decided 
to carry a white stick. The stick has been presented to him by Mr. T. Gregson, secretary 
of the Whitley Bay Unionist Club, on behalf of Mr. James Hilton, and Mr. Henderson 
says " I am going to take the lead in this country. I believe in safety first, and I hope 
that the idea, already in force in France, will be taken up by other blind people in this 
country." In view of the remarks in last month's New Beacon, his attitude towards the 
traffic problem should be of interest to readers of this journal. 

British Government Representatives to New York International Conference. 

The British Government, at the request of President Hoover, will send two repre- 
sentatives, Mr. John Jeffrey and Mr. F. R. Lovett, of the Ministry of Health, to attend 
the International Conference on Work for the Blind, to be held in New York next month. 
The other British delegates, and those from European countries, were named in last 
month's issue of The New Beacon. 

Mr. Churchill's Christmas Appeal for the Wireless Fund. 

The Rt. Hon. Winston Churchill, M.P., speaking from his home at Westerham on 
Christmas night, made a stirring broadcast appeal on behalf of the British Wireless for 
the Blind Fund. 

" The great Bismarck, speaking many years ago of his schemes for social insurance 
for Germany, used the expression ' practical Christianity,' " Mr. Churchill said. " There 
could not be a better day than this day of solemn festival, when kith and kin and old 
friends come together, for an act of practical Christianity." 

Mr. Churchill reminded listeners that it was a year ago that he last appealed for this 
cause. He wondered whether the year had gone so quickly for the blind. Last year he 
asked listeners to close their eyes for a minute. Supposing they had not opened them for 
the whole year ! 

Wireless brought for the blind each night a pageant before their mind's eye. " That 
mysterious lamp of inner consciousness will be continually fed by your unfailing care. 
The blind will hear, and by hearing see." 

Last year nearly £25,000 was collected for the fund and as a result of Mr. Churchill's 
talk a year ago £12,000 was received. Radio manufacturers alone gave 1,000 valve sets ; 
7,000 blind people now have wireless sets, and by April 10,000 will have them. That 
was about half the number of blind people in this country. Another 10,000 were without 

" We must have another £20,000," said Mr. Churchill, " and how easy. It only 
needs one more push like the one last year and the task is done. The gift is bestowed, 




the miracle has been accomplished, and the proud boast may be made by Englishmen in 
Great Britain : ' All blind persons have their wireless sets ; it is one of the customs of 
the country.' 

" Many things make us anxious about our country. The most thoughtful men and 
women of every party, and no party, are perplexed and anxious. Everyone would like to 
do something if they only knew what to help. Well, here is something for all. 

" The civilisation of great peoples is not only measured by the strength and wisdom 
of their laws, but by the compassion of their hearts. 

" Let it at least be said that in our island home, our beloved island home, the blind 
are less unhappy than anywhere else in the whole world." 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, the Rt. Hon. Reginald McKenna, 
226, Great Portland Street, W.i. 

Up to the date of going to press a sum of ,£4,041 had been received in response to 
Mr. Churchill's appeal, making the total amount of cash subscribed to the Fund since 
its initiation a sum of £29,360. 

E. W. Austin " Memorial Reading Competition for the Blind. 

It is hoped to hold the tenth Meeting of the " E. W. Austin " Memorial Reading 
Competition, at the National Library for the Blind, during the month of March. 

Unseen passages will be read, and prizes awarded for fluency, ease of diction, and 
general expression. 

After careful consideration, it has been decided to alter the usual divisions of the 
Adult Competitors, and to divide them into two sections, who will read different passages. 

A. Advanced readers in competition for the " Blanesburgh " Cup. 

B. Other readers. 

The Junior Competitors will also be differently classed : — 

1. Children under 9 years of age. 

2. Those between the ages of 9 and n. 

3. Those between the ages of 11 and 13. 

4. Those between the ages of 13 and 16. 

Competitors in classes 1 and 2 to be allowed their choice of reading Contracted or 

Uncontracted Braille. 

It is also hoped to hold an Open Competition for the reading of unseen passages 

from Shakespeare. All previous winners in any class will be eligible to enter for this event 

Intending Competi- 
tors should send in their 
names to the Secretary, 
35, Great Smith Street, 
Westminster, S.W.i as 
early as possible, stating 
in which class they wish 
to enter. 

The Committee con- 
sists of :— Mr. W. H. 
Dixson, M.A., Mr. H. 
Royston, Mr. J. de la 
Mare Rowley, the Rev. 
S. J. Skinner, Miss Jame- 
son, Miss Ruth Last 
(Winner of 1929 Com- 
petition), Miss D. A. Pain, 
and Miss O. I. Prince 


Capt. Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C., greeting the Blind Babies at Paddington 
en route from Devonshire to the new " Sunshine " Home at East Grinstead. 




Central Institute for Defectives, Mysore. 

We have received an interesting account of this Institute for the Deaf and Blind, 
which was founded twenty-six years ago by Mr. Rau, with one blind boy and three 
deaf mutes. There are now 45 blind pupils in the school, and since the Government 
took over its management in 1927 it has moved from rather unsuitable surroundings 
to a large open site on the outskirts of the town. The industries practised are Braille 
printing, weaving, rattan work and knitting, and a beginning has been made in the 
physical training of the pupils. A visit of inspection has lately been made to the school 
by Mr. Bell, the newly appointed Principal of the Victoria Memorial School, Madras, 
and a former master at Craigmillar, Edinburgh. 

Work for the Blind in Gibraltar. 

An important meeting that should have far-reaching effects on the welfare of the 
blind was held in Gibraltar on December 15th, and resulted in the unanimous and enthusi- 
astic decision to form a local Society, acting in close co-operation with the National 
Institute for the Blind in London. His Excellency the Governor presided and was 
supported by the Right Rev. Dr. R. J. Fitzgerald, Roman Catholic Bishop of Gibraltar, 
His Honour Sir Sydney Nettleton, Chief Justice, Lieut. -Colonel the Hon. A. E. Beattie, 
Colonial Secretary, the Very Rev. G. H. Warde, Dean of Gibraltar, Mr. H. J. King, 
President of the Chamber of Commerce, Mr. H. F. Maxted, Acting President of the 
Exchange and Commercial Library, and Major G. D. Jameson, Medical Officer of Health. 
The room was well filled with a large and representative gathering of all sections of the 

Canon Bolam, a member of the Executive Council of the National Institute for the 
Blind, who had come to Gibraltar for the purpose of addressing the meeting, was intro- 
duced by the Governor, and spoke as himself a blind man, who knew something of the 
problems of blindness from within. He gave a brief account of the work undertaken by 
the National Institute as a publishing house for Braille literature, and as an organisation 
whose special aim it is to help to make the blind " ordinary useful happy members of the 
community," emphasising its freedom from religious bias, and its special interest in work 
for the blind not only in England but in other countries within the Empire, and indeed 
throughout the world. Canon Bolam went on to give an account of an earlier visit he had 
paid to Gibraltar in June, when he had been put in touch with the work already done 
for the blind there, and paid tributes to the excellent work undertaken by the health 
authorities and to the wonderful kindness of the Sisters to the blind in their care. He 
felt, however, that there was still room for further activity, and indicated the lines on 
which he considered it might be carried out, stressing especially the importance of pre- 
vention of blindness, the registration of all blind cases in the colony, the education of 
the children, their employment in useful occupations when they grew up, and the pro- 
vision of means for social intercourse. He felt sure that money would be forthcoming 
for so splendid a piece of social work, and suggested that a small Committee should be 
formed to carry on the work. 

At the conclusion of Canon Bolam 's address a short discussion took place in which 
the Roman Catholic Bishop, The Dean of Gibraltar, and the Chief Justice took part. 
On the suggestion of His Excellency those present were asked to enrol themselves as 
members of the new Society, and it was decided that the temporary Committee which 
had arranged the meeting should carry on till a general meeting had been summoned. 
The temporary Committee includes the Roman Catholic Bishop, The Dean of Gibraltar, 
the Colonial Surgeon, the Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce, The Acting President 
of the Exchange and Commercial Library, and the Medical Officer of Health, with the 
addition of Mrs. H. J. King (Hon. Secretary) and Hon. J. Andrews-Speed (Hon. 





IN travelling up and down England, 
Wales and the Isle of Man, preaching 
and lecturing in various churches, 
what has struck me most has been the 
never-failing kindness which one 
everywhere finds. Being totally blind 
and always going alone on my journeys, 
I naturally depend a good deal upon the 
helpfulness of others, and it is always splen- 
didly forthcoming. Indeed the only 
embarrassments I ever experience arise from 
the fact that some people are so kind as to 
wish to do for a blind man not only what is 
necessary, but much more. For example, 
some, not content with assisting one out of a 
train, will actually proceed to try to lift one 
out, as though one were quite lame in both 
legs. The porter, too, in guiding one to the 
next train, will sometimes try to put one in 
front of him, with his arm almost entirely 
round one's body. This is very uncomfort- 
able. Besides, should there be any steps to 
encounter, the good man will be quite certain 
to say, " Steps, sir," when we come to them, 
but equally certainly he will forget to say 
whether they are up or down, which might 
easily end in disaster. I therefore always 
gently and graciously, but quite firmly, insist 
on taking his arm, and on having him slightly 
in front of me, then when steps do occur I 
can always feel whether to step up or down 
by his movements. But how excellently have 
these fellows taken care of me ! During the 
last thirty years I estimate that I must have 
travelled well over a quarter of a million 
miles, yet, relying on their kind help, never 
once have I found myself in the wrong train, 
nor at the wrong destination. This seems 
remarkable to me, as I have three brothers 
who all see quite perfectly, and who do not 
travel in a year as much as I do in a week, 
and, nevertheless, they all have been in 
wrong trains, and one of them more than 

Of course people occasionally make little 
mistakes with blind folk ; but if we are not 
too sensitive, nor too ready to take offence, 
their little stupidities, which, after all, are 
never intentionally unkind, will only yield us 
a bit of quiet amusement. There is the man, 
who, in conversation with me, will insist on 

acting, as though, because I am blind, I am 
also necessarily stone deaf. And the other 
person who, when you happen to have a 
companion with you, persists in asking that 
companion all about you. though you are 
there all the time. I once had this experience 
when taking tea with a friend of mine, the 
hostess continually asking my friend, even 
about my likes and dislikes during the meal/ 
" Does your friend take sugar ? " " Will he 
have cream ? " Then, a little later on, 
" Would he like some of this cake, do you 
think ? " Still later, " What will he nave 
next ? " As this occurred in a manse, my 
friend, getting tired of answering for me, very 
appropriately quoted scripture to the interro- 
gator, saying, " He is of age, ask him," which 
caused even the hostess herself to laugh most 
merrily, after which all went quite naturally. 

Then there are the people who give you 
too much commiseration. " Are you quite 
blind, sir ? " " Yes, quite, as a result of 
scarlet fever when I was six years old." 
" Dear me, sir, how dreadful, so you are 
stone blind, sir." Keeping my face as 
straight as I can, I sometimes answer, " Yes, 
even gravel blind." " Well, sir, I should 
think that to be blind is the very worst 
affliction of all." With this, I can, of course, 
never agree. I ask " What about total 
paralysis, or insanity ? " Usually, the chief 
difficulty such people urge about blindness 
is that when one is blind one " cannot get 
about, sir." I try to agree that there is 
something in this, generally adding that I 
find that I scarcely ever travel more than some 
17,000 miles per annum. 

In my opinion, no right minded blind 
person ever allows himself to show annoyance 
with genuine sympathy, especially when it is 
intelligent, but we do object strongly to pity 
when it is too loud mouthed. For instance, 
a brother Baptist minister meeting me for the 
first time in a drawing-room full of people, 
addressed me as follows : " My poor dear 
brother, and have you never known sun- 
light ? " To this I laughingly replied : 
" Oh dear, yes, they wash clothes with it in 
our house every week." For a short time I 
was rather afraid he might have been hurt by 
the shriek of laughter which followed this 


reply, but he was a thoroughly good fellow, 
and we became excellent friends. 

Another little trouble is that, though 
conversation is generally a great pleasure to 
me, sometimes, after a long series of services 
and lectures, I am too tired for much talk in 
the train. At such times one is hard put to it 
to know how to avoid conversation without 
giving the impression that one is morose or 
taciturn. The most trying example of this I 
ever experienced happened to me on a 
Sunday night during the War. During the 
previous eight days I had conducted thirteen 
services and meetings, and was therefore 
terribly exhausted. My whole body and 
mind were crying out for rest and quietness. 
Being only a short distance from home, to 
avoid being crowded in the train, I decided 
to be extravagant for once, so booked first- 
class, my porter fortunately finding me a quite 
empty compartment. However, to my dis- 
may, at the very first stop, a partially drunk 
and very talkative Colonial joined me. He 
at once commenced to fire at me a whole list 
of questions, all of which I tried to answer 
with as much patience as I could then muster. 
Then the poor fellow began about my 
blindness in the usual way. " Are you quite 
blind, sir ? " " Yes, quite," and so on. And 
then, " It must be awful to be blind, sir,'" 
and I could see he would give me no peace 
during the whole journey. This, in my 
condition, at the moment, was more than I 
could endure, and I simply had to do some- 
thing to silence him. I therefore leaned 
forward and said : " My dear friend, I am 
sorry to tell you that you, too, will be quite 
blind some day, and deaf and dumb." 
" God ! " he exploded, " What do you mean, 
sir ? " To which I answered, " When you 
are dead, old chap." That produced the 
desired result, and kept him quite quiet until 
we parted. 

I am often a guest for one or more nights 
in four or five different homes in a week. 
When I am to stay in the same house for the 
week-end, I invariably begin by getting my 
host or hostess to show me carefully over all 
the part of it which I need to know, so as to get 
about in it afterwards unaided, but when only 
staying for a very short time I do not always 
do this. One night, arriving rather late, only 
just in time to begin my lecture in a town 
which I should be leaving very early the next 
morning, I found I was to be the guest of a 

noted "oculist.^ He was a delightful fellow, 
who took me home most joyously after the 
meeting. When we finally retired for the 
night, I got him to escort me to my bedroom. 
Having got me there, when he was about to 
go, he very kindly said : " Are you now all 
right, Mr. Griffiths ? or is there anything 
further I can do for your comfort ? " " Quite 
all right, doctor," I answered. Then I 
realised that the room was lit by electricity, 
as I had heard the doctor switch it on when 
we entered, so as an afterthought I said : 
" Will you kindly switch off the light before 
you go ? " " Certainly," he replied, and 
then, " I suppose you will be able to find the 
switches if you need them again ? " Con- 
trolling my voice as perfectly as I could, I 
said, " Yes, thank you doctor, I shall be all 
right." After that, one can quite excuse dear 
old hostesses in country places, where there 
is neither electric light nor gas, who occasion- 
ally most carefully give a totally blind man, 
like me, a candle to light him to his bed. 
What do I do when this happens ? Well, it 
depends, if I am quite sure no one's feelings 
will be hurt in the process, I explain that the 
light will be quite useless in the circumstances, 
but if I have reason to believe that the 
explanation will lead to embarrassment to 
the old lady, I take the candle, though it is 
quite a nuisance, as one has to be so careful 
to remember where one has to put it so as to 
find it to blow it out without burning one's 
fingers. One dear old lady even showed me 
very carefully where the looking glass was. 
Unfortunately she was rather deaf, but I tried 
to make her understand that I should not need 
it. Her answer was : " Not to-night, boy, 
in the morning." 

My chief pleasures on my journeys in 
addition to conversation are reading and 
smoking, both of which naturally cause 
comment and question. People like to know 
what literature is now available for the blind 
community, and how it is produced, which 
gives one an opportunity of imparting useful 
knowledge to interested people. My hosts 
and hostesses are often quietly amused when 
they realise that I read far into the night, 
without a light, and they are very interested 
to find with how much more comfort a blind 
person can read in bed in winter nights 
compared with those who can see, as, needing 
no light, he can keep both hands under the 
bedclothes as he reads. 

My smoking often causes much surprise, 




even to those sighted men who themselves 
smoke. I find many of them think that the 
pleasure of smoking consists in watching the 
smoke. Indeed, many have assured me that 
if they could not see the smoke, they would 
not know that the pipe was lit. I find that 
this mistake is made even in literature. 
Kipling in " The Light that Failed " tells us 
that one of Dick Helder's miseries, after 
losing his sight, was that he could not make 
his tobacco taste in the dark. Stephen 
McKenna also makes the same blunder in 
" Sonia Married," stating that the blinded 
soldier O'Rane passed cigarettes to others, 
but no longer smoked them himself, because 
he could not see. Once when I was smoking 
a cigar in the train, a gentleman assured me 
that when in the dark his cigar invariably 
went out. His explanation was that when 
he could not see the smoke he lost all interest 
in it. He said that it seemed to him that 
the great pleasure consisted in watching the 
rings of smoke. Whereupon I asked him if, 
in the circumstances, one good cigar would 
not do for both of us while we were together, 
suggesting that I would smoke it, and thus 
get the flavour, and that he could watch me. 
Yes, people do occasionally make bad blun- 
ders concerning us, but as we are less than 
one per thousand of the population this is 
not very surprising. Anyhow, there is in all 
classes of society very real kindness towards 
the sightless, and I am quite certain that when 
the educated blind man is prepared to be 
quite free and frank, and perfectly natural, if 
he moves about he can easily make a host of 
delightful friends. Two mottoes which I 
myself find very helpful are : " Think 
kindly of everybody and you will generally 
think rightly " ; and " He that would have 
friends must show himself friendly." 


THERE is a queer illogical 
streak in many of us that 
dates any movement from 
the time that it came within 
our own consciousness, and 
so received the hall-mark of 
our approval ; and some 
people are inclined to talk to-day as if the 
movement towards Prevention of Blindness 
were something rather new. The recent 
death in Vienna at the age of 79, of 
Professor Ernst Fuchs, the renowned 
Austrian ophthalmologist, should serve as a 



reminder of what the campaign for the pre- 
vention of blindness owes to this pioneer, who 
taught and practised for forty-five years. 

It may be of interest to look back a little 
along the road we have travelled since 
Professor Fuchs' early days, and to see some- 
thing of the part he played and especially how 
his work influenced English reformers. About 
fifty years ago, an Englishman, Dr. Roth, 
became the first Secretary of the Association 
for the Prevention of Blindness in England, 
and in the records of the Conference held in 
York in 1883, to celebrate the Jubilee of the 
Yorkshire School, he read an interesting paper 
on the work and aims of his Association. In 
it he mentioned that through an anonymous 
donor the Association had agreed to offer a 
prize of £80 for the best essay in English, 
French, Italian, or German, on the Causes of 
Blindness and the best means of preventing 
it. Among the competitors was Dr. Fuchs, 
then Professor of Ophthalmology in the 
University of Liege, and when the award was 
made in the following year at the Fifth 
International Congress for Hygiene, held at 
the Hague, Dr. Fuchs was announced as the 
winner of the prize. His essay was published 
in Germany in 1885, and translated into 
French, English and Italian, the English trans- 
lation being undertaken by Dr. Dudgeon, 
who was himself an eminent opthalmologist. 
It still remains one of the finest produc- 
tions on the subject. 

In it Dr. Fuchs covered a very wide field, 
including chapters on hereditary eye-disease, 
the eye diseases of children, myopia in child- 
hood, the importance of proper lighting and 
suitable furniture in schools, the need of care- 
ful medical supervision of the schoolchild. 

In 1885, Dr. Fuchs was recalled to Vienna 
to take over the Eye Clinic at the Vienna 
General Hospital ; it was then an incon- 
spicuous department, but under his guidance 
it gradually acquired the international repu- 
tation it bears to-day. Writing of the loss 
that Dr. Fuchs' death entails an eminent eye 
specialist in Vienna writes — " Dr. Fuchs' 
treatises on the diseases of the eye has become 
the Bible of every ophthalmologist." 

The newly formed International Associa- 
tion for the Prevention of Blindness which 
was inaugurated in 1928 at the Hague, must 
have given Professor Fuchs great hopes for 
the future, and one is glad to think that he 
lived to see the cause which was so dear to 
him come thus into its own. 

c ZrfieZ\ f av 

Published by L/ L /\ f I I rV Editorial Offices: 

the National |\ 1^ /A I 1 I ^ 224 Greai Por '" 


WE are particularly happy to be able to publish in this issue of The New Beacon, 
an authoritative account by " Monoc " — one of the active movers in the 
matter — of the progress made towards the formation of an International 
Council for the Blind. 
The present movement was set in motion by the decision of the pre- 
Congress at Vienna in 1929 to approach the League of Nations with the 
request that the European Congress to be held in 1933 should be held under 
the auspices of the League. This decision was wise, for even if progress towards the realisation 
of its ideals is slow, the League already provides the only practicable framework for effective 
international action. Moreover, the League had lately published its " Report on the Welfare 
of the Blind in Various Countries," the first compendium of information on the condition of the 
blind in the world at large. For reasons which " Monoc " makes clear, the 1933 Conference 
cannot be held under the League's auspices. But it will be " recognised " by the League, and 
it has in fact already been mentioned by the Assembly, at the instance of Miss Susan Lawrence, 
this year. 

For the rapid progress made at Geneva, the Blind World is largely indebted to Lord Cecil 
and Sir George Buchanan, and we beg to offer thanks to them as well as congratulations to Dr. 
Strehl, Monsieur Raverat, Mr. Mowatt and Mr. Eagar. The League will henceforward main- 
tain a permanent Bureau of Information on the Welfare of the Blind at Geneva and will at intervals 
revise and reissue the Handbook. 

But international action has advanced a stage further than that contemplated at Vienna. 
The two Conference Committees now in existence have obtained powerful backing for a perma- 
nent international organisation, and the Organising Committee of the forthcoming World Con- 
ference have given time for this plan to be discussed in New York next April with a view to 
establishing an International Council with headquarters in Paris. 

Insularity is out of date. We in Great Britain have something to teach the world, and still 
much to learn. The whole object of our work is to enable the blind to enjoy the full privileges, 
and to exercise the full responsibilities, of citizenship. Citizenship is no longer interpreted in 
terms of a narrow nationalism. Neglect of blindness, and indifference towards the blind, in any 
part of the world, is a challenge to the modern sense of world citizenship. Any lack of co- 
ordination by which the blind of one country are impoverished in comparison with their seeing 
fellows is obviously something to be made good. The proposal to establish an International 
Council with the object of raising the status of the blind throughout the world, of improving 
their condition and of raising the level of work done on their behalf demands our cordial support, 
and with all our heart we wish it well. 


The organisers of the recently established Sports Club for the Blind are to be congratulated 
on the initial success of their venture. They have gathered together a very enthusiastic band 
of both active and honorary members who evidently mean to make the Club a permanent success. 
Club colours have been adopted — Oxford blue and cream— and a badge is being designed. 

The number of members is as follows : — 56 Blind, 20 Sighted and 38 Hon. Members. 
These figures show that the blind are eagerly taking advantage of an organised Sports Movement, 
but they also show that considerable more sighted help is needed. Every one with sight cannot 
fail to sympathise with this effort to provide the blind with the very great pleasures and physical 
advantages of active engagement in sport, and those willing to employ a little leisure time in 
giving expression to their sympathy are asked to communicate with the Hon. Secretary, Lt.-Col. 
F. D. Henslowe at 224, Great Portland Street, W.i. The Editor. 




"Idleness is costly without being a luxury. 
dull work for those who are." — Horace Smith. 

IT is alarming to reflect that 71 per cent, 
of the blind of England and Wales are 
classified as unemployable. We 

imagine that this calculation has been 
reached largely by reason of the age 
incidence and without inquiring too 
closely into the qualifications and 
attainments of the individuals concerned. 
Figures of this kind are seldom models of 
statistical accuracy, and we are justified, 
where important issues are involved, in asking 
ourselves how far these statisticians may be 
looked upon as reliable guides. Vainly we 
have sought for a definition which in any 
sense has been generally accepted by those 
who are called upon to decide what constitutes 
inability to follow such employment as 
ordinarily falls within the capacity of the 
average blind person. Indeed, the only 
people who possess knowledge and experience 
of value are but rarely consulted. 

One would like to see workshop managers 
and others possessing a knowledge of 
economic problems more definitely associated 
with the organisations responsible for the 
so-called unemployable blind. Such execu- 
tive officers might not always be in a position 
to call into existence facilities for affording 
increased employment, but they would hesi- 
tate to classify many persons as incapable of 
work simply because, through an obvious 
defect in our social system, they cannot 
immediately be absorbed. It is under- 
standable that county or county borough 
officials who have never been intimately 
associated with this work should find it 
easier and more congenial to dispose of their 
difficulties by classifying newly- discovered 
blind persons as falling within the category of 
unemployables. Generally speaking, they are 
unfitted by training and experience to under- 
stand the psychology of the blind, and unless 
they happen to be quite exceptional people 
they will take the official view and conceive 
their duties to be those of a public assistance 
officer, so that apart from normal increases 
in workshop employment, nothing will be 
done to expand working facilities. 

Prior to April 1st, 1930, when we possessed 
a greater measure of central direction and 
control, such tendencies as are here indicated 

It is hard work for those who are not used to it, and 

were undoubtedly noted, and a restraining 
and guiding hand was sufficiently potent to 
impede their growth. Government inspec- 
tion was something more than a formality, as 
many organisations realised. Now, in our 
opinion much of that restraint will be thrown 
off, and the most salutary effects of guidance 
must inevitably disappear. 

Before we can hope to secure anything 
approaching uniformity of treatment we must 
definitely make up our minds as to what 
constitutes a practicable and workable defin- 
ition to which we can subscribe without 
feeling a sense of injustice in respect of those 
non-seeing people who, given an opportunity, 
would be competent with the best of us, to 
earn their daily bread. It is not intended to 
utter an unkind or unfriendly criticism to 
suggest that no such definition exists at the 
present time. Many and varied are the 
attempts that have been made to find such a 
formula, but a lack of uniformity is as pro- 
nounced as are the various methods of treat- 
ment, and this condition of things is neither 
good for the community nor helpful to those 
charged with the duties of administration. 

One has sometimes been induced to accept 
these temporary definitions as a means of 
immediate escape from a pressing and difficult 
situation, but emergency regulations do not 
make good law, and the time is overdue for 
concerted action to be taken. The Union of 
Associations for the Blind might very properly 
address themselves to this problem and bring 
into conference men and women competent 
to advise on a subject of great importance. 

It will be generally agreed that the dis- 
ability of blindness must impose a heavy 
financial toll upon the community, but there 
would appear to be no necessity to increase 
unduly such a burden by careless and indiffer- 
ent classification. To look at the subject from 
this angle is perhaps to examine the position 
from the least worthy motives : surely we 
have a duty to perform towards those whom 
we are relegating to a life of indolence. It is 
a decision which should never be lightly made, 
for to the sensitive man or woman its impli- 
cations must portend a tragedy of the first 
magnitude. Somewhere Burke has said : 
" Labour is not only requisite to preserve the 




coarser organs in a fit state for their functions, 
but it is equally necessary to those finer and 
more delicate organs on which and by which 
the imagination and perhaps the other mental 
powers act." 

We are constrained to think that given the 
correct mental attitude in a properly regulated 
society, few people will be found to be 
incapable of undertaking some useful work 
or performing some essential function neces- 
sary to the well-being of the community. Our 
civilisation has not yet attained such an 
altitude, but by the elimination of those 
factors which hinder the growth of true 
citizenship we are making a sensible contri- 
bution towards the realisation of that ideal. 

It is undoubtedly true that many people 
are to be found who experience no feeling of 
compunction when public relief is provided 
for them. For some inexplicable reason they 
appear to imagine that they possess an indis- 
putable claim to be so maintained. A certain 
school of thought is assiduous in its attempts 
to foist this notion upon the public by con- 
tending that the disability of blindness 
entitles those so handicapped to be fully 
maintained by the State. Real citizenship 
cannot be secured, however, unless the com- 
ponent parts of the State make a practical 
contribution towards its growth and main- 
tenance, and although citizens may differ in 
the degree of capacity which they may bring 
to the common stock, reasonable tribute must 
be levied upon all. Those who desire to be 
relieved of their legitimate obligations have 
lost the sense of communal pride ; they are 
the degenerates of our social system, to whom 
must be administered the salutary influences 
of wholesome employment, the true discip- 
linary corrective. 

Those whom we classify as unemployable, 
therefore, should be persons of whose 
physical or mental unfitness for the perform- 
ance of useful labour we can entertain no 
doubt. Unless we are prepared to see the 
growth of public expenditure on this service 
outstrip all reasonable bounds, we must be 
far more vigilant in the future, taking care 
that economic earnings are not supplanted by 
public relief. In the interests of those who 
desire to maintain both their citizenship and 
their independence we must see to it that the 
rent of ability secures its just reward, so that 
a life of industry may always be preferred to 
a condition of enforced or culpable idleness. 


We deeply regret to report the death of :— 

H.R.H. Princess Royal, on January 4th. 
Her Royal Highness was greatly interested in 
the welfare of the blind, and was Patron of the 
Greater London Fund for the Blind. 

William Watson, aged 38. Mr. Watson 
was educated at the Craigmillar School for the 
Blind, Edinburgh. He was awarded the 
A.R.C.O. degree at the early age of 21, and in 
1 92 1 became organist at the North Church of 
St. Nicholas, Aberdeen. He composed 
several anthems. 

Mrs. Annie Smith, aged 76. Mrs. Smith 
was interested in many charitable institutions 
in the Wolverhampton district, and served on 
the General Committee of the Wolverhamp- 
ton and Dudley Institution for the Blind. 

Mrs. West Russell, who took an active 
interest in the public work of Marylebone for 
many years, and was Chairman of the Barclay 
Workshops for the Blind. " Whatever she 
did was well done," says The Times, " there 
were efficiency, happiness and fun, which made 
her friendship so valued, while she was a 
standard example to all in her devotion to 
home life." 

Joseph H. Lee, on December 24th. Mr. 
Lee was formerly Secretary of the Newcastle 
Branch of the National Institute for the Blind 
and later, Supervisor of Branches, from which 
position he retired a year or two ago. His 
death is deeply regretted by his former 
colleagues at the National Institute, who 
retain an affectionate memory of his geniality, 
good nature, and devotion to the cause 'of 
the blind. 

Charles Gardner, of 58, Melbourne 
Street, Worcester. Mr. Gardner was one of 
Worcester's well-known characters. For 
many years he did his round of a large area of 
the city as a vendor of the local evening 
papers, and was familiarly known to young 
and old as " Blind Charlie." 

The Rev. Arthur Percy Dodd, vicar of 
Butlers Marston, near Kineton. He was 
keenly interested in the welfare of the sight- 
less, and was a member of the Committee of 
the Warwickshire Association for the Blind. 




By CAPT. J. H. W. PORTER, M.J.I. , F.R.E.S. 
(All rights reserved.) 

I AST month I had the honour of an 
invitation to contribute an 
article to this journal under 
the above heading and I 
gather that it has aroused 
. considerable interest. One 
m gentleman has reminded me 
that in reference to the case I quoted of a 
successful blind journalist, " one swallow does 
not make a summer." This is perfectly true 
but there are other instances of blind men 
having become successful journalists and 
there are doubtless many instances of which 
I am unaware. There are also many instances 
of men who have continued to follow their 
profession, even to the point when their 
vision has become almost, if not entirely, 
negative. For years the late Sir Arthur 
Pearson was slowly going blind, but he con- 
tinued his journalistic work after he had 
become entirely so. 

There was recently quoted in the News- 
paper World, the case of a living journalist, 
who still carries on to some extent, but he, 
like many other blind professional people has 
not only to fight blindness but also prejudice. 
It is very extraordinary that although there 
are many folk who will readily admit that 
blind people are clever, they are the very last 
persons in the world who would trust a blind 
person with a commission, much less give 
them a permanent engagement. It may be 
that the disinclination arises from nervousness 
as to their liability in case of the blind person 
meeting with an accident while following his 
or her employment, but there are ways and 
means of getting over this difficulty. So long 
as prejudice exists, the professional blind 
person will always have great difficulty in 
obtaining employment. It is generally con- 
ceded that if a blind person is to be assured 
normal happiness that person, if he or she is 
in normal health, must be given regular 
occupation. Their brain or their fingers or 
both must be kept active. The Blind Insti- 
tution must do, and usually does, all it can 
to place blind people in lucrative employ- 
ment, but so long as prejudice, born of 
ignorance of the blind person exists, there 
will always be a large number of professional 



men and women who are unhappy in conse- 
quence of inactivity. 

There are many sighted people who believe, 
even if they would not openly admit it, that 
the mentality of blind people is inferior to 
that of the sighted. This is sheer nonsense 
for as a matter of fact many blind people 
possess far more brilliant intellect than 
sighted persons who have had better oppor- 
tunities in life and have utterly failed to 
appreciate the opportunity when it presented 
itself. _This is what the Newspaper World 
said of the blind journalist of whom the 
Editor wrote, after introducing him to his 
readers as a blinded ex-service man whom he 
discovered delivering a lecture in a Surrey 
village. " The most contagiously cheery 
person was the lecturer himself, and the one 
thing that he seemed anxious not to throw 
into any sort of relief was his disability." He 
did not ask for sympathy. On the contrary 
, he. appealed to the public to help blinded 
people to help themselves. They must work 
in order to be happy. The article continues : 
" Discovering that there was here a journalist 
as well as an ex-service man, the writer had 
a conversation with him at the close of his 
address and found that his keenness for news- 
paper work is undiminished by what he has 
gone through. He is a member of the 
Institute of Journalists and he would be glad 
to be doing more work than his present 
restricted Editorship and his occasional lec- 
tures on various subjects involve. That he 
has matured journalistic qualifications and 
the topical instinct well developed his ready 
handling of the Empire topic amply demon- 
strated. But how can a blind journalist read 
or write and so acquire and maintain the full 
and accurate mind that successful exercise of 
the craft demands ? The question was put 
and the answer was simple : — ' I have a most 
capable secretary who has for eleven years 
given me the use of her eyes. She is also 
expert as a journalistic amanuensis and is 
excellent with proofs.' Perhaps some editor 
contemplating a new feature or requiring 
other specific literary assistance might care to 
test to how great or to how small an extent the 
' victory over blindness ' is possible to — 


amongst others — a journalist." For the past 
nine years this man has edited, made up and 
actually seen to press a monthly semi- 
Service Journal. 

Here is a direct challenge from the News- 
paper World to Newspaper Proprietors of 
Great Britain. What an opportunity for such 
enterprising journals as The Daily Mail, The 
Daily Express or The Daily Herald ! If this 
article be read by a Newspaper Proprietor 
who will have courage enough to test the 
ability of any blind journalist or blind literary 
contributor he will set a lead which will be of 
inestimable value to thousands of young 
people who are bereft of vision. Journalism 
has a fascination of its own and offers vast 
fields for thought, thus providing the food 
for that mental activity which means happi- 
ness. It is obviously useless to advocate 
journalism as a profession for the blind unless 
we can create a demand for the services of 
men and women of sound education who are 
anxious to enter the profession. The Press 
itself can create that demand and they can 
help to break down prejudice against blind 
persons generally, which I say emphatically 
does exist, and, I reiterate, this prejudice is 
born of doubt. Workers in the cause of blind 
people are naturally and properly more con- 
cerned with the young than with the aged 
blind and it is the young people for whom I 
am holding a brief. Let us banish prejudice 
and make a bold decision to give them an 
opportunity. They are not blind mentally. 
They simply can't see physically but, thank 
God, they can observe. 

I would like to see a blind journalist or 
literary contributor on the staff of every 
British Newspaper which claims any preten- 
tion to greatness or importance, and special 
work and plenty of it could be readily found 
for this blind journalist. Given a fair Trade 
Union rate of wage they, by some personal 
sacrifice, and the help of their friends, would 
provide their own escort-amanuensis and 
with the help of the typewriter and a Braille 
outfit for taking notes, they would be happy 
indeed and free from the anxiety of impending 

The success or failure of a young person 
depends to a very great extent upon training 
and environment, and this is particularly so 
in the case of a blind young person. They 
must be taught deportment, to carry them- 
selves naturally and not to walk with their 
head tilted back, or to walk with a slouching 

droop. They must cultivate cheerfulness of 
manner and tone of voice and must be taught 
to look directly into the face of the person to 
whom they are talking. This can be done if 
the right influence is brought to bear upon 
them. In short, they must try to look and act 
always like a normal individual. 

Temperament, too, must be disciplined. 
Petulance and irritability must be rigidly 
controlled and the mournful note of pessimsm 
entirely banished They should be taught to 
look on the bright side of life and to seek for 
the humorous rather than the dismal. There 
is any amount of fun in life and if blind and 
sighted alike were occupying an absolutely 
dark room, I am of opinion that being 
possessed of the inclination to be bright, the 
blind members of the company would be the 
more cheerful of those present. This advice 
should be carefully studied by the young 
aspirant to a journalistic career, for if he goes 
to interview a Newspaper Proprietor in a 
dismal November frame of mind he will not 
make so good an impression as if he cultivated 
the Spring-like brightness of May. Shyness, 
embarrassment and hesitancy must not be 
allowed to creep in and if they threaten an 
attack, they must be ruthlessly chased away. 
There is always danger of young people who 
are blind being exploited. There is ever a 
latent tendency to exploit all blind people. 
This our sighted friends will say is untrue, 
but perhaps if the Editor gives me the 
opportunity I shall have something to say on 
this subject in a later issue and my con- 
clusions will be based on fourteen years' 
public experience. And here I would advise 
every qualified blind person who has not 
already done so, to join the National Union 
of the Professional and Industrial Blind. 

Last month I made a special point of 
reference to Professional Journalism. Now 
let me say a word about Literary occupation. 
There are many large firms which periodically 
issue brochures and pamphlets of their 
business or business wares. There are many 
newspapers all over the country which run 
special columns. Most of us know a little 
more about one subject than we do about 
others. Obviously, then, this is the subject to 
choose. Seek all the information you can on 
it. Ask your sighted friends to clip from the 
newspapers and periodicals they come across, 
anything bearing upon your pet theme — but 
I do not advise Party Politics. It is a rocky 
road on which angels may come to grief. 

r 5 


There is music, the reviewing of books, a 
London Letter on general topics for a 
Country or Overseas Journal, agriculture, 
poultry keeping, dogs, needlework, domestic 
matters, cooking, home management and a 
dozen other equally interesting subjects for 
either male or female aspirants. It may be 
possible to make a contract with a Newspaper 
Proprietor, to supply him with a column per 
week, and to the beginner who can pocket a 
couple of guineas regularly in this way, there 
will be given the vim and the urge to push on 
to better things. Once the writer begins to 
make a name as such, he or she will find 
invitations to contribute articles coming in 
pretty regularly all the year round. 

I shall be glad at any time to answer any 
questions which may be addressed to me on 
the subject of Journalism or Literary work 
for the blind, through the Editor of The New 


To the Editor. 

The Blind and Journalism. 

Sir, — I have read with very great interest, 
in the December number of The New 
Beacon, Capt. Porter's article dealing with 
" Journalism as a Profession for the Blind." 
For many years I have held strongly to the 
opinion that quite a number of blind people 
could be usefully occupied in journalism, 
having proved the possibility myself. 

Living in a small country town in which 
nobody appeared to have thought it worth 
while to concentrate in journalism, I have 
during the past nineteen years built up quite 
a little business as a free-lance journalist. I 
correspond regularly with certain county 
papers in Lincolnshire, both weeklies and 
evening dailies, as well as other more widely 
circulating provincial dailies, such as the 
Sheffield Daily Telegraph, etc. I am also 
connected with certain London dailies, to 
which I dispense news of more than ordinary 

My methods of collecting news appear to 
be much like those described by Capt. Porter. 
Occasionally I have to ask questions of a 
sighted colleague, but I find that I can be 
equally helpful to other journalists with my 
acquired local knowledge of people and things. 

It may interest your readers to learn that 
on February 4th I have undertaken to lecture 

at 12, Buckingham Street, Strand, under the 
auspices of the Blind Social Aid Society, 
when, under the heading of " Pleasure and 
Profit in Journalism," I am hoping to create 
some more interest in the development of 
journalism as a profession for the blind. 

Yours, etc., 
Alford, Lines. Patrick T. Keily. 

To the Editor. 

Sir, — I have read Math interest the article 
on " Journalism as a Profession for the 
Blind " and thought it might be interesting 
to the writer to know that there is a registered 
blind person earning a living in South Wales 
as a Reporter. He has a fair amount of sight, 
but is registered and was trained at Birming- 
ham Institution years ago. He makes a 
living which keeps him independent of 
financial assistance. 

Yours, etc., 

Ethel Rawden, 
Organising Secretary, 
South Wales and Monnouthshire Counties' 
Association for the Blind. 

To the Editor. 

Blind Pedestrians and Traffic. 

Sir, — I have read with great interest the 
article on the above subject which appeared 
in the last issue of The New Beacon, and in 
connection with same I wish to submit the 
following points. 

It may be interesting to your readers to 
know that a " Safety First " Group for the 
Blind was inaugurated on the 21st October 
last in connection with the Manchester 
Branch of the National League of the Blind. 
As the name of the Group implies, our objects 
are to educate blind persons in " Safety 
First " principles, stressing those which 
particularly affect themselves especially when 
out in the streets. The White Stick for men, 
and the White Covered Umbrella for women, 
were introduced and now many sightless 
people in Manchester and elsewhere are 
benefiting by the use of these " Signs." 

Blind Agencies, the Corporation Welfare 
of the Blind Committees of both Manchester 
and Salford, and the Police Authorities of the 
two Cities, are giving this movement their 
wholehearted support and several reports 
from one or other of the above sources have 
appeared in the Press informing the general 
public of the adoption of the suggestions put 



Here in Manchester it has been found that 
some of the blind people themselves are 
prejudiced against the distinguishing mark. 
In most cases, they are those who lost the 
sight early in life and have got used to their 
blindness, but the White " Signs " have come 
as a boon to the older people who have been 
deprived of sight in middle age. The fully 
sighted persons with whom I have come into 
contact fully support the idea, which is also 
very much appreciated by motorists and other 
road users. 

Yours, etc., 

Ben Grant, 

To the Editor. 

Suggestion of a " Constant Reader." 

Sir, — On reading my files of The New 
Beacon I have been rather struck by the fact 
that there has been no further defence of the 
Unification Scheme of Collections and pre- 
sume that the last word has been spoken on 
this important subject, more especially as its 

champions have brought forward evidence to 
prove their contention which ranges from a 
message from a grave in our National Valhalla 
to my friend Mr. Preece's suggestions of the 
opinions of a sage who is yet unborn. 

I can, I think, claim with more than 
ordinary truth that I am a " Constant 
Reader " of your excellent periodical, and in 
view of the World Conference on the Blind 
to be held in New York in the Spring, would 
you allow me to suggest that many valuable 
articles could be written by your correspon- 
dents on subjects concerning not so much 
what has been done since the 16th August, 
1920, as what has been left undone since the 
night before. 

If you could see your way to do this, you 
would be conferring a great benefit on the 
few of your readers who feel they are rather 
blindly struggling their way to obtain the 
results which are so very near to their hearts. 
Yours, etc., 

G. Pollard. 



IT has already been made apparent from 
our cursory examination of the effec- 
tiveness or otherwise of endowed 
charities that " when the people are 
considered as cyphers, they act as 
cyphers ; they appear to feel but little 
concern for the welfare of the society, 
and have not displayed the same zealous 
activity and lively interest as when everything 
depended on themselves." No one who 
possesses an intimate knowledge of modern 
social and industrial conditions can be 
oblivious of this fact. One need not be 
steeped in individualism to recognise the 
gravity of a situation under which the State 
and the local authorities presume so to 
regulate life and conduct as to leave little 
scope for the exercise of capacity. It is more 
than probable that the extreme attitude 
adopted by individualists of the last century 
has tended to produce those violent reactions 
of which much of our ill-considered social 
legislation is the result. 

A White Paper just issued discloses the 

astounding fact that we are expending over 
390 millions a year on the various social 
services, and that at a time when the indus- 
tries of the country are in a critical and 
lamentable condition. It must be remem- 
bered, too, that this expenditure is not being 
incurred because a state of emergency exists : 
rather have we come to look upon these 
prodigious figures as representing a financial 
condition which we must be prepared not 
merely to accept to-day, but one whose 
growth is inevitable and irrevocable. 

It is not astonishing, therefore, that 
sociologists, writing on educational endow- 
ments towards the end of the last century, 
should feel grave concern as to their true 
ethical value. We may hesitate to accept the 
unrestrained conclusions of Turgot, but we 
cannot resist the conviction that the abuses 
he described tended largely to neutralise most 
of the good qualities that ought to have 
emanated from such foundations. 

Speaking of endowed primary schools, a 
Commission of i860 reported : " Our general 


evidence as to the present state of these en- 
dowments and their present influence on 
education, we find almost without exception 
unfavourable, and decidedly pointing to the 
necessity of remedial measures." That 
evidence included testimony from the then 
Dean of Carlisle that " endowments in con- 
nection with the schools of the working 
classes are generally speaking unmitigated 
evils. In most cases the evils of endowments 
are so great that parishes would be far better 
without any such schools at all." The 
Assistant Commissioner for a London district 
reported : " I have found a general dullness 
and want of life to be the common character- 
istics of endowed primary schools." Further, 
an inspector of charities reported that unen- 
dowed schools were better administered than 
others. He contended that the interest of the 
masters was too often more thought of than 
that of the scholars. Confirmation of this 
point of view is found in a statement made by 
Bishop Villiers, who said : " I believe I state 
a fact which admits of no controversy, that, 
as a whole, schools with small endowments 
are worse than any others." 

Endowed secondary schools came under 
the same strictures during the middle of the 
last century. The Schools Inquiry Com- 
mission of 1868 reported : " It is clear, from 
the information which we have ourselves 
received, that there are few endowments 
applicable to secondary education which are 
put to the best use, and very many which are 
working to little or to bad use. . . . We have 
pointed out many important endowments 
where very large funds are producing at 
present little or even no result." Illustrations 
are given in their report, from which the 
following are taken : Thames Grammar 
School had two masters and one boy, whilst 
those at Sutton Coldfield (endowed with £467 
a year), and Little Walsingham (£1 10 a year), 
were sometimes without any boys at all. It 
is suggested that at Bath an income of /461 
a year " appears to hinder rather than pro- 
mote the education of the citizens, and does 
nothing for the neighbourhood." Gloucester- 
shire had seventeen foundations, and none of 
these are reported to have been at all efficient. 
Again : " It is difficult to understand that 
Masham School serves any useful purpose." 
" A school of this kind (Easingwold) does 
great harm to the community." " This school 
(Bridlington) in its present state hinders rather 
than promotes the civilisation of the place." 

One might continue almost indefinitely to 
quote these examples, but sufficient has been 
said to show the disastrous effects produced 
by ill-considered and badly-administered 
Trust Funds. 

By way of contrast, the Report quoted 
above says : " Much of the vitality of 
Doncaster School is owing to the fact that it 
possesses none of the wealth which in so many 
instances proves to be an encouragement to 
indolence. . . . Liverpool is remarkable alike 
for its entire absence of ancient endowments 
for secondary education, and for the efforts of 
its inhabitants to provide such education." 

The Scotch Education Commissioners re- 
ported that " the most notable feature of the 
(Scotch) schools is the want of endowments," 
yet " the Burgh and other secondary schools 
of Scotland are in a satisfactory condition and 
supei'ior to the majority of the English 
grammar schools. ... In Scotland this class 
of school is scarcely endowed at all. In 
England the cost is borne by the endowment. 
The endowments of the Scotch secondary 
schools seemed only to constitute about one- 
seventeenth of their incomes. 

Turning to ecclesiastical endowments, it 
would appear that in many instances the sense 
of religious obligation has not provided an 
influence capable of counteracting the evils 
to which reference has already been made. 
In fact, one school of politicians has suggested 
the endowment of the Christian Church as 
the surest means of benumbing her. Where, 
however, the close connection of State and 
Church by a national establishment of 
religion has secured to the former a continu- 
ous right of control over the endowments of 
the Church, it is possible to retain the valuable 
aid of these endowments, and yet counteract 
their evil tendencies. The parliamentary 
readjustment of the revenues of the estab- 
lished Church laid the basis for the spiritual 
awakening towards the end of the last century. 
In unestablished churches, where no such 
control exists, the fatal influence of endow- 
ments is unchecked, and frequently results in 
sapping the life of a church if it be weak, or 
if it be strong, in increasing its power until it 
becomes a source of danger to the State itself. 

Turgot's arguments lead us irresistibly to 
the conclusion that we must not permit en- 
dowments to be created indiscriminately ; 
that we must never fail to surround them 
with the spur and bridle of authoritative 


supervision ; and that we must provide for 
their periodical readjustment. As Mr. Court- 
ney Kenny observes : " Beyond these con- 
clusions Turgot's arguments cannot logically 
be pressed. They afford no warrant for his 
inference that all endowments must be 
prohibited." That endowments are apt to 
be abused is readily conceded : but such 
abuse affords no justification whatever for the 
total abolition or destruction of machinery 
which can so be re-modelled as to be capable 
of conferring incalculable benefits upon 
humanity. " To abolish Foundations, in- 
stead of taking the trouble to control them is 
like breaking a watch-spring for fear it should 
run down. It is the same wasteful policy that 
hanged criminals when it might have re- 
formed them. If all endowments have had 
defects, so have all other human institutions ; 
and it is from the nettle Mistake that we pluck 
the flower Experience." Burke, in his 
" Reflections," emphasises these contentions 
with wonderful clarity and incisiveness when 
he says : " There is something else than the 
mere alternative of absolute destruction or 
unreformed existence. ... A disposition to 
preserve and an ability to improve, taken 
together, would be my standard of a states- 
man. He does not deserve to rank high, 
or even to be mentioned in the order of great 
statesmen, who having obtained the command 
and direction of such power as existed in the 
wealth, the discipline, and the habits of such 
corporations as those which you have de- 
stroyed, cannot find any way of converting it 
to the great and lasting benefit of his country. 
On the view of this subject a thousand uses 
suggest themselves to a contriving mind." 

As we write, we have before us a circular 
issued under the authority of an organisation 
which exists ostensibly to promote the social 
and industrial well-being of the blind. The 
document advises the public to withhold 
their contributions for the sustenance of the 
very work which is said to be so essential and 
which can only be made effective by the co- 
operation and goodwill of the communitv. 
Here is a piquant illustration of the muddle- 
headedness which characterises certain schools 
of thought. It is held apparently that by 
causing supplies to cease, it is possible to feed 
the hungry and clothe the naked, such an 
assumption being based upon the premise 
that if voluntary effort ceased, the State and 
local authorities would be compelled to 
provide all necessary requirements. Ex- 

perience has shown, however, that well- 
directed philanthropic effort is doing more to 
inculate the high qualities of citizenship than 
any of the hastily improvised State expedients 
which have been imposed upon us since the 
beginning of this century. 

If it is held that certain charities are badly 
administered, then surely the proper course 
of procedure to adopt is to prepare a reasoned 
case, supported by every jot and tittle of 
available evidence, and to demand an inquiry 
into such an administration. Generally 
speaking, the machinery for such procedure 
exists, and if a prima facie case for such an 
investigation can be established, all other 
obstacles can be overcome. The truth is, 
however, that a great deal of nonsense is 
talked by irresponsible people, who make a 
mountain out of a molehill. Some trifling 
grievance exists, and it is multiplied out of all 
recognition to its true proportions. Sensa- 
tional news paragraphs appear, and the public 
are invited to believe that handicapped people 
are being shamefully exploited by those who 
are entrusted with administrative duties. 

No one can doubt the existence of abuses, 
but it is not in any sense true to-day to 
suggest that they are widespread. Just as one 
swallow may not make a summer, so in like 
manner is it a malicious untruth to contend 
that charity administration in this country 
teems with abuses. 

During the past decade innumerable efforts 
have been made by social workers to cleanse 
the administrations of the taint which previous 
neglect had imposed upon them. These 
efforts have been more than successful ; they 
represent a complete conquest. The fact that 
occasionally some distasteful episode arises to 
attract our attention is in itself significant, for 
it clearly proves that the rarity of such 
incidents is a vindication of the general 
integrity of official life and conduct in this 

As we have previously indicated, certain 
reforms are still desirable, and as these articles 
proceed we hope to be able to direct attention 
to the most urgent of such changes in law and 
practice. In the meantime, those who 
imagine that charity administration in this 
country is a lurking-place in which exist all 
manner of incalculable abuses will surely find 
disillusionment should they undertake to 
conduct an inquiry, even along the most 
modest lines. 

( To be continued.) 






Report of General Meeting. 

Mr. P. M. 

GENERAL Meeting of the 
Council of the Union of 
Counties Associations for 
the Blind was held at Cloth- 
workers' Hall, Mincing Lane, 
E.C.3, on 20th November, 
under the Chairmanship of 
Evans, M.A., LL.D. 

The question of representation at the 
International Conference to be held in 
America in April was discussed and Miss 
Merivale, Chairman of the Midland Counties 
Association, was nominated one of the 

A report was received from the represent- 
atives of the Union on the Committee of the 
British " Wireless for the Blind " Fund, in 
which it was stated that 6,000 crystal sets had 
been distributed and that the distribution of 
valve sets had now begun. 

A short report on the Association of Work- 
shops for the Blind was made by Dr. J. M. 
Ritchie, in which he referred to the institution 
of a Central Marketing Board, and to a 
programme of work shortly to be prepared 
by the Executive Committee. 

On the 23rd October the Union reached 
the 2 1 st anniversary of its foundation (a 
short memorandum on its history from the 
beginning appears in the Annual Report for 
the year 1929-30). The Chairman, during 
the course of a short address, said he was sure 
that the Council would wish to mark the 
occasion by tendering its grateful thanks to 
the founder of the Union, Henry John Wilson, 
and to everyone who had helped in the work 
on behalf of the blind. Mr. Wilson, although 
unable any longer to take an active part in the 
affairs of the Union, still took the greatest 
interest in its work. Any successful work in 
the past could be attributed to co-operation, 
co-ordination of effort and the consequent 
heightening of efficiency. He referred to the 
success obtained by the compulsory notifi- 
cation of Ophthalmia Neonatorum in 1914, 
the setting up of Home Workers' Schemes 
and After-Care Work, the last named being of 
special importance as it affected the greater 
number of the blind population. The 



Departmental Committee which reported in 
1 9 17 attached so much importance to the 
work of the English Unions that it pressed for 
their completion, and in 1919 the Ministry of 
Health made a special grant to assist in the 
development of the work they had begun. 
Since the passing of the Local Government 
Act the position had been considerably 
changed and still closer co-operation was 
needed between Local Authorities and Volun- 
tary Societies ; it was for the latter to consider 
how they could best fulfil their obligations to 
the blind. Unity of aim must be the keynote 
of the work and this assumes a spirit willing 
to sacrifice and to sink personal differences in 
the interest of progress, and the realisation of 
a national, rather than a parochial, ideal. 
Goodwill and enthusiasm will carry the Union 
a long way upon the road on which it started 
twenty-one years ago under the guidance of 
Henry John Wilson. The Chairman con- 
gratulated the Union on having reached an 
important stage in its work and he hoped that 
by continued co-operation something even 
greater might be accomplished. 

During the luncheon interval, in reply to a 
speech by Mr. E. L. Turnbull (Board of 
Education), conveying the thanks of the 
meeting to the Clothworkers' Company, Dr. 
Arthur Bousfield, Master of the Clothworkers' 
Company, expressed the pleasure taken by the 
Company in receiving those engaged in work 
for the blind, and referred to the interest 
which had been taken by the Company for 
the last two hundred years in such work, an 
interest which contact with Dr. Evans had 
converted into enthusiasm. 

A report of the Prevention of Blindness 
Sub- Committee was received and a vote of 
thanks was carried to the Court of the 
Clothworkers' Company and to the Council 
of the National Institute for the Blind for the 
grants made by them to enable investigation 
as to the prevention of blindness to be under- 

Supervision of Services for the blind and of 
Registration were among the subjects dis- 
cussed during the afternoon. 

The discussion on registration was opened 
by Miss Merivale, who stressed the importance 


of a live register in order that the work of the 
societies administering blind welfare might 
be as complete as possible. Mrs. Cowley 
(Northern Counties Association for the Blind) 
supported Miss Merivale and emphasised the 
need for accurate and detailed registration 
which would ensure the production of 
reliable statistics from which correct infer- 
ences could be drawn and upon which future 
work for the blind could be built up. 

An interesting paper on " The mental life 
of a person born blind " was read by Dr. J. M. 
Ritchie,* followed by a short discussion in 
which blind members of the Union took part. 

It was arranged to hold the Annual 
Meeting on 25th June, 193 1 , and the meeting 
concluded with a Vote of Thanks to the 

Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties 
Association for the Blind. 

On October 30th, 1930, this Association 
held its Executive Council and Annual General 

Necessary business was done. The vital 
questions of Supervision by Local Authorities 
of services used for the blind and of the 
representation of Local Authorities on the 
governing body of the Association were 

A Memorandum indicating how the Objects 
of the Association are now being carried out 
is available. 

The Annual Report and Statement of 
Accounts 1929-30 was approved, and the 
Secretary, 66, Victoria Street, S.W.i, will be 
glad to supply copies. 

North-Western Counties Association for the 

Schemes for the Relief of the Necessitous 
and Unemployable Blind. 

It is of interest to note that the Cheshire 
County Council have adopted a Scheme for 
the relief of necessitous or unemployable 
blind people, which came into force on 1st 
January. The Scheme provides for raising 
the incomes of eligible blind persons to a sum 

varying, according to circumstances, from 
17s. 6d. to 25s. for individual blind persons, 
and 30s. to 40s. when husband and wife are 
both blind. The administration of the Scheme 
is being carried out on behalf of the Cheshire 
County Council by the Chester Society for 
the Home Teaching of the Blind, the Ashton- 
under-Lyne Home Teaching Society, the 
Macclesfield Home Teaching Society and 
Stockport Institute for the Blind. 

The Chester City Council has adopted a 
Scheme for the relief of the unemployable 
blind which provides for " such relief as is 
considered necessary." 

The result of the adoption of these Schemes 
is the removal of all blind persons in Cheshire 
from the receipt of relief from the Public 
Assistance Committee, as they will now be 
dealt with by the Blind Persons Act Commit- 
tees of the respective County and City 

It will be remembered that the remaining 
County Boroughs in the area of the North- 
western Counties Association have already 
adopted Schemes for the relief of the unem- 
ployable blind. Stockport raises the incomes 
of individual blind persons to 20s. and that of 
two blind persons married and living together 
to 35s. per week. Birkenhead and Wallasey 
similarly raise the incomes to 27s. 6d. and 
two guineas respectively. 

Northern Counties Association for the Blind- 

The Quarterly Meeting of the Northern 
Counties Association for the Blind was held 
in the Town Hall, Sheffield, on Wednesday, 
December 10th, 1930, when delegates also 
visited the Royal Blind School and the 
Sheffield Corporation Workshops for the 
Blind. Dr. Henry Herd, Acting School 
Medical Officer of Health to the Manchester 
Education Committee, and author of 
" Diagnosis of Mental Deficiency," gave a 
carefully considered address on the Mentally 
Defective Blind. It was unanimously resolved 
to print the address as a pamphlet in order 
that the suggestions made might receive 
further consideration by all those interested. 

*This paper will be printed in full in the 
Report of the Meeting, copies of iihich are 
obtainable from the Secretary, Union of 
Counties' Associations for the Blind, 66, 
Victoria Street, S.W.i. 

The Viscountess Brentford has been elected 
Chairman of the Barclay Workshops for the 
Blind in succession to Mrs. West Russell 
whose death is reported on page 13. 



A Disappearing Prejudice. 

Mr. Alfred W. Marsh, the blind organist 
of Piatt Church, Maidstone, when asked 
whether he had experienced any prejudice 
against blind musicians when they applied 
for posts such as organists, replied " Yes, but 
it is now disappearing." 

" Lots of people," he added, " get the 
idea that blind people ought to be pitied and 
say ' Of course, you can't expect him to do 
this and do that.' But, as I said before, I 
agreed with the late Sir Arthur Pearson, who 
declared ' Blindness is not an affliction.' Call 
it a handicap if you like. It is up to a man 
whether he rises above it." — Kent Messenger. 

The Development of Touch. 

It is probable that, in most blind persons, 
the faculty of the mind which phrenologists 
have supposed to be demonstrated by the 
organ of locality, must be exercised and 
perfected to an extraordinary degree. A 
blind workman, if he use a score or more of 
tools, always places his hand on the right one 
when it is wanted, and will tell in an instant, 

Christmas Day at the New " Sunshine" Home for 
Blind Babies at East Grinstead. 


and even after a considerable lapse of time, 
whether his tool-box has been tampered with, 
or the arrangement of the implements altered. 
The perfection of this faculty is sometimes 
exhibited in blind chess-players, who gener- 
ally attain to remarkable proficiency in the 
most complicated of all games. Boys of 
tender age, and who were born blind, play 
this difficult game in a masterly way, generally 
check-mating their more mature antagonist. 
Their sole guide is the sense of touch ; and 
it is astonishing to note with what rapidity 
they ascertain all they want to know by this 
means. By merely laying the palm of the 
hand and the finger-tips on the pieces as they 
stand, they master in a moment the position 
of the contending forces, and, without being 
informed of the adversary's move, make the 
necessary disposition to defeat them. — Hamp- 
shire Chronicle. 

Life's Hidden Treasures. 

The bitterness of my blindness no longer 
haunts me. I am too interested in myself. 
For fifteen years I have not seen a single ray 
of daylight, yet I picture myself something 
of a novelty. 

I can think about myself for hours on end, 
and yet not tire of mv subject. I can conjure 
up visions of the world around me, visions 
which are probably artificial and distorted. 
But does that matter ? My eyes will never 
open again to disillusion me. Living in a 
fantasy is often better than reality 

The Big Things of life lay hidden below 
the surface. In the days when I could see 
with my material eyes my mental eyes were 
blind. I asked nothing more of a woman 
than shining eyes and pretty face. Now, 
although I am called blind, I can see. I have 
found things bigger and deeper and more 
awe-inspiring, I have discovered the immense 
greatness of living and being loved. 

What matters it to me that my friends must 
act as Good Samaritans in my presence ? 
I disdain them, but in a sense I find it 

And there is one, at least, who does not act. 
I think she is the only genuine Samaritan of 
them all. She is the one that matters. 

She is Life. — Bristol Times and Mirror. 

A Blinded Soldier's Love Story. 

The Five Guinea prize awarded daily by 
the Evening Standard for the best " Real Life 
Love Story " was gained on the 27th Decem- 




ber by a blinded soldier. It was described as 
" one of the most appealing of all those sub- 
mitted by readers," and is reprinted below. 

" I was in France, a man without relatives 
and very lonely. Then came the first of those 
dear letters from a girl I had never met. For 
a long time we corresponded and exchanged 
photographs. I fell in love with her picture 
and before very long I told her so. Leave, 
always elusive, seemed impossible and, before 
our first meeting, my sight was completely 
destroyed by a shell burst. 

" Thus I came back to England with my 
romance in the dust, condemned, as I then 
thought, to a life of miserv. That glorious 
woman came to me in hospital and acted as 
my guide and second self in the weary days 
that followed. One afternoon she proposed 
to me, and, selfish though it may have been, 
I said the word I had hoped to hear her say. 

" Now I am happy and I believe she is, too. 
I adore the wife of whom I have only seen a 
picture, and I worship my son of whom I 
cannot even say that. 

" My wife is more than my right hand, and 
while such women live, we who gave so much 
will yet see England regain her rightful place 
in the world. 

" Fourteen years of darkness have taught me 
that Love is everything, and I thank God for 
a light hidden to many men less fortunate 
than myself." — " Time Brings Roses," 





The prices of the following prices of music are subject 
to a reduction of three quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copv. 

10.528 Burke, J. The Kiss Waltz (from 

" Dancing Sweeties "), Song-Waltz, 

pkt. H. 3 „ ... 2 

10.529 Campbell, J. and Connelly, R. The 

Same as we Used to do, Song-Waltz, 

pkt. H. 3 2 (i 

10.530 Fisher, Goodwin and Shay. When 

You're Smiling, Song Fox-Trot, 

pkt. H. 2 2 (i 

10.531 Hamm, Bennett, Lown and Gray. 

Bye, Bye, Blues, Song Fox-Trot, 

pkt. H. 3 2 


The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 















9,602-9610 East Lynne, by Mrs. Henry Wood. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpol nted, 
Paper Covers, 9 vols. F. 581 ... 6 6 


The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 
s. d. 
3,009-3,014 Freckles, by Gene Stratton-Porter. 

6 vols. (Limited Edition) 12 

3,015-3,021 The Broken Halo, by Florence 
Barclay. 7 vols. (Limited Edition)... 

3.029 Behind the Shade, by A. Morrison 

3.030 Martha's Treasure, by A. Reid 

3.031 Miss Hamilton's Guest, by R. Dearden 

3.032 Owd Blossom, by M. Webb 

3.033 The Silhouettes, by A. Quiller-Couch ... 

3.034 To Let. by E. Gaberiau 

3.035 Things to Live For, by J. R. Miller, 

Vol. I (Devotional Periodical) (British 
Readers, 2s. 3d.) 3 6 




Cicero: Pro. Milone. Ed. by J. S. Reid ... 3 


Penman, W. Advantages of Insurance ... 2 


Kenwrick, E. and M. The Child from Five to Ten 3 

Priestlev, J. B. English Humour ... ... 2 

Trench.R. C. English, Past and Present ... 3 

Trevelyan, G. M. Clio, a Muse 3 

Murry, J. Middleton. Evolution of an Intel- 
lectual 2 


Lloyd, J. E. History of Wales 1 

Sargeant, P. W. Cleopatra of Egypt 4 


Bicknell, B. A. Cases in Constitutional Law ... 2 

Wilshere. A. M. Procedure in an Action in 
King's Bench Division ... ... ... ... 4 


Renan, E. Souvenirs d'Enfance ... ... 5 


Aristotle. Rhetoric. Trans, by J. E. C. Welldon 4 

Aronson.L. Christ in the Synagogue 2 

Yeats. W. B. Later Poems ... ... ... 2 


Hearnshaw, F. C. R. British Prime Ministers... 1 

Jeans, Sir J. The Universe Around Us ... 4 


St. Augustine, Confessions of ... ... ... 6 


Gladstone, F. E. Strict Counterpoint, Part 1. Vol. 1 


Strict Counterpoint, Part 1, Vol. 2 (102). 
Part 2 (103). 
Barrett, W. A. English Church Composers, Vol. 1 (104) 

Vol. 2 (105). 
Various Composers. Twelve Songs for Soprano :— (106) 

Lullaby (Brahms). Last Night (Kjerulf). 

Let me wander not unseen (Handel). 

Knowest thou the Land ? (Beethoven). 

My mother bids me (Haydn). 

Bid me discourse (Bishop). 

Ave Maria (Schubert) . May Dew (Sterndale Bennett) 



I will sing of Thy great mercies (" St. Paul ") (Men- 

Jerusalem (" St. Paul ") (Mendelssohn). 

Where the bee sucks (Arne). 

Rose softly blooming (Spohr). 
Page. Arthur. Organ Playing (Tutor) (107). 
Davey, Henry. Students' Musical Historv, Vol. 1 (108) 
„ ' Vol. 2 (109). 
Various Composers. Westminster Carol Book, Vol. 1 


Westminster Carol Book, Vol 2 (116). 
„ Vol. 3 (117). 
Mendelssohn. Two-part Songs (118L 
Various Composers. Songs for Tenor Voice : — (119) 

Oft in the stilly night (T. Moore). 

Only for thee (Roeckel). The Garland (Mendelssohn). 

To Chloe (Sterndale Bennett). The Violet (Mozart). 

My heart and lute (Kjerulf). 

Would you gain the tender creature ? (" Acis and 
Galatea ") (Handel). 

Where'er yon walk (Handel). 

His salvation is nigh (Sterndale Bennett). 

Recit. and Air. In native worth (Haydn). 

Be thou faithful (Mendelssohn). 




Bedell, G. T. Basket of Flowers 2 

Birmingham, G. A. Goodly Pearls ... ... 3 

Buchan, John. Castle Gay ... ... ... 5 

Croker, B. M. Diana Barrington ... ... 8 

Dawson, A. J. Jan, Son of Finn ... ... 4 

Fletcher, J. S. Middle Temple Murder ... 4 

Grey, Zane. Vanishing Indian ... ... ... 5 

Harker, L. Allen. Black Jack House ... ... 4 

Hodson, J. L. Grey Dawn — Red Night ... 5 

Holme, Constance. He-who-came ... ... 2 

Jesse, F. Tennyson. The Lacquer Lady ... 7 

Kaye-Smith, Sheila. Iron and Smcke ... ... 5 

Kaye-Smith, Sheila. Shepherds in Sackcloth... 5 

Mackail, Dennis. The Flower Show ... ... 6 

Mundy, Talbot. The Hundred Days 3 

Parker, M. E. Frances. The Unspoiled ... 2 

Roche, Mazo de la. Jalna ... ... ... 5 

Rohmer, Sax. She who sleeps ... ... ... 4 

Sabatini, R. Hounds of God ... ... ... 4 

Wentworth. P. The Coldstone ... ... ... 4 

Whitechurch, V. L. First and Last 5 


Buchan. Susan. Sword of State ... ... 4 

Chesterton, G. K. Robert Louis Stevenson 

(People's Library) ... ... ... ... 2 

Cummins, G. Scripts of Cleophas ... ... 5 

Diary of Opal Whitley 4 

*Fairgrieve, J. and Young, E. Human Geo- 
graphies, Book I, British Isles ... ... 7 

fGore, Bishop. Christ and Society ... ... 3 

Hosie, Lady. Portrait of a Chinese Lady ... 7 
Brother Lawrence. Practice of the Presence of 

God 1 

*Inge, Rev. W. R. Protestantism (Benn's 

Sixpenny Library) ... ... 2 

Instruction in Bee-keeping for the use of Irish 

Bee-keepers (E. W. Austin Memorial) ... 2 

Lucas, E. V. (Compiled by). Friendly Town... 4 
Matthews, W. R. Some Modern Problems of 

Faith 1 

May, J. Lewis. Path Through the Wood ... 2 
Melville, L. (Editor). Life and Letters of John 

Gay: 1685-1732 3 

Murray, Rev. A. With Christ in the School of 

Prayer 3 

Newbolt, H. Studies Green and Gray ... ... 4 

* Produced by the National Institute for the Blind. 
t Presented by the Guild of Church Braillists. 

Plumer, A., M.A.. D.D. (Editor). The Gospel 
according to St. John in Greek (with Notes 
and Introduction) (in Continuation) ... ... 4 

Old, W. G. The Simple Way A new Transla- 
tion of the Tao-Tch King 3 

Robinson, C. E. History of Greece (E. W. 
Austin Memorial) ... ... ... ... 9 

Tomlinson, H. M. Sea and the Jungle 5 

tUnderhill, Evelyn. The House of the Soul ... 2 

Urwick. L. Meaning of Rationalisation (E. W. 
Austin Memorial) ... ... 2 

Wells, H. G. Short History of the World ... 5 

Williams, A. R. The Russian Land 3 


Craddock, Mrs. H. C. Josephine, John and the 
Puppv ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 


Morton, J. M. Boks Kaj Koks 1 


Douglas, O. Penny Plain ... ... ... 6 

Stratton -Porter, Gene. Freckles ... ... 6 


" Golden Fleece "STOCKING MACHINE, 3 cylinders. 

cost £15, good as new. No reasonable offer refused. 
G. Jackson, 16, Hutton St., Sunderland, Co. Durham. 


State age, experience and qualifications. Applications 
to be sent immediately to the Superintendent and 
Secretary, Institution for the Blind, Roundhay Road, 

REQUIRED, sighted lady 'age about 35) as ORGAN- 
IZING .SECRETARY, who will also act as Superin- 
tendent of teachers. Experience of work amongst the 
blind essential. Apply bv letter to Hon. Sec. of H.T.S., 
4, Cornwallis Street, Liverpool, stating age and 




The next examination for the Diploma will be held 

on 18th March, 1931. Forms of application can be 

obtained from the Hon. Registrar of the College, 

224-6-8, Great Portland Street, London, W.l, and must 

be returned not later than 14th February, 1931. 

MICROMETERS, similar to those used by the sighted, 
but with their markings indicated by Braille signs, are 
obtainable in Germany. The National Institute for 
the Blind has added one of each type of instrument to 
its Museum, in order that any blind person who is con- 
sidering the possibility of purchasing a micrometer from 
Germany may have the opportunity of examining the 
instrument on loan before ordering. 


Applications are invited for the position of LADY 
HOME TEACHER for the Blind (SIGHTED). Candi- 
dates must be strong and healthy and hold the Certifi- 
cate of the College of Home Teachers. Salary at the 
rate of £160 per ann., rising after two years satisfactory 
service by increments of £10 to £200 per annum, subject 
to deduction under the Local Government and Other 
Officers Superannuation Act. The successful candidate 
must be prepared to undergo a medical examination as 
to her physical fitness for the work. 

Applications stating age, qualifications and experi- 
ence in social work must be sent to me at once accom- 
panied by not more than three testimonials. 

William F. J. Whitley, M.D., D.P.H., 
County Medical Officer of Health, 
South Granville House, 
Jesmond, Newcastle-upon-T e. 

Printed by Smiths' Printing Company (London & St. Albans), Ltd., 22-24, Fetter Lane, London, E.C.4 





Vol. XV.-No. 170. FEBRUARY 15th, 1931. Price 3d. 


Enttrid as Second Class Matter, Match 15, 1929, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass., under the Act of March 3, 1879 (See. 397, P.L. an.l P 


FOR hundreds of years past, travellers to Egypt have returned with sad stories of the 
prevalence of eye-trouble. As long ago as 1589 a Bohemian writer who visited 
Cairo described the masses of flies on the eyes of children, while in a book 
published in Paris in 1745, Egypt is described by its French author as " The 
Land of the Blind." James Bruce, a Scottish traveller, writing a few years later, 
spoke thus of Assouan — " Though it should by its situation be healthy, the 
general complaint is a weakness and soreness of the eyes ; you scarcely ever see 
a person in the street that sees with both." 

From the beginning of the nineteenth century many attempts were made to combat Egyptian 
or Military Ophthalmia, which attacked almost every European country between 1800 and 1850 
and was one of the most horrible results of the Napoleonic wars. In 1825 an Egyptian medical 
school was founded at the instance of a particularly enlightened Pasha, and placed in the charge 
of a young Frenchman, who, under the name of Clot Bey, gave himself untiringly to the work 
of ophthalmology in spite of his own defective eyesight. During the next three-quarters of a 
century, Clot Bey was succeeded by other devoted individual workers, who tried, often under 
most adverse conditions and in the face of unreasoning prejudice, to combat eye-disease, but 
it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that a concerted effort was made possible. 
In 1902 a Medical Congress was held at Cairo, at which special attention was directed 
to the question of eye-trouble, and as a result of this Congress, Sir Ernest Cassel decided to 
give £40,000 in order that steps might be taken to attack the evil. There were at this time four 
Eye Hospitals in Egypt, one the Kalaun Hospital in Cairo (interesting as the second oldest 
Eye Hospital in the world), one in connection with a medical school at Kasr el Aini, and two in 
Alexandria. There were a few oculists in private practice in the large towns but none in the 
provinces, and very few qualified doctors ; the treatment of eye patients by barbers was of very 
common occurence. 

Dr. Osborne, a well-known oculist living in Alexandria, was consulted as to the form 
Sir Ernest Cassel's benefaction should take, and suggested that temporary eye hospitals should 
be set up, rather on the lines of an experiment which had proved very successful in Russia. 
Among an illiterate and scattered peasantry no scheme could prove successful unless it brought 


treatment to the very door of the patient. A 
long and expensive journey coupled with the 
prospect of a sojourn among strangers and the 
shrewd suspicion that a surgeon's knife is 
likely to form part of the treatment, is enough 
to deter any country-dweller who has perhaps 
never left his native village and has a dread 
of the unknown and untried. 

A London oculist, Dr. MacCallan, was 
appointed Director of the work, and it is to 
his tireless devotion over a period of about 
twenty years, that the present relatively 
satisfactory state of affairs in Egypt is largely 
due. He began by visiting towns and treating 
the patients brought to him there, and so 
succeeded in breaking down some of the 
prejudices they may have had against treat- 
ment, and making himself familiar at the 
same time with conditions of life at first hand. 
In 1904 he opened the first travelling hospital 
at Menuf ; it consisted of tents for operative 
and out-patient treatment, staff-officer tents 
for the ophthalmic inspector and the Egyptian 
surgeon, a shelter large enough to accom- 
modate about 500 out-patients, kitchen, 
stores, etc. The work was carried on by two 
surgeons, a clerk, a steward, two male trained 
attendants, two women attendants, four male 
attendants under training, and five other 
employees. The Hospital usually remained 
for about six months in one place, treating all 
the patients who came to it from surrounding 

In 1905, at the suggestion of Lord Cromer, 
it was decided that the travelling hospital, 
valuable as it was, needed to be supplemented 
by a permanent service in some of the larger 
towns, and money was raised for this purpose 
by subscription and local taxation. By 
degrees, arrangements for ophthalmic treat- 
ment have been provided in most of the 
larger towns and in many country districts, 
and by 1927 there were 26 permanent and 
13 travelling hospitals, which in that one 
year treated 350,000 patients. Writing in 
1927 Dr. MacCallan says : — " There is a 
special teaching hospital in the environs of 
Cairo and adjoining it a special ophthalmic 
laboratory which is . . . probably the best 
ophthalmic laboratory in the world. The 
staff of the Ophthalmic Hospitals (which 
form a section of the Department of Public 
Health) consists of Egyptian surgeons, two 
for each hospital, who received their post 
graduate ophthalmic training from the former 
British Director of the Egyptian Ophthalmic 



Hospitals between 1903 and 1924. The 
annual cost of the Ophthalmic Department to 
the Egyptian Government is now about 
£60,000 a year." 

Very special attention has from the first 
been given to the care of children — " however 
crowded the out-patient department may be 
children are never refused admission . . . 
hundreds of children are annually saved from 
complete blindness." Simple talks are given 
to the mothers on the necessity of cleanliness 
and pamphlets distributed on prevention. 

While Dr. MacCallan gave much of his 
time during his service in Egypt to the 
immediate needs of clinical work, he was 
always mindful of the time when he would 
have to leave the task of combating blindness 
in the hands of others ; his primary aim was 
the teaching of ophthalmology and he trained 
men to succeed him, so that on his resignation 
as Director his place was ably taken by an 
Egyptian doctor, Dr. Raschid, who is assisted 
by a pathologist and ophthalmic inspectors. 

Dr. Ernst Fuchs, the great Austrian 
ophthalmologist who died a few weeks ago, 
and to whom the movement for prevention in 
many countries owes so much, wrote in 1924 
as follows : — " The result of the campaign 
against the disease shows itself very strikingly 
in the decrease in the number of blind people. 
Seven years ago when I was in Egypt for the 
first time I often saw in the busy streets of 
the towns a procession of four or more blind 
people who were led about by a half blind 
beggar. Even to this day there are still 
plenty to be seen but their number is reduced. 
The Arab University in the El Azhar Mosque 
had formerly in a total of 4,000 students about 
600 blind, whereas now amongst 5,422 
students with ' enough good eyesight ' 
there are only 230 blind ; but when compared 
with European conditions the number is still 
terribly high." 

Thus while it is true that the problem of 
blindness in Egypt has during the past thirty 
years received very serious attention, there 
are still many blind in the country, and it may 
be of interest in conclusion to know what is 
being done to help them. 

The earliest Blind School appears to be 
that at Alexandria which was founded by 
Lady Meath in connection with the work of 
the Ministering Children's League in 1898. 
A teacher was sent out from England, and 
instruction arranged in basket making and 
chair-caning ; so successful did the venture 


prove that in 1904 an additional house was 
taken for the school. The work still continues 
to-day and is recognised by the Government 
for purposes of grant. 

In 1 90 1 an Institution for Blind Boys was 
founded at Zeitoun by the late Mrs. Armitage, 
wife of Dr. Armitage, and this too continues 
to do valuable work and receives State aid. 
The Institution is non-sectarian, and gives 
both primary and industrial training, and 
prints its own Braille books in Arabic. 

Besides the ordinary blind trades carried on 
by the adult blind in Egypt (which include 
basketry, chair-caning, carpet making and 
brush making) the Moslem blind are often 
employed as professional readers of the Koran, 
while Christians find occupation as profes- 
sional singers in the Churches. 

The Egyptian Government assists the 

workshops by purchasing goods from them, 
and also by displaying finished articles made 
by the blind in the permanent Exhibition of 
the School of Commerce. Another interesting 
mark of the interest of the Government in 
blind welfare is the fact that in 1927 a special 
department for training teachers of the blind 
was established in connection with the Train- 
ing College for Women Teachers at Boulac. 
Thirteen bl nd women have lately completed 
their studies in this department. 

Progress in the past thirty years has been 
made at a rate undreamt of in former gener- 
ations ; much, of course, still remains to be 
accomplished, but if in the next three decades 
the problem of prevention is attacked with 
the same energy as in the last, " The Land 
of the Blind " will no longer merit its sad 


1AST summer, it was reported that the 
Education Committee of the 
London County Council had 
recommended that no more 
blind teachers should be em- 
J ployed in its Schools for the 
M Blind, and that the recom- 
menuaiiuii nad been adopted by the Council. 
This surprising decision was very strongly 
criticised by those most intimately acquainted 
with the education of the blind, and the 
Education and Research Committee of the 
National Institute expressed an opinion that 
" this decision, which was taken without 
consultation with any official bodies concerned 
in the education of the blind," was disastrous, 
and advised action with a view to the reversal 
of the decision. The Council endorsed this 
opinion, and a deputation representing the 
National Institute, the London Teachers 
Association (the London Branch of the 
National Union of Teachers), the College of 
Teachers of the Blind, and the National Union 
of Professional and Industrial Blind waited 
on the Teaching Staff Sub-Committee of 
the L.C.C. and put forward a very powerful 
case. The decision of the L.C.C. has not yet 
been communicated. 

The case for the blind teacher has been 
admirably stated by Dr. E. G. Dowdell, 
Lecturer in Economics, St. John's College, 
Oxford, who has just been elected a member 
of the Executive Council of the National 

Institute, in a letter addressed to the Editor of 
" Education," which we reprint below. 

To the Editor of " Education." 

Sir, — May I, as an old pupil of two schools 
for the blind who has had particularly good 
opportunities of testing the value of the 
education there given, crave the hospitality of 
your columns for a plea in favour of the 
continued employment of blind teachers in 
such schools ? I do so more particularly 
because the London County Council have 
recently decided to abandon their old policy 
in this matter, and it seems to me that their 
decision, if carried into effect, will have most 
unfortunate consequences. Blind persons 
who wish to become teachers will obviously 
suffer, but, as I observe from the Press that 
their interests are being championed by the 
National Union of Teachers, it is only 
necessary to deal here with the point of view 
of the taught. 

Before going further, it will be well to 
explain that I began my education at a 
London County Council school which had a 
blind head teacher and a sighted assistant. 
Thence I went to the Royal Normal College, 
the founder of which, Sir Francis Campbell, 
was blind, and which has always been staffed 
by teachers, some with, and some without, 
sight. Throughout my twelve years at these 
schools I was under blind teachers for the 




greater part of the time, and the efficiency of 
their work is not open to question in view of 
the academic distinctions which I was fortun- 
ate enough to gain subsequently. I am 
naturally concerned at the threatened des- 
truction of part of the system which laid the 
foundation of my own success, and I venture 
to hope that those responsible for deter- 
mining these matters may attach some 
importance to my experience. 

That teacher and pupil should be " in the 
same boat " has one obvious advantage in 
that the former can readily appreciate the 
latter 's difficulties, without exaggerating them. 
If a lazy undergraduate, in bringing me an 
unfinished essay, were to plead that I could 
not realise the power of the cinema tempta- 
tion to which he was a prey, my own experi- 
ence, which does not include cinemas, would 
not provide an entirely satisfactory retort. 
The difficulties of the sighted teacher of 
blind children are of this nature, but are far 
more serious, and meet him at every turn. If 
he has blind colleagues to consult he can 
ascertain from them whether troubles are real 
ur feigned. Otherwise, he is almost certain 
often to coax where he should drive and drive 
where he should coax. Such a position may- 
be productive of much harm. 

There is another very important point. In 
educating the blind it is essential to convince 
them from the outset that they have good 
prospects, despite their handicap, provided 
they exert themselves to the full. Contact 
with successful blind teachers gives a kind of 
encouragement which, I think, nothing else 
can. Stories of what blind people have done 
in the past will not suffice, since the average 
child will associate them with other tales of 
prodigies, which have no connection with his 
own life. Defeatism is a habit of mind and 
cannot be cured by mere argument. In a 
school where there are blind teachers, how- 
ever, blindness takes its place, along with 
logarithms and Latin irregular verbs, as a 
difficulty which looks terrifying, but which 
is not insurmountable, since it has been 
conquered by people whom one knows and 
regards as quite ordinary human beings. The 
child of normal grit will not allow himself to 
be frightened for long by obstacles of this 
kind. For blind children who lack confidence, 
efficient teaching is of little use, but for those 
who have it successful careers are open in 
many walks of life. 

I need hardly add that 1 would not for a 
moment advocate the exclusive employment 
of blind teachers. Nor would I wish to 
support the claims of any who are not properly 
qualified. With these provisos, however, I 
would appeal in the strongest possible terms 
for the continuance of mixed staffs, a system 
which has already produced excellent results 
and may be made to work even better in the 

Yours, etc., 
E. G. Dowdell, M.A.. D.Phil., 
Lecturer in Economics, 

St. John's College, Oxford. 


Sir Richard Paget, Bart., has, owing to 
business reasons, resigned from the Executive 
Council of the National Institute for the 
Blind. It is with very deep regret that the 
Institute loses his services, which were 
particularly valuable in connection with 
educational problems concerning the blind. 
His scientific knowledge was a great asset to 
the Education and Research Committee, and 
it will be difficult to replace an adviser who 
gave so much time to the service of the blind 
and who brought so wide an experience to 
problems connected with the scientific 
amelioration of the handicap of blindness. 

Sir Gerald Hurst, K.C., M.P., owing to 
pressure of other work, has tendered his 
resignation from the Executive Council of 
the National Institute. 

Mr. John Beresford Heaton, has been 
elected a member of the Institute's Council, 
as a representative of the Metropolitan and 
Adjacent Counties Association for the Blind. 
SDr. E. G. Dowdell, Lecturer in Economics 
St. John's College, Oxford — who is himself 
blind — has also been elected a member of the 
Institute's Council. 

Mr. W. J. Merridan, representing the 
Royal Normal College for the Blind, has been 
appointed a member of the Institute's 
Publications Sub-Committee. 

Major J. M. Forsdyke, has recently 
accepted the position of Hon. Treasurer to 
the Worthing Society for Befriending the 




Rossendale Society Winter Treat. 

The Annual Winter Treat of the Rossendale Society tor Visiting and Instructing 
the Blind was held on January 8th, at the Bacup Liberal Club Assembly Rooms. Alder- 
man Brierley, Mayor of Bacup, was Chairman. Tea was followed by a concert given 
by Heald Choir and friends. 

Board of Education Representative to International Conference. 

The British Government is sending Dr. L. E. Underwood, as a representative of 
the Board of Education, to the forthcoming International Conference on Work for the 
Blind, to be held in New York. This is in addition to the two representatives of the 
Ministry of Health, named in last month's issue of The New Beacon. 

Government Contract for the Blind. 

The Bolton Workshops for the Blind have secured a large Government contract tor 
brushes for the army. 

Mr. F. T. Owen, the organiser of the workshops, informed the Press that the order 
was more than twice as large as any previous one from the Government and meant that 
half the Brush Department would be kept busy for eight months. The Bolton Workshops 
have been working on full time for nine years. 

Proposed Home for Mentally Retarded Blind Children. 

The Executive Council of the National Institute for the Blind lias approved a 
scheme for starting a School for Mentally Retarded Blind Children at 
" Court Grange," Abbotskerswell, Devonshire. This house, the gift of the Rev. A. T. 
Dence, has heretofore been used as one of the Sunshine Homes for Blind Babies, but the 
babies living there since the destruction by fire of the first Sunshine Home at Chorley 
Wood, Herts, are now at East Grinstead (sec page 36). 

Free Travelling Facilities for the Blind. 

Mr. Hore-Belisha asked the Minister of Transport in the House of Commons last 
month, whether arrangements could be made with the railway companies to afford 
indigent blind persons in institutions free travelling facilities when they are going to 
their homes on leave. Mr. H. Morrison replied that he had no powers in this matter, 
but would communicate with the railway companies, and advise Mr. Hore-Belisha of 
the result. 

Dinner Party to the Worthing Blind. 

On January 20th, the blind people of Worthing were entertained to dinner by the 
Worthing Society for Befriending the Blind — this being the Society's fifth Annual New 
Year's Dinner Party. The Rev. E. W. D. Penfold presided, and he was supported by 
the Mayor and Mayoress of Worthing and other well-known local people. Mr. F. A. 
Sly (Hon. Superintendent) did much to make the arrangements for the evening successful. 
Dinner was followed by a concert, to which Mr. W. Perry, himself blind, contributed a 
violin solo. 

A Wireless Information Bureau for the Blind. 

The Royal Normal College Radio Society was started in June, 1930, its members 
being students interested in Radio Science and its object being the furtherance of all 
matters connected with it. 

The Society now proposes to establish an Information Bureau. It is felt that a 
Wireless Information Bureau would be found very helpful to many blind persons who 
possess wireless sets or who may be interested" in wireless. All queries must be 
accompanied by a stamped wrapper or envelope, and addressed to The Secretary, Royal 
Normal College Radio Society, Upper Norwood, 




Review of the Work of the Wireless Fund. 

JUST over a year ago — at Christmas- 
time, 1929 — the British " Wireless 
for the Blind " Fund was inaugur- 
ated, with the object of providing, 
as far as was practicable, every 
blind person resident in Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland with 
a wireless set. 
To-day, £30,000 in cash has been contri- 
buted to the Fund, and over 7,500 sets have 
been supplied to the blind, while it is estim- 
ated that, by the end of next April, 15,000 
sets in all will have been distributed. 

Behind these very satisfactory figures is a 
story full of interest — a story of co-operation 
on the part of Agencies for the Blind, gener- 
osity on the part of the public, and appreci- 
ation on the part of the blind themselves. 

Before the Fund was established, the 
extraordinary and unique value of wireless to 
the blind, both as a means of enlightenment 
and as a means of entertainment, had been 
recagnised by most people concerned in the 
welfare of the blind, and numerous efforts 
had been mid; in different districts or by 
individual Institutions to provide free wireless 
sets. All Agencies for the Blind, however, 
readily acknowledged the advantages of a 
central Fund, and there was no difficulty at all 
in forming a thoroughly representative Com- 
mittee, under the Presidency of H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales and the Chairmanship of 
Capt. Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C. 

On this Committee the British Broadcasting 
Corporation was represented, and here it may 
be said that without the help of the B.B.C. 
the Fund would have been an impossibility. 
Long before the initiation of the Fund, 
officials at the B.B.C. had shewn a constant 
interest in the needs of blind listeners, and 
the foundation of the " Braille Radio Times " 
marked the beginning of a close and constant 
relationship between the B.B.C. and the 
Blind World. Since the Fund started the 
help of the B.B.C. has taken innumerable 
forms ; many of its officials have given hours 
of their spare time working for the Fund, and 
their technical knowledge and general influ- 
ence have always been at the Fund's service. 
Invaluable help has also been given to the 


Fund by two distinguished gentlemen : the 
Rt. Hon. Reginald McKenna, who has acted 
as Hon. Treasurer, and the Rt. Hon. Winston 
Churchill, M.P. Mr. Churchill has been 
responsible for raising the bulk of the money. 
He launched the Fund by an Appeal broadcast 
from all Stations of the B.B.C. on Christmas 
Day, 1929, which brought in a sum of £12,000 
in cash and supplemented this magnificent 
effort by a further broadcast Appeal on Christ- 
mas Day, 1930, which has, up-to-date, 
brought in a sum of £5,000. Fvery blind 
person who to-day possesses a wireless set 
through the Fund should have a very warm 
spot in his heart for Mr. Churchill, who has 
shewn himself so true a friend to the sightless. 

Other broadcast Appeals were those of 
Capt. Ian Fraser, C.B.E., Vice-Chairman of 
the Fund, in October — following the broad- 
cast of a Concert provided by blind artistes — 
and of the Conductor of the Wireless Morning 
Services, on the two mornings after the 
Concert. These Appeals brought in a sum 
of £6,000. 

All these broadcast Appeals represent the 
practical sympathy, with the object of the 
Fund, of the B.B.C., who backed them all by 
extensive publicity in the "Radio Times," and 
further, presented to the Fund the fee waived 
by the Football Association for broadcasting 
the Cup Final in 1930. 

The Wireless Trade and the Wireless Press 
— especially the "Wireless Trader" — have also 
extensively helped the Fund. Immediately 
after Mr. Churchill's first Appeal, the 
Radio Manufacturers' Association promised 
to provide 1,000 single valve sets with full 
equipment. The Association also gave a free 
Stand to the Fund at the Daily Mail " Ideal 
Home " Exhibition at Olympia in March, 
1930, from which Appeals were broadcast 
throughout the Exhibition every day by 
different notabilities, and all the stall-holders 
in the Wireless Section had collecting boxes 
at their Stands. A sum of £500 was the 
result. The Association likewise provided a 
free Stand at the Radio Exhibition last year. 

Over 1,100 Wireless Retailers undertook to 
make collections in their shops, etc. — bringing 
in over £1,000 — and circularised likely people 


for offers of voluntary assistance in the 
installation of sets. Wireless Wholesalers 
have contributed to the Fund personally and 
arranged collections. The Trade in general 
has supplied accessories, such as headphones, 
coils and aerial equipment, at very generous 

It is impossible to mention all the forms of 
help given to the Fund but especially note- 
worthy are the following : — H.M. the King 
graciously presented to the Fund the royalties 
forthcoming from the H.M.V. record of his 
speech at the opening of the Naval Confer- 
ence, which by the end of June, 1930, resulted 
in a sum of £250, sales being effected in all 
countries ; a most munificent donor provided, 
through the Fund, 200 valve sets for the blind 
of Gloucestershire and undertook to meet the 
annual cost of maintaining the sets ; Mr. 
Lionel Powell organised a Concert at the 
Albert Hall and presented to the Fund the 
ordinary proceeds and the fee he received 
from the B.B.C. for the broadcasting of the 
Concert ; a Concert organised in Croydon 
brought in sufficient money to provide all 
blind residents in the borough with wireless 

Speaking generally, it can be confidently 
asserted that the Appeal has touched the hearts 
of the British public. It has induced the 
people of means to send their cheques ; the 
less prosperous to spare a few pounds ; the 
poor to send their shillings. The aged have 
saved a mite from their pensions for the 
cause ; old soldiers, hardly earning a living 
— even the unemployed — have sent what thev 
could ; and hundreds of children have 
voluntarily saved their pennies to give light 
to the blind through the Fund. 

But to achieve its object the Fund still 
requires the sum of £15,000. Without doubt, 
however, this sum will soon be forthcoming, 
especially as we understand that H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales will show his personal 
interest in the Fund by his presence at a 
function to be arranged about the end of next 

Let us now consider how the Fund has been 
administered. The first duty of the Commit- 
tee was to obtain exact details as to the number 
of sets required. It would have been unwise 
to obtain these details before the Fund had 
been launched as, in the event of a poor 
response, false hopes might have been aroused 
and the blind bitterly disappointed. But the 

response to Mr. Churchill's first Appeal fully 
justified the inquiry. 

Accordingly, early in 1930 the Committee, 
through the Counties Associations for the 
Blind, circularised all Agencies for the Blind 
in Great Britain and Northern Ireland with 
forms asking for returns shewing the local 
requirements for (a) those blind people with 
normal hearing, (b) those requiring more 
powerful sets. It is obvious that these returns 
were very difficult to make and entailed much 
work on the part of Local Agencies, but the 
Agencies and Counties Associations accom- 
plished the task so competently and expediti- 
ously that practically all returns were 
completed by the end of May, 1930. 

They shewed that 18,000 sets of all kinds 
were needed, while supplementary lists 
rendered have brought the total requirements 
up to 20,000 sets. 

From these returns it was possible to decide 
the types of set suitable for each district. 
Decisions were based more or less on the 
following facts : — Crystal sets should be 
efficient within 50 miles of a Regional 
Station, in districts covered by the Regional 
Scheme of the B.B.C. ; beyond this limit, 
one-valve sets would be necessary for those 
witli normal hearing ; one-valve sets might 
also be required in certain places within 
Regional Scheme districts where effective 
aerials could not be erected ; while at least 
two- valve sets would be needed, firstly, by 
those blind people in Regional areas whose 
additional infirmities prohibited the use of 
headphones, and secondly, by blind people 
residing in areas too far from existing B.B.C. 
Stations or proposed Regional Stations. 

Whilst the returns were being prepared, a 
Technical Sub-Committee appointed by the 
Fund was, in co-operation with the B.B.C. 
Technical Experts and Dr. Eccles, designing 
crystal sets especially for the blind and 
capable of receiving at good headphone 
strength the alternative programmes offered 
by the Regional Scheme of the B.B.C, which 
had just been initiated. 250 sets were ordered 
and tested on existing aerials in the homes of 
the blind, who were asked to fill in a card 
shewing the results obtained. The final 
design of the crystal set was approved by the 
time the returns as to requirements were 
completed, and an initial order of 6,000 was 

Before the Fund was launched it had been 
decided that the distribution of sets should be 


3 1 


through the Local Agencies. Accordingly, 
distribution through Local Agencies of these 
6,000 crystal sets began in July, 1930, and 
continued until October. The sets were 
distributed equably to areas where crystal-set 
reception was possible. Certain difficulties 
naturally arose. Even in such districts as 
London, technically a crystal-set area, it was 
found that in several instances there were 
screened localities where valve sets were 
necessary. A technical representative has 
visited most of these " difficult " localities in 
England and Wales and investigated con- 
ditions. In some cases, merely a little advice 
on how to use crystal sets was needed ; in 
others, it was considered necessary to replace, 
when possible, crystal sets by valve sets. 

It should here be mentioned that the Fund's 
Committee has decided that the distribution 
of sets shall march hand in hand with the 
progress of the Regional Scheme of the B.B.C. 
For example, the supply of sets in the 
metropolitan areas, covered by the B.B.C. 
Station at Brookman's Park, will be followed 
by a supply of crystal sets or one-valve sets 
to the large areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire 
which will be covered by the new Northern 
Regional Station, shortly to be opened at 
Slaithwaite, near Huddersfield. Bearing in 
mind further developments of the Regional 
Scheme, crystal sets are also being supplied to 
districts close to existing Stations. 

Having completed the design for a crystal 
set, the next step before the Fund's Technical 
Sub-Committee was to design a suitable 
one-valve set. In October, 1930, 250 one- 
valve sets were manufactured and sent to 
different parts of the country for testing. 
These tests were very satisfactory, and a 
contract for 5,000 one-valve sets was placed 
in December last. Distribution at a regular 
rate of 500 per week has now begun. Amongst 
these sets are included the 1,000 sets given 
by the Radio Manufacturers' Association. 

Continuing its investigations, the Technical 
Sub-Committee found that in certain parts 
of the country, for example, Devonshire, 
Cornwall, North Wales and the North of 
Scotland, neither crystal nor one-valve sets 
were serviceable. For these districts a special 
two-valve set was designed, and 1 ,000 of these 
sets were ordered in January of this year. 
Distribution begins this month at the rate of 
200 per week. 

In some districts, such as Brighton, Hull 
and Swindon, a relay service is in operation. 



This service is supplied by companies who, 
by arrangement with the B.B.C. and the 
G.P.O., instal a big amplifier and link up by 
wire to private homes, where only a loud- 
speaker is used. To the blind resident in 
these districts the Fund is supplying loud- 
speakers, while the relay companies have 
waived their installation and service fees. 

The installation of sets has been undertaken 
generally by volunteers, amongst whom are 
members of the Wireless League, Toe H and 
the Boy Scouts, and over 900 Wireless 

It is of interest to note that the total number 
of wireless licences issued to the blind — they 
are issued without charge — amounted last 
year to 19,460. 

The above details show that the Fund has 
not stood still until the total amount of money 
required has been raised. " Appeal " and 
" Service " have progressed so steadily side 
by side that it is not too optimistic to hope 
that by the end of the present year every 
blind person in Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland will be able to take advantage of the 
great benefits afforded by wireless. Thatthese 
are not over-estimated in value is apparent 
from the many letters of thanks and appreci- 
ation received by the Fund, a few extracts 
from which are given below. 

" She has now something to help her enjoy life 
and to keep in touch with the world at large." 

" The set works perfectly. My wife sends her 
grateful thanks to you." 

" I appreciate the wireless set very much. The 
music is beautiful and on Christmas morning 
we had a beautiful Service." 

" The wireless set is grand. I am ever so pleased 
with it." 

' ' The set is in perfect order and I am sure it will 
prove a great pleasure to my mother." 

" He very much enjoys the music which helps to 
pass away many a long hour." 

" The set is a great boon and comfort to my 
husband in brightening many weary hours." 

When every blind person in this country 
possesses a wireless set the object of the 
British " Wireless for the Blind " Fund will 
have been achieved. Maintenance of sets, 
services to meet future developments in 
wireless, and many similar matters, form 
problems which are not within the scope of 
the Fund, but which will doubtless receive 
the attention of all who are convinced that 
wireless is one of the simplest, most bene- 
ficent and inexpensive means of alleviating 
the affliction of blindness. 



IT seems a very conceited thing to do. 
Who on earth would want to read 
your life ? " asked a candid friend 
when Lord Sanderson confided to 
him that he intended to write his 
memoirs. Fortunately, the author 
was not deterred, and " The Mem- 
ories of Sixty Years " (Methuen & Co., 10/6 
net) with its gaiety, simplicity and friendliness 
is the best refutation of the friend's premature 
criticism ; for it is a very readable book. 

Lord Sanderson, formerly Henry Sanderson 
Furniss till he received his peerage last year 
for educational services, has been blind from 
infancy and this is perhaps one reason why 
his memories should make a special appeal 
to those interested in eminent blind men ; 
but though he never actually ignores his 
handicap of blindness it is treated throughout 
the book as something that interests the 
writer so little that the reader is apt to forget 
it. "I have had to live and work under a 
serious disability " he admits " but this has 
been largely compensated for by a complete 
absence of other ills. I have suffered little 
bodily pain, I have not known poverty, I have 
not experienced unkind or cruel treatment." 
Lord Sanderson's father was a Spartan 
and an autocrat in the upbringing of his 
children ; his son's blindness was a grief and 
disappointment to him and he determined 
as far as might be to shut his eyes to it, 
going so far all his life as to refer to his son 
merely as " rather short sighted." 

The writer does not attempt to excite 
sympathy in his account of his childhood, 
though it is pathetic to read of his unending 
struggle to take part in the outdoor games of 
his brother and his friends, and the picture 
he draws of the small boy who, after being 
told by his school fellows that he could not 
share their fives, wandered disconsolately in 
the garden muttering " I am not such a fool 
as they think me, I'm not such a fool as they 
think me " is rather a touching one. But 
though Lord Sanderson tried to take part in 
almost every outdoor game in childhood, 
including even tennis, croquet and cricket, 
he decided when he grew up that he was apt 
to spoil the game and the pleasure of the 
other players, and finally gave up all sports 
except rowing and swimming. 

As a result of his father's refusal to acknow- 

ledge his blindness he was not taught to read 
Braille and did not even know of its existence 
till he went up to Oxford in 1889 at the age 
of 21, though his sight had never permitted 
him to read anything but type so large that 
hardly anything was printed in it except parts 
of the Bible. As a small child he attended a 
Kindergarten, and at the age of 13 was sent 
to a private tutor who had a living in East 
Anglia and took five or six pupils, sent there 
because they were for the most part either 
" too delicate or too stupid or too immoral " 
to be at public schools ; it is not surprising 
to read that Lord Sanderson's years there 
decided him that no boy should go to a private 
tutor who can be educated in any other way. 
As a blind boy individual tuition was im- 
portant for him, especially as he had no 
knowledge of Braille, but the other dis- 
advantages far outweighed the good, and 
nobody but a boy of sound character with 
a good home background could have escaped 
serious moral and mental contamination. 

The account of his undergraduate days is 
full of interest and like the rest of the book 
has little friendly touches in it which make 
it very attractive — " I never could get up any 
enthusiasm for early English constitutional 
history and never could succeed in translating 
the Charter. In fact I am afraid I didn't try 
very hard " is a confession that makes of the 
writer a very human person. Lord Sanderson 
took a Second Class in the History School, 
and as Oxford had aroused in him a very keen 
interest in Economics he decided, on going 
down, to settle in Clifton with a friend, and 
to study there. He was interested in Labour 
questions, but not at this time from a Labour 
standpoint, and to his father's satisfaction he 
joined the Committee of the Bristol Charity 
Organisation Society. He and the friend with 
whom he lived were both musical, and in 
connection with their C.O.S. work helped to 
send the fifteen-year-old daughter of a street 
musician to be trained at the Royal College 
of Music. The little girl was Marie Hall. 

In 1902 Lord Sanderson married and settled 
down in London, but three years later moved 
to Oxford and studied for the Diploma in 
Economics, which he obtained with distinc- 
tion. With his return to Oxford he came into 
touch almost at once with the work of Ruskin 
College, which had been founded some few 




years previous for the university education 
of working men, and at the request of Mr. 
Lees-Smith, the present Postmaster- General, 
he agreed to become its Tutor and lecturer 
in Economics. He and his wife were both 
" good Conservatives," and though his father 
had sometimes, after the manner of Victorian 
fathers, been " afraid that Harry was a bit 
of a Radical " such extravagances were never 
taken very seriously. 

The account given of Ruskin College is 
delightfully written and there are little inti- 
mate vignettes of some of its personalities. 
We read of Vrooman, an American, who had 
founded it and is described as having had 
" peculiar ideas about food. He thought 
that people should eat only when they were 
hungry and he had bags of oatmeal and apples, 
loaves of bread, pieces of cheese put about 
the house so that anyone could help himself 
when he felt inclined." Then there was 
Dennis Hird, the first principal of the College, 
who had been Secretary of the Church of 
England Temperance Society but gave up 
his work as his interests shifted to the 
repudiation of the National Debt ; he was 
very little at the College and spent long week- 
ends on a small farm, to which students were 
invited for change and country air, combined 
with very strenuous hay-making. " Total 
lack of discipline " in the College under Hird, 
and hours devoted to altercations with 
students on such matters as to whether 
bananas should be served for tea, made the 
writer's life very difficult and finally matters 
came to a head and the Principal was pen- 
sioned off, Dr. Gilbert Slater taking his place. 

Political work naturally occupies a good 
part of the Memoirs, as both Lord Sanderson 
and his wife were keenly interested, first as 
Liberals, and later in the cause of Labour, 
while naturally also the work of the Workers 
Educational Association appealed strongly to 
them. A chapter in the book is devoted to an 
account of the influences which changed the 
writer from a " pronounced individualist " 
into a convinced Socialist. 

During the War Lord Sanderson offered 
his services to the Workers Educational 
Association and was given charge of the 
South-eastern district ; in addition to this he 
edited a volume of economic essays entitled 
" The Industrial Outlook," undertook lecture 
tours in the Potteries, and still kept in touch 
with Ruskin College ; actually during the 
War the work of the College had been sus- 



pended for residential students, though 
correspondence courses were carried on. 

In 1916 Lord Sanderson was appointed 
Principal of Ruskin, and as the ordinary work 
of the College had ceased for the time he 
organised a series of Conferences in connec- 
tion with reconstruction after the War, helped 
in the Oxford summer school, attended the 
Trades Union Congress, lectured for the 
Workers Educational Association, and finally 
stood for the University of Oxford as a 
Labour candidate, but without success. In 
the October of 19 19 he returned to Oxford as 
Principal of Ruskin College, which now 
included women students, a hostel having 
been opened for these. Undergraduates, 
whether men or women, are not the easiest 
people in the world to manage, and the 
students at Ruskin College were men who 
came from a great variety of trades ; some 
had served in the War, some had been 
imprisoned as conscientious objectors, some 
were Socialists, and some Communists, 
while nearly all were considerably older than 
the ordinary student. Discipline could not 
have been easy, and the " large family party " 
spirit could only have been maintained with 
great sympathy, tact, and understanding. 

Continued hard work led to a temporary 
breakdown in Lord Sanderson's health in 
1923 and complete rest and a long sea voyage 
were prescribed, which led to a long holiday 
in Australia ; he returned much benefited in 
health but unfit to continue the very strenuous 
work of a College Principal and resigned in 
1925. The following year was largely taken 
up by a tour in South Africa with its " beauti- 
ful country and delightful climate and its 
friendly people," overshadowed, however, by 
bitter feeling on racial questions. 

A visit to America followed in 1928 and on 
his return both the writer and his wife once 
more took up political work and stood as 
Labour candidates in the Oxford Council, 
though they were not returned. 

Here the book ends, for Lord Sanderson, 
with characteristic modesty, makes no allusion 
to the peerage conferred on him in 1930. 
His last words are perhaps worth quoting — 
" At 61 I am able once more to enjoy life to 
the full — eager indeed to go forward into any 
new adventure which life may still hold for 
me." Those who read his Memories will 
hope that it holds many, for so gallant and 
kindly and modest an adventurer surely 
deserves them. 

( ^yftcO\fcw 

Published by \J L l\ i I 1 IX. Editorial Offices: 
the Notional I^W |~^ /^\ I I I ^ 224 Great Port- 
Institute for II / 1\ /\ / ^ land Street, 
the Blind M^r tL^dl Bl V S ^^_y JL ^1 London, W.\. 


WHEN people personally unacquainted with welfare work for the blind are 
brought into actual contact with such work, they invariably express a 
considerable degree of astonishment. Why is this so ? It can scarcely be 
due to complete ignorance ; work for the blind is widely advertised, both in 
appeals for funds and in the press. Neither can it be due to habitual heed- 
lessness ; sympathy with the blind is almost instinctive in all people with 
sight and is an emotion of the most delicate sensitiveness. Nor is it due to 
the rarity of blind people ; they are, unfortunately, only too often encountered in the streets of 
all big cities. This last fact, perhaps, provides an answer to the question. Every day the blind 
are to be seen walking in the streets, and to the casual observer a very great number of them 
are obviously poor and dependent and, apparently, unhappy. Therefore, when such a casual 
observer enters an institution for the blind and sees happy, capable and industrious blind people 
at work ; when he examines the many ingenious means of alleviating blindness ; when he 
becomes acquainted with bonnie blind children, ambitious blind undergraduates, blind men 
successful in the professions, blind veterans in happy retirement after a long and useful career; 
is it not natural that he should be profoundly astonished ? For he finds his general impression 
of the blind as poor, dependent and unhappy creatures to be entirely false. 
Yet is it entirely false ? 

Bearing in mind the statistics showing thousands of blind unemployables, and thousands of 
blind workers earning but a mere pittance, can any worker for the blind honestly affirm that 
the impression of the casual observer is totally incorrect ? 

Although great progress has been made in ameliorating the lot of the blind in this country 
during the past fifty years, a greater task awaits us in the next fifty years. Work for the blind 
must never be static ; it must always be moving towards the conquest of new fields, and of them, 
there is no dearth. 

No institution for the blind should circumscribe its objects by past achievements or existing 
activities. The blind often criticise the work carried en in their aid by people with sight. 
Such criticism, natural tnough even when unwarranted, is amply justified if directed against 
work carried on in the name of the blind but without that vision which, to a peculiar degree, 
must be exercised in work for the blind. It is " vision " that makes the local agency eager 
to help a neighbouring local agency and to co-operate harmoniously with national work ; it is 
" vision " that leads the directors of national work to think imperially and to recognise the 
existence of the millions of blind people within the boundaries of the British Empire, who offer 
fields of philanthropic endeavour almost appalling in their vastness. But rather than appal, such 
problems should kindle a high spirit of enthusiasm in minds scornful of the degrading spirit 
of complacency. 

That the spirit of progressive enthusiasm exists is proved by the " team " work now being 
accomplished in this country by practically all agencies for the blind ; by recent developments 
in work for the blind in different parts of the Empire, such as the Irish Free State, South Africa, 
Cyprus and Gibraltar, in which, as far as possible, our own national institutions are assisting ; 
by the close relationship existing between national institutions in the Mother country and in 
the Dominions ; by the steps which are being taken to arouse interest in the million-and-a-half 
blind and the four-and-a-half million partially blind people of India ; by the extension cf 
facilities for obtaining cheap Braille literature and music to all parts of the Empire. 

These are all signs that welfare work for the blind is to-day a living, dynamic force, capable 
of great possibilities, and determined to fight ever anew against the poverty, dependence and 
unhappiness which still exists amongst the blind people of this country and of the British Empire. 

The Editor. 





How a Train Journey Tested Good Training. 

AST month we reproduced a photo- 
graph of Capt. Sir Beachcroft 
Towse, V.C., Chairman of the 
National Institute for the Blind, 
welcoming at Paddington the 
blind babies who were being 
taken from " Court Grange," 
Abbotskerswell, Devonshire, to the Institute's 
new Sunshine Home at East Grinstead, 
Sussex. We give below an amusing account 
by the Matron of the babies' journev, and a 
brief description of the new Home. 

The 29 blind babies in residence at Court 
Grange were moved in two parties — 1 1 babies 
in arms travelling with some of the Nursing 
Staff three days in advance of the main party. 
The second party of 18 school children 
(aged 3-5) were very excited at the prospect 
of a journey in a train — some of them 
remembered travelling down from London 
two years previously — all had been discussing 
the move for days beforehand and all had 
many questions to ask. 

The babies entrained at 12.20 p.m. after an 
early dinner and a tremendous dressing-up 
in best clothes, and after a very hearty send- 
off from their many friends who had assembled 
at Newton Abbot Station. 

From the moment the train commenced to 
move, their enjoyment of the journey seemed 
intensified and the rocking and the noise 
especially delighted them. 

However, they were all placed full length 
on the carriage seats, given a pillow and rug 
each, told it was their usual " silence hour," 
and in a very short time were all asleep. 

At 2.45 p.m. they were awakened and given 
their usual " tea " — bread and butter and 

"he new "Sunshine House" at East Grinstead 

honey, and a biscuit each, but hot milk 
substituted for their usual cocoa. 

One child of 4 years complained that he 
was given milk " just like babies drink " and 
left us with a very uncomfortable feeling that 
he might report it to the Press, but we assured 
him it would not occur again. 

When nearing the end of the journey, the 
Dining-Car Attendants presented each child 
with one shilling. They had collected £2 5s. 
from the travellers on the train and after 
deducting the 18s., had spent the remainder 
on milk-chocolate and chocolate biscuits, so 
the babies started at East Grinstead with a 
well-stocked sweet cupboard. 

After tea, there was a general washing of 
hands and faces, dressing up and getting 
ready for London, and at 3.45 p.m. all the 
babies detrained and were met and welcomed 
by the chairman of the National Institute, 
Capt. Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C. 

There was a row of Press Photographers 
also to welcome them and after one or two 
false starts some very satisfactory pictures of 
the babies were taken. John Pike (aged 5) 
was guilty of one " hold-up " — he gave a 
piercing scream and when he had gathered a 
large and sympathetic audience, confided to 
them that Betty (aged 4), his next-door 
neighbour, had put her hand into his pocket 
—with, I conclude, a burglarious intent. 

The babies travelled from Paddington to 
East Grinstead by motor coaches — still very 
good and very happy — singing nursery rhymes 
and school songs the greater part of the way. 
They were all^bathed on arrival, given hot 
drinks and|put^to bed, and in the morning 
were ] ready] to^explore Home and garden 
before we were ready to 
conduct them. 

The journey of over 200 
miles did not apparently 
affect them at all — not one 
of the 79 babies cried, not 
one was sick, and the only 
casualty was a lost glove — 
which the child made good 
by taking another child's 
glove ! ! 

Sunshine Home, East 
Grinstead, is literally what 
its name implies— a house of 



sunshine. Entering the front Hall, you find the 
walls and staircase walls distempered in orange, 
and even with only a pale wintry sun shining 
you get an impression of brightness and light. 

The babies' dining room is equally cheerful. 
The walls are coloured a deep lemon yellow — 
also the playroom, around which runs a 
delightful Punchinello frieze. 

Various generous friends of the babies gave 
them two new rocking-horses and four new 
rocking-boats, so the playroom is now a hive 
of industrial pleasure. 

The school-room is also decorated in lemon 
yellow. It is very large with a window seat 
that holds all the scholars for their morning 
hymns and prayer. 

Upstairs are four nurseries, all distempered 
in pale primrose yellow, and into every 
nursery the sun enters at some time of the day. 

On this floor is the babies' bathroom — with 
its three gay fixed baths — each bath painted 
outside a pillar-box red. Each child has his 
own pigeon hole for brush, comb, tooth-brush 
and mug, and a division for his bath-towel. 

The equipment of the bathroom has been 
properly completed in the babies' eyes by a 
gift of floating animals — their favourite 
animal being a duck with a small puncture 
which slowly fills with water and drowns. 

A well-equipped and business-like surgery 

is also on this floor. All the babies visit the 
surgery at S.30 a.m. for treatment and a sweet. 

There is an Isolation Ward with its own 
bathroom, day nursery and night nursery- 
complete and self-contained — in which all new 
patients are kept for their first three weeks. 

A feature of the new Home will be an 
Observation Ward for border-line cases, that 
is, babies whose mentality is not strictly normal 
but appears capable of re-adjustment under 
careful treatment. The arrangements for 
this ward have not yet, however, been 

The top floor consists of nursing and 
domestic staff's bedrooms and bathrooms. 

The views from the Home over the garden 
are very lovely ; one, consisting of a spinney 
and pond, is very similar to a Court Grange 

In the garden the babies have plenty of 
lawn, also a " slope " and a " rough " (long 
grass), both of which they like. 

The vegetable garden is large and we 
should be entirely self-supporting. [Sup- 
porters of the Homes should be reminded that 
Matron is referring only to vegetables ! — Ed.] 

I hope if any readers of The New Beacon 
find themselves in our neighbourhood, they 
will come and see the Home. The babies 
like very much to take visitors around. 


THE National Institute for the 
Blind, with a view to the 
encouragement of literary 
ability amongst the blind, 
has decided o run a 
Literary Competition, open 
to the blind throughout the 

Competitors will be divided into two Classes , 
(a) Adults (over 18), (b) Juveniles (under 18), 
and prizes amounting in total to £45 will be 
awarded to the senders of 1) the best Lyric, 
(2) the best Essay, (3) the best Review of a 
Book, as follows ■ — 

CLASS A.ADUL TS ( Over 18). Pri. 




'Lyric £6 


2. Essay . . . . . . /ft 


3. Rev ew of a Book . . /6 



l - Lyric £ 4 


2 - £ ssay La 


3. Review of a Book . . £4 


Mr. Frank Whitaker, Acting Editor of the 
famous John o London's Weekly, who has 
exceptional experience in Literary Competi- 
tions of all kinds, has very kindly consented 
to act as Judge. 

The Rules for both Classes, A and B, are 
as follows : — 

(1) Lyrics may be on any subject or be in any 
metrical form, but should contain not less 
than 12 lines or more than 24 lines. 

(2) Essays may be on any subject, but should 
not exceed 1,000 words n length. 

(3) Reviews should not exceed 500 words in 
'ength and should be of any one of the 
following books : — 

For Class A Competitors : — " Inimitable 
Jeaves," by P. C. Wodehouse ; " Forti- 
tude," by Hugh Walpole ; and " The 
Key Above the Door," by M. Walsh. 
For Class B Competitors : — " Kim," by 
Rudyard Kipling ; " Typhoon," by 
Joseph Conrad ; and " The Three 
Hostages," by John Buchan. 




All these books are obtainable in Braille 
either on loan from the National Library 
for the Blind and other libraries or by 
purchase from the National Institute for 
the Blind. " The Key above the Door," 
by M. Walsh, is published by the Royal 
Blind Asylum and School, Craigmillar 
Park, Edinburgh. 

(4) Competitors can enter for one subject or 
all subjects in the Class to which their 
age entitles them to enter, but only one 
effort may be submitted in each subject. 

(5) Full name, age and postal address must 
be given at the head of the first page of 
the Lyric, Essay or Review submitted. 

(6) Entries may be handwritten, typewritten 
or in Braille, but great care should be 
taken to secure legibility and correctness 
of phraseology, spelling and punctuation. 
The lines of lyrics should not run on, 
either in script or in Braille, but each 
line should begin on a new line of writing. 

(7) All attempts must be in the English 
language, but the Competition is open to 
certified blind people of all nationalities. 

(8) Each attempt must be the unaided work 
of the competitor and no Lyric, Essay or 
Review which has been published in 
Braille or Letterpress may be submitted. 

(9) All entries should be addressed to the 
General Editor, " Literary Competition," 
National Institute for the Blind, 224, 
Great Portland Street, London, England. 

(10) All entries must reach this address by the 
30th June, 1931. 

(n) The National Institute for the Blind 
reserves the right of printing any entry 
in its own periodicals and of granting 
permission to reprint in other periodicals. 

National Braille Reading Competition. 

It is hoped that the Austin Memorial 
Reading Competition, of which we give details 
below, will attract many competitors, and that 
there will be a number of entrants. There 
are some competitions of too small intrinsic 
interest to offer anything to the unsuccessful 
candidate, but in the Reading Competition all 
who take part, whether prize winners or not, 
should come away with the sense of having 
enriched their minds by the reading of a 
passage of literary value, and of fellowship 
from having heard how it is interpreted by 
their fellow competitors. Especially we would 
like to emphasise that the Reading Competi- 
tion is not to be regarded as reserved only for 



the literary and the learned — anyone to whom 
reading gives pleasure is very warmly invited 
to take part. 

The Tenth Meeting of the E. W. Austin 
Memorial Reading Competition will be held 
at the National Library for the Blind, 
London, on Saturday, 14th March. 

Unseen passages will be read and prizes 
awarded for fluency, ease of diction, and 
general expression. Should the entries in any 
Class be very limited, prizes will only be 
awarded if merited. 


A. Advanced Readers, in competition for the 
" Blanesburgh " Cup. 

B. Other Readers. 


1. Children under 9 years of age. 

2. Those between the ages of 9 and 11. 

3. Those between the ages of 11 and 13. 

4. Those between the ages of 13 and 16. 
Competitors in Classes 1 and 2 to be allowed then- 
choice of reading Contracted or Unccntracted 

An Open Competition for the reading of 
unseen passages from Shakespeare will also be 
held. Everybody will be eligible to enter for 
this event, including all previous winners in 
any class. 

As the notice is rather short, intending 
competitors should send in their names to the 
Secretary, 35, Great Smith Street, West- 
minster, S.W.i, as early as possible, stating 
in which classes they wish to enter. 

The announcement of the Braille Reading 
Competition of the Northern Branch of the 
National Library for the Blind is on page 48. 

" Radio Adoption " Scheme. 

A correspondent seeks information on the 
subject of the " Radio adoption " of blind 
people. In his own city, for example, a 
Radio Association of wholesalers and retailers 
exists, and it has been suggested that each 
member shall " adopt " two or three blind 
people, with a view to giving them all possible 
assistance with their wireless sets, such as the 
provision of accessories, aid in the event ol 
break-downs and so forth. Our corres- 
pondent would be very glad to hear through 
The New Beacon if similar schemes are in 
force in other parts of the country, and to 
obtain details of experiences in running such 




" In no country have the rights of proprietorship ever been permitted to be absolute. 
In no country has an cuncr of property been permitted to apply it to every purpose, or 
'o dispose of it in every zvay that his uncontrolled pleasure might suggest. Alike on the 
mployment of property and on the alienation of property, restrictions have always been 
mposcd, as uell for the protection of other persons whom the proprietor's acts may directly 
iffect, as for the protection of the general interests of the State." C. S. Kenny. 

DURING the course of these 
articles we have dealt with 
the disposition and admin- 
istration of charitable 
endowments. It has been 
urged that we have no 
revolutionary changes to 
gest, but that the time is opportune for 
cting certain reforms which are much 

The State, calling to its aid the taxpayers 
the ratepayers, makes provision on an 
)le scale for maternity and child welfare, 
►lie health, unemployment, destitution, 
owhood and old age." These services 
e wont to be left to private benevolence, 
are now the very deep concern of the 
te. We may therefore claim to deal freely 
n those endowments that had for their 
;in services that are now provided by the 
te, and it is reasonable to assume that old 
uests may be applied properly to other and 
haps allied objects which may be in 
mony with the intention of the founders, 
n attempting this, we have behind us the 
duable experience of the Charity Com- 
sioners and the teachings of social science, 
know the tendency of various forms of 
rity and can proceed accordingly, not 
iming, however, any infallibility, but with 
consciousness that the wisdom of some of 
own social experiments may not impress 
If on a later age. Professor W. K. Clifford 
erves : " There are no self-regarding 
ues properly so called ; those qualities 
ch tend to the advantage and preservation 
he individual are only morally right in so 
as they make him a more useful citizen." 
"he first step towards reform, which of 
essity will require legislation, is to deal 
1 certain charitable endowments, of which 
ley doles are the outstanding and most 
nicious example. In view of the scope of 
social services, many of these grants 

could and should be made illegal. As regards 
other forms of endowment, the first consider- 
ation should be the public benefit. Although 
some recent cases may appear to go as far as 
this, yet without legislation it is difficult for 
the Court of Chancery to free itself from a 
mass of old decisions which bind it to accept 
as charitable, endowments that would to-day 
be regarded as both unnecessary and un- 

It frequently happens that original Trusts 
fail to frame new schemes under the Cy Frees 
rule, so as to provide for the application of the 
income of the charity to purposes as similar as 
is practicable to the original objects. It 
should be observed also that schemes made 
by the Charity Commissioners are subject to 
the same limitations, and the last named 
body rarely propounds new schemes unless 
something outrageous is being done by the 
administrators of the original Trust. 

We have already stressed the point that even 
the most prudent and far-seeing founder of a 
century ago could never have anticipated and 
provided for the social developments of the 
present day. There are those in the com- 
munity who would have us believe that there 
is something necessarily impious in the 
attitude which proposes to deal with the 
dispositions of old foundations ; but the self- 
same State which confers the right to make 
such dispositions has always reserved to itself 
power to alter, amend, control or modify them 
and even to appropriate for relative or other 
purposes either the whole or part of such 

It is not necessary to seek confirmation of 
such a conclusion by reference to innumerable 
examples supplied by the Middle Ages. 
Sufficient evidence can be provided by events 
witnessed during the nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries, notably the far-reaching reforms of 
the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
beginning in 1854. 



By the Endowed Schools Act, 1869, the 
income of an endowed charity applicable for 
doles, marriage portions, redemption of 
captives, release of poor prisoners for debt, 
loans, apprenticeship fees, advancement in 
life, or for divers purposes which have failed 
altogether or have become obsolete or 
insignificant in comparison with the endow- 
ment, if originally given for charitable objects 
or usages in or before 1800, all such bene- 
factions were appropriated for general 
educational purposes. 

Yet again, the Allotments Extension Act, 
1882, authorised the letting as allotments of 
land held for the benefit of the poor, if the 
existing Trust was for the payment of doles. 

Mr. Courtney Kenny says : " We may con- 
clude, then, that the recognised principles of 
legislation will afford us ample warrant for any 
restrictions upon charitable gifts that experi- 
ence may show to be desirable. If need be, 
we shall be justified in prohibiting them ; or 
in accepting them, but forbidding the founder 
to fix the nature of the charity, so that the 
State may apply the property to fresh uses, 
either at once or when the lapse of time 

Under the powers of the London Parochial 
Charities Act, 1883, an important and 
drastic revision of the London parochial 
charities was carried out by the Charity 
Commissioners. This Act might properly 
form a precedent for legislation leading to a 
general revision of endowments. It provided 
that the Commissioners should have authority 
to exercise, without application, any of the 
powers vested in them by the Charitable 
Trusts Act, 1853, and the Acts amending the 
same, thereby conferring on them power to 
make new schemes on their own initiative. 

As we have indicated elsewhere, this latter 
provision is all-important because it vests 
with the Charity Commissioners power and 
initiative that is so frequently needed in 
order to enable endowments to be utilised for 
constructive and beneficent purposes. 

The Charitable Trusts Act, 1914, provides 
that schemes may be made, extending the 
area of a charity restricted to a municipal 
borough or to any parish or defined area 
therein. Further, if such charity is what is 
termed a " Dole Charity," then its funds 
shall be applicable for the relief of distress or 
sickness, or for improving, by such means as 
may be provided in the scheme, the physical, 


social or moral condition of the poor in the 
area as extended. 

In addition to these public Acts, there have 
been numerous private enactments altering 
the terms of the original foundation, or 
confirming schemes of the Charity Commis- 
sioners made in excess of the powers conferred 
on them by the Charitable Trusts Acts ; in 
particular schemes modifying, in a manner 
absolutely contrary to the founder's intentions, 
the doctrines attached to certain Noncon- 
formist endowments. In like manner, in the 
year .1912, a fund given by a testator for the 
purpose of a museum was appropriated for a 
Town Hall, and in the following year £5,000 
was taken from a charity founded in the 
1 6th century for the benefit of " The Poorer 
Sort of Clothworkers," and given to the 
London City and Guilds Engineering College. 

It is important to observe that the legisla- 
ture has evinced little consideration for the 
intentions of founders in particular cases, and 
when the Charity Commissioners have had an 
opportunity of applying the Cy Prces doctrine, 
they have followed the same example. 

A charity of which, under a recent scheme 
of the Commissioners, the income is applicable 
for the objects of the local council of social 
welfare, for education, convalescent treatment, 
open spaces, advancement in life, and 
emigration, was established 37 years ago for 
the purpose of conducting a soup kitchen. 

" The principle of endowment is really 
protected, and the creation of endowments 
stimulated by saving them from mistake, 
misuse and disuse, and therefore from 

It will therefore be obvious that there is no 
lack of precedent for adapting charitable 
endowments to the requirements of the day 
without reference to the original Foundation. 
" Private respects must yield to public good." 

Writing in this connection, Mr. H. F. 
Brown. LL.B., Vice-President, Chester 
Council of Social Welfare, says : " Is it not 
time, therefore, for legislation of a general 
character under which the position of all 
endowed charities should be reviewed from 
time to time, and those that are not in accord- 
ance with the requirements of the day be 
adapted to them. In doing this we should 
often approach far more closely to the 
intention of the founders than by a blind 
adherence to the letter of the foundation. 
In preserving the letter, the spirit has often 
been lost." 


Alderman Henry Smith of the City oi 
London was probably a shrewd business man, 
but again to quote Mr. Brown : " He is now 
regarded as a public nuisance." Between 
1620-1627, he made certain modest bene- 
factions, well conceived according to the 
knowledge of his day, for the benefit of the 
poor and of his own poor relations. His 
charity has become " one of the scandals of 
endowment." The Charity Commissioners 
have said that it ought to be declared illegal 
and the endowment taken for some useful 
national purpose. Can it be alleged that we 
are carrying out the founder's intentions when 
we allow £6,000 a year to be competed for by 
a crowd of so-called relations, not one of 
whom is nearer than the seventh generation ? 
Or similarly, an annual distribution in 209 
different parishes of thousands of money 
doles ? Or is it to be supposed that the rich 
burgher of the sixteenth century who endeav- 
oured to help his poor brethren would have 
been charitably disposed to the freemen of the 
twentieth century who now enjoy his bounty ? 
The freemen on whom the benefactions were 
originally conferred were the citizens of the 
ancient boroughs. They possessed great 
privileges, but they had also onerous and 
expensive duties to discharge. 

Without unduly labouring the case for 
reform, we merely desire to say that when the 
question of charitable endowments is being 
considered, regard should be paid to the 
schemes of great philanthropists, such as 
those of the late Andrew Carnegie and J. D. 
Rockefeller, men who have made endowments 
running into tens of millions of pounds. 
Fully alive to their responsibilities and calling 
to their assistance the best advice procurable, 
such elasticity has been given to the adminis- 
trative provisions as to render the endowments 
capable of application to almost every pressing 
need. The first thing noticeable is that the 
term " for ever," so common in old founda- 
tions, is never employed in the new schemes. 
They express their acceptance of the fact that 
the conditions of the earth inevitably change, 
and provide accordingly. Free from hampering 
conditions, the foundations are adapted to the 
changing needs of future generations, and if 
this fundamental conception were made to 
be the guiding consideration in all charitable 
endowments, we would have little to fear 
from present or future administration of 
such Trusts. 

(To he continued.) 


To the Editor. 

" Safety First." 

Sir, — During the summer of last year a 
movement was set on foot in the Manchester 
and Salford district to promote the use of 
white walking sticks by blind pedestrians. 
During the Autumn a " Safety First " 
Committee was formed to advertise the idea, 
and to consider further suggestions. 

Speaking for myself, I was very reluctant 
to label myself by using a white stick ; but 
after more than three months' constant use, 
I can honestly say that the extra security and 
comfort on the road are well worth any small 
sacrifice of pride involved. 

Yours, etc., 

John Allcock, 


To the Editor. 

Shall We Form a Braille Esperanto Group ? 

Sir, — Lessons now appearing in Braille 
journals are attracting to Esperanto the atten- 
tion of many readers old and young, and they 
will soon be asking : " What are we to do 
with the language now that we have learnt it ?" 
The answer must vary, of course, according 
to the taste and circumstances of each 
individual, but it must always be kept in 
mind that Esperanto aims at being a key to 
unlock the hearts of men with whom we 
could not communicate without it. It is not 
a thing to study in seclusion ; from the very 
beginning we should use it to make friends 
and generally to widen our outlook upon life. 

Among seeing Esperantists, groups have 
arisen'in a vast number of towns throughout 
the world, the local group being usually 
affiliated to a national society, and these 
societies being linked together by the Inter- 
national Central Committee and the Universal 
Esperanto Association, of Geneva. Blind 
Esperantists, too, have their national Esper- 
anto societies in Czecho- Slovakia, Finland, 
France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, etc., 
where they have done much to promote the 
study and use of the language. 

We, too, have our Universal Association of 
Blind Esperantists, with its consuls in about 
thirty countries. 

In Great Britain we badly need a Society of 
Braille Esperantists to unite our resources of 
time and knowledge. Its work might include 



the introduction of new Esperantists to those 
who have gained experience in its use, and to 
seeing Esperantists or Esperanto groups in 
their neighbourhood ; the provision of more 
literature in Braille, both to increase the 
collection in the National Library and to 
furnish individual members with items needed 
for teaching or for use in group meetings ; 
helping members to obtain special information 
from abroad, or to supply that which their 
correspondents ask for, and to keep them in 

close touch with the movement in all parts 
of the world. 

As a first step in the formation of such a 
group, I should be glad if all who are interested 
would write to me briefly in Braille, giving 
their address and some indication either of 
the help they could give in working it, or the 
help they themselves might require. 
Yours, etc., 

W. Percy Merrick. 
Penso, Shepperton, Middlesex. 



Follozving is a " talk " broadcast by Miss Mary Paget on the zyd January, 
and reprinted by courtesy of " The Radio Times." 

NOT all of us can emulate the 
wonderful exploits of Henry 
F a w c e 1 1 , P o s t m a s t e r - 
General half a century ago. 
Blinded in early manhood, 
like so many of our soldiers, 
he at once determined to 
give up none of the pursuits he had followed 
before the accident which had blinded him. 
So he went on skating, fishing, rowing, and 
riding, in addition to all his Parliamentary 
work and other mental activities. But for 
everybody, and especially the blind, the daily 
walk in all weathers is essential. 

There is a yet more important form of 
exercise which we cannot safely neglect — 
mental exercise. I doubt if any people have 
such opportunities for this happy exercise as 
blind people. We have perforce to think out 
every new place, every new voice, and the 
touch of everything we come across. Now, 
for this interesting daily exercise, total 
blindness is better than mere bad sight. The 
blind develop new senses, just as the plant 
that has been cut back sprouts new buds. 
Take, for instance, the sense of direction and 
obstacle. The amazing power of carrier 
pigeons to find their way home from almost 
any distance is quite beyond us. But not so 
unattainable are the achievements of a blind 
friend of mine, who walks all about London 
by himself. He says he can detect the presence 
of a lamp post by a slight alteration in the 
sound of the traffic. 

A very subtle new sense is suggested by the 
experience of Helen Keller, who was not only 
blind but deaf. It may be called the sense of 



vibration. She could enjoy Niagara through 
the quickened vibrations of the air in its 
neighbourhood. She could also enjoy a fine 
song by feeling the throat of the singer. She 
even went so far as to feel the throats of lions 
and other wild animals, to find out what 
roaring was like. We, who are slowly feeling 
our way through an atmosphere more 
crowded with vibrations than the Strand is 
with vehicles, must feel this sense to be one 
worth cultivating. 

There still remains one sense — the king of 
all the senses — imagination. It has been 
said that we English have first-rate hearts, 
second-rate brains, and third-rate imagin- 
ations. This cannot apply to the blind, for 
one of our greatest advantages is our special 
power of imagination and inward vision. I 
will boldly say that no one understands the 
real refreshment of the country as those who 
cannot see it. Just as the whiteness of light is 
composed of many lovely colours, so the 
silence of darkness in the country is composed 
of many lovely sounds. I never fully realized 
this before I was blind. Now, with the 
heightened sense of hearing that comes from 
loss of sight, I can hardly imagine a greater 
joy than that of listening to that wonderful 
living silence. 

Unfortunately, there are many people who 
get very little opportunity of real fresh air. 
But, just as there are two kinds of exercise, 
physical and mental, so there are two kinds of 
fresh air. Stuffy rooms are bad enough, 
especially for invalids of any kind, but stuffy 
minds are worse. I suppose blind people may 
be specially tempted to that sort of stuffiness. 
Do you remember the description in Ibsen's 


" Peer Gynt " of the poor neurasthenics whom 
he went to visit ? " These poor people are, I 
suppose, beside themselves ? " says Peer 
Gynt. " Oh, no," says his guide ; " they are 
not beside themselves— they are inside them- 
selves." We must, of course, take great care 
not to keep inside ourselves, and here is the 
danger for us, of worry and depression. This 
is where wireless comes to our rescue. It is 
not for nothing that the daily service comes 
just before the daily worry, or that, when we 
begin to get inside ourselves, we can switch 
on — well, anything. 

Of course, too, there are innumerable 
diversions to take blind people out of them- 
selves. To all that Braille opens to us of 
reading, writing, and music are now added 
cards, chess, draughts, and even cross-word 
and jig-saw puzzles. But, of course, the best 

way of getting outside ourselves is to try and 
help other people. Doing things for other 
people is an investment in happiness. More- 
over, it is, for blind people, only common 
honesty — the repayment of the big debt they 
owe to others, for everybody is kind to us. 

One advantage of blindness still remains. 
It may be more modest if we say opportunity 
of advantage, yet it is certainly the greatest of 
all. All people with disabilities, whether 
blindness, deafness, lameness or what not, 
learn very early that the way to realize their 
opportunities begins only when they have 
realized their limitations. While we struggle 
against these, we are only losing time and 
mental energy needed for better things. This 
does not mean resignation so much as 
co-operation, not giving in to, but working in 
with, our disability. 



HE Blind Persons Act was 
passed prior to the Irish 
Free State (Agreement) Act 
of 1922, and has not been 
superseded ; the legal 
position of the blind in 
Ireland, therefore, is similar 
to that in England. But there has been up 
to noyv no voluntary system of blind welfare 
in the Free State, and consequently no 
organisation at work to watch the interests of 
the blind and to ensure the fullest advantage 
being taken of the benefits implicit in the 

Very briefly the position in Ireland may be 
summed up as follows : — 

1. Education. Education is compulsory for 
all children in the Free State, and the blind 
child is therefore in theory at least, included. 
But unless school attendance is very rigidly 
enforced, the fact that there are only two 
schools in the Free State and that both are in 
Dublin, makes it very doubtful whether 
parents in remote country districts are always 
prevailed upon to agree to the prolonged 
separation from their blind children that 
education in a distant Institution would entail. 

2. Training. Industrial training is provided 
under the schemes for the welfare of the 
blind adopted by local authorities, but here 
again facilities appear to be very limited, and 
there is of course no question of compulsion 

3. Employ mint. There are four workshops, 
but as three of these are in Dublin one cannot 
help questioning once more whether blind 
persons in country districts find their way to 
them. There is no Home Workers' Scheme. 

4. Cave of Unemployable*. Grants at 
varying rates are made to the necessitous and 
unemployable blind by the local authorities, 
but the maximum allowed in most counties 
is lower than the Old xAge Pension. There is 
no scheme for the Home Visiting and Home 
Teaching of the blind. 

For some time past the condition of the 
blind in Ireland has been a matter of special 
interest and concern to Miss Armitage, whose 
father, Dr. Armitage, founder of the National 
Institute for the Blind, spent much of his 
life in Ireland and had many ties and interests 
there. Miss Armitage has given much time 
for several months to arousing interest in the 
question, and on the 20th of January she 
convened a small private meeting in Dublin 
to consider the subject. The chair was taken 
by Dr. T. G. Moorhead, and Mr. W. McG. 
Eagar, Secretary- General of the National 
Institute for the Blind, attended in an 
advisory capacity. 

Miss Armitage gave a short summary ol the 
position of the blind in the Free State, and 
emphasised the importance, if an improve- 
ment in their condition is to be secured, of 
adequate registration, the establishment of a 




Home Visiting service, and the appointment 
of a Committee to co-ordinate work for the 
blind through the Free State, supplying 
technical assistance when required, and 
encouraging new developments. With regard 
to Home Visiting she was able to report the 
most mportant and hopeful fact that 
the Society of St. Vincent de Paul is prepared 
to give help in places where branches of the 
Society exist, and has indeed already begun 
by visiting the blind in the Dublin area. 

It was decided at the meeting to set up a 
provisional Committee to collect information, 
to confer with the Institutions already at work, 
and to explore the possibilities generally. 
By means of the Blind Pension, grants to 
workshops, and institutions, and assistance 
for the unemployable blind, something has 
been done to relieve the most pressing 
material needs of the blind in Ireland ; it will 
be the duty of the newly formed Committee 
to set on foot a movement that will secure to 
every blind person in the Free State means of 
leading a fuller life, with greater opportunities 
for mental and social development. 

Northern Counties Institute for the Blind 
Report for 1930. 

The Committee are much pleased with the 
satisfactory state of the finances of the 
Institute. The general charity account shows 
a credit balance of £323 and the turnover in 
the Industrial department has increased by 
£479 in the last year. In order to deepen 
public interest in the work of the Institute, 
5,000 copies of an illustrated booklet des- 
cribing the work in various departments were 
circulated in the district together with a 
pamphlet by an eminent Eye Specialist on 
" The Care of the Eyes." 

Buckinghamshire Association for the Blind. 

There has been a substantial increase in 
subscriptions this year which is very satis- 
factory. Great assistance has been lent to the 
Association by the Bucks County Council this 
year and the Association welcome the fact 
that they will now be under the guidance of 
this Council and their medical officer, Dr. 
Holden, who is very interested in work for the 


Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society. 

The Report for 1929-30 is a record of many 
friendly services to the blind, in addition to 
the giving of relief in sickness and the 
almonising of weekly grants to the necessi- 
tous. There are now eighteen centres in 
Manchester for the carrying on of pastime 
occupations and for social gatherings, and 
those who realise what lonely lives are often 
led by the elderly blind in the poorest streets 
of a great city can appreciate what the warmth 
and friendliness and good comradeship of 
such centres must mean to them, and how 
valuable is the work done. 

Walsall Society for the Blind. 

The Society has started coal-bag making 
as a new industry. An important exhibition 
of blind work was recently held in the Town 
Hall, kindly lent for the occasion, and 
valuable help was rendered by Rotarians, 
Guides, Scouts, and others. 



Royal Midland Institution for the Blind. 

The 86th Annual Report shows that there 
are 165 pupils and workers in the care of the 
Institution, employed chiefly in basket-, 
brush-, and mat-making, and in boot repair- 
ing, while there are over 1,400 persons on the 
Home Teaching and Visiting Register, 
together with 80 Home Workers. The 
Report is brief, and very largely made up of 
statistical detail, but the photographs which 
illustrate it helps to introduce a more informal 
note ; the group of men listening-in in the 
garden, the boys in the gymnasium, and the 
Girl Guides with their trophy won at a 
Smgine Festival, give a pleasant suggestion 
of happy community life. 


British " Wireless for the Blind " Fund in the 
Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties. 

The distribution of crystal sets is mainly 
complete. Volunteers are wanted all over the 
area, especially in rural districts — experts who 
will undertake installation and permanent 
care, and friends who will undertake the cost 
of maintenance (when it is not given free), 
for individual blind neighbours. Many 


Local Societies have already gone to consider- 
able expense in supplementing this Voluntary 
help. The Essex County Association for the 
Blind has just set aside a sum of £y$ to form 
a fund for the purpose. 

Essex County Association for the Blind. 

The Essex County Association for the 
Blind has arranged to make from its voluntary 
funds a special grant of £1 for coal to every 
blind person who is in receipt of a regular 
allowance either from its own funds, from 
Pension or other Charities which it almonises, 
or from the County Council grant to the 
necessitious unemployable blind. 

Southampton Association for the Welfare of 
the Blind. 

A new Local Association has been formed 
to serve the Southampton County Borough 
Council — the Southampton Association for 
the Welfare of the Blind, Hon. Secretary : 
Miss Hilda M. L. Day ; General Secretary : 
A. H. Hooley, Esq., Municipal Offices, High 
Street, Southampton. (Telephone 2539.) 

Midland Counties Conference. 

A Conference of Local Authorities and 
Members of Voluntary Agencies for the Blind 
for the Midland Counties will be held on 
March 19th, and 20th, 1931, at the Birming- 
ham Royal Institution for the Blind, 
Fdgbaston, Birmingham. 

Papers will be read on the Subjects of 
Registration and Statistics and of Services 
for the Unemployable Blind. 

All inquiries should be addressed to the 
Hon. Secretary, Miss B. Urmson, 23, 
Leckford Road, Oxford. 

Dates of Forthcoming Meetings. 

February 19th, 1931 : Northern Counties 
Association, Sub- Committee on the Men- 
tally Defective and Sub-Normal Blind. 

February 26th, 193 1 : Northern Counties 
Association, Executive Committee. 

March 2nd to March 27th, 193 1 : Northern 
Counties Association's Home Teachers 
Training Course, Leeds Institution. 

March 16 to 27th, 193 1 : Northern Counties 
Association's Home Teachers' Refresher 
Course, Leeds Institution. 

April 22nd, 193 1 : Northern Counties Associ- 
ation's Home Teachers Conference, Milton 
Hall, Manchester. 


"Moon Made Easy." 

A very useful publication has just been 
issued by the Moon Society for the Blind. 
" Moon Made Easy " will be invaluable to 
those interested in teaching the Moon System. 
It has been prepared by a very experienced 
teacher, Miss Hilda Bradfield, the winner of 
numerous prizes, under the approval of the 
College of Teachers of the Blind, and will 
meet a long felt want among teachers of a set 
of graduated lessons for use in home teaching. 
The publication consists of an inkprint leaflet 
of Suggestions to Teachers, a folded Alphabet 
Card with contractions, numerals, etc., a small 
Finger Exercise Card, a set of ten separate 
sheets of Graduated Exercises, and a Wide 
Line Reader. The set is contained in a stout 
envelope, measuring 12x9, and is issued at 
the specially reduced price of one shilling per 
copy. For convenience of replacement each 
of the contents has been separately priced, 
and any quantities of individual sheets or 
cards will be supplied on request. 


John Young, on November 25th, 1930, in 
his 89th year. For many years (1877-1915), 
Mr. Young was Director of the Tunkig 
Department and Technical Master of the 
Royal Normal College, Upper Norwood, and 
past students will remember his devotion to 
their service, and his great interest in the 
Education of the Blind — an interest fully 
maintained to the time of his death. He 
followed closely the details of all new educa- 
tional movements, and never lost the enthusi- 
asm for the cause with which he had for so 
long been associated. 

George Buchanan, on January 24th, in 
his 82nd year. He was the first superin- 
tendent of the Oldham Industries for the 
Blind Workshop and was selected as super- 
intendent of the new workshops. He had 
made arrangements to retire in March. He 
has been described as one of the dearest 
and most valued friends of the blind of 





Abercynon Blind Musician. 

Mr. John Hughes, the blind son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Jam^s Hughes, Abercynon, has obtained 
a licentiateship diploma of the Royal Academy 
of Music. He was a pupil at the Swansea 
Blind Institute, and was taught by Miss 
Nellie Owen, L.R.A.M., who is also blind. 

Three Musical Successes. 

Three students of the music department of 
Henshaw's Institution for the Blind have 
succeeded in passing with honours the 
Trinity College (London) Local Examination 
(senior division). 

They are : Gladys Clowes Powell, Horace 
Raymond Driver, and Edward Alan Hayton. 

Successes of Royal Normal College Pupils. 

The following results are announced :— 
Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board School 
Certificate Examination : Margaret Brand, 
Joan Hewlett, Lilian Smith ; all gained 
Credit in all subjects. 

Associated Board, Local Centre Examin- 
ations : Singing (Advanced) : Winifred 
Ambler, Ruth Jones (Hon. Mention), 
Beatrice Silk (Hon. Mention). 

Piano (Advanced) : Rebecca Haber, Lilian 
Ripley (Hon. Mention), Violet Wallace. 

"School" Examination, Higher Division: 
Piano Frederick House (Distinction), Ruth 
Jones, Doris Rabjohns (Hon. Mention). 

Shorthand and Typewriting Successes. 

Ida Beighton, a student of the Royal Normal 
College for the Blind, Upper Norwood, who 
sat for the London Chamber of Commerce 
Senior Typewriting Examination in November 
last, has passed this examination with dis- 
tinction, and has also been awarded the 
Chamber's Second Prize in this subject. 

News has just been received that three 
more successes with distinction in each case, 
have been gained in this body's Shorthand 
Examination by blind girls — all trained at the 
Royal Normal College : Agnes Swift at 130 
words per minute, Ida Beighton at 120 words 
per minute, and Hilda Fowler at no words 
per minute. 



Blind Typist Aged 81. 

Miss Wakefield, aged 81, an inmate of the 
Belfast Home for the Blind, has learned the 
typewriter. She now types letters for many 
of her friends at that institution. 

A Musical Commercial Traveller. 

Mr. Tommy Foster, the blind Cumberland 
organist, has just celebrated 21 years as 
organist at Causewayhead Church, Silloth. 

He is a good tenor vocalist, and in addition 
to his duties as organist he assists the choir. 
He knows the hymns by the numbers, the 
respective psalms set for the days of the 
month, and he carries out his task by memory. 

He is a traveller in tea, perfumes, soaps, and 
stationery, and over an area of 15 miles he 
knows every lane, road, house and gate. 

Blind Ex-M.P. Passes Bar Final. 

Capt. Ian Fraser, the former M.P. for St. 
Pancras, who was blinded in the war, has 
passed the final examinations qualifying him 
to be called as a barrister. He has been a 
student of the Inner Temple. 

Capt. Fraser, who is chairman of St. 
Dunstan's, sat for St. Pancras North as a 
Conservative from 1924 to 1929, and is a 
former member of the London County 
Council. In reading for the examinations, he 
used Braille for notes occasionally, but the 
bulk of the work was read to him by his 
secretary. He proposes to stand for Parlia- 
ment at the next election, but he has not yet 
decided whether he will practice in any 
branch of the law. 

Blind Athletes. 

Eighteen war-blinded men of St. Dunstan's 
took part in the annual nine miles road walk, 
held last month, over three laps of the outer 
Circle in Regent's Park. 

In the totally-blinded section the winner 
of the scratch race was P. Holmes (Bedfords) 
who covered the distance in 1 hr. 29 min. 
n sec, thus making a big improvement on 
his last performance two years ago, when he 
finished seventh. 

A. Brown (Cheshires) again won the scratch 
medal in the semi-sighted section, thus adding 
to his remarkable sequence of successes in the 
series of races held each year in Regent's 
Park — he has finished first in every race in 
which he has taken part during the past five 
years . 




The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copy. 

I ojoice, O Judah, Bass Air, 
Judas Maccabaeus." D A, 


Hallelujah, Amen, Chorus, 
Judas Maccabaeus," V.S. ... 

— E 1 

10.561 Handel 


10.562 Lyon, J. Sonata No. 1, in C minor ... 

10.563 Mansfield, P. J. Concert Overture in F 

10.564 Rowley, Alec. Andante Religioso 

10.565 Sowerbutts, J. A. Caprice in D. flat ... 

10.566 Bsethoven. Two Bagatelles (1,797) ... 
Debussy. Hommage a Rameau 
Isaacs, Edward. Two Caprice-Etudes 

(" Romanza " and " Hunting Song") 
Jenkins, Cyril. O, what a Chatterbox ' 

10,570 Moffat, Alfred (arr. by). Old English 

Harpsichord Dances, Book 2 
Rayners, Cecil. Goblin Shadows (Danse 

Widor. Marche Ecossaise 







Donaldson, W. Little White Lies, 

Song Fox-Trot ... ... ... 2 

10.574 Gay, N. and Graham, H. The King's 

Horses, Song Fox-Trot ... ... 2 

10.575 Nicholls, H. Say a Little Prayer for Me, 

Song Fox-Trot ... ... ... 2 

10.576 Young, A. He's my Secret Passion 

(from " Children of Chance "), Song 

Fox-Trot 2 


10.577 Brown, Hubert. Hymn on the Nativity 

G minor ; C — F 1 ... ... ... 2 

10.578 Duncan-Rubbra, E. Rune of Hospit- 

ality, G minor ; E — D 1 ... ... 2 

10.579 Dyson, George. A Poet's Hymn 

(Unison Song) ... ... ... 2 

10.580 Green hill, Harold. A Song of Weathers, 

E fiat; D— F* 2 

10.581 Handel. Weep no more, from " Her- 

cules," E flat ; E— F 1 2 

10.582 Harrison, Julius. Marching Along, 

D minor ; C sharp — F 1 ... ... 2 

10.583 Trew, Arthur. Guides' Song of Service, 

E fiat ; E— F 1 2 

10.584 Watts, Wintter. The Little Shepherd's 

Song, C ; G — B 1 flat 2 

10.585 White, M. V. To Mary, A flat ; E— F 1 2 

10.586 Williams, Vaughan. Hugh's Song of the 

Road, from " Hugh, the Drover," 
F minor : E flat — A 1 natural ... 2 ft 


10.587 Parker, K. (arr. by). The Old Folks 

at Home (Soprano and Tenon ... 2 


The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire 

Per vol. 
9,513-9,519 Garden of Allah, The, by Robert s. d 

Hie hens. Grade 2, Large size, 

InterDointed, Paper Covers. 7 vols. 

F.446 6 3 

9,501-9,503 Lane that Had No Turning, The, 

by Sir Gilbert Parker. Grade 2, 

Large size, Interpointed , Paper 

Covers. 3 vols. F.199 6 6 

9,504-9,506 Return, The, by Walter de la Mare. 

Grade 2. Large si/e, Interpointed. 

Paper Covers. 3 vols. F.185 ... 6 3 


The prices of the following publications are subject 

to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 

the British Isles and throughout the British Empire 

Per vol. 
3,022-3,026 The Hundred Day. by Max s. d. 

Pemberton. ii vols. iLimited Edition) 12 
3.043 3rd Series of 24 Hymns in Loose sheets. 

Per Hymn Id. 2/3rds Discount is 

allowed on 1 dozen or more. 




George Herbert, by Izaak Walton 

Kaiser Wilhelm II, by E. Ludvvig 


Cook, A. M. and Marchant, E. C. Latin passages 
for Unseen Translation 

Lavington, T. English Capital Market 

Findlay, J. J. The School : 


Massingham, H. W. Pre-Roman Britain 


Griffith, D. M. Constitution Law and Legal 
History ... ... ... ... ... ... '. 


Anthologie, Poetes d'Aujourd'hui ... ... ! 

Bashkirtseff, Marie ■ Journal de 

Moliere, Ecole des Mari", ... 

Eucken, R. Main Currents of Modern Thought 

Farquahar, G. The Beaux Stratagem .. . ... S 

Maugham, Somerset. The Breadwinner 

Arnold, Sir T. The Islamic Faith 

Kent, C. Foster. History of the Jewish People. 
During Babylonian , Persian and Greek Periods '. 




Attenborough, G. M. The Rich Young Man ... 
Birmingham, G. A. The Major's Candlesticks ... 
Brostcr, D. K. and E. W. Taylor. Chantemerle 
Dinuis, Enid. Shepherd of Weepingwold 
Eden, Hon. Emily. The Semi attached couple 
Fevel, P. and M. Lasse;-. Martyr to the Queen ; 

Adventures of D'Artagnan and Cyrano de 

Bergerac ... 
" Gentleman with a Duster.' The Great World 

Gibbs, Sir P. The Hidden City 

Hichens, R. On the Screen 

Keverne, R. The Havering Plot 

Kipling, Rudyard (Editor). Thy Servant a Dog 

(Told by Boots) 

Lucas, St. John. Heroines and Others 

Luck, Peter. The Transome Murder Mystery... 

Morley, F. V. East South East 

Mottram, R. H. The English Miss 

Page, Gertrude. Two Lovers and a Lighthouse 




Rohmer, Sax. Yellow Shadows ... ... 3 

Sabatini, R. The Romantic Prince ... ... 6 

Thomas, Basil. Carfax Abbey ... ... ... 3 

Van Dine, S. S. Greene Murder Case ... ... 5 

Wilder, Thornton. Woman of Andros ... ... I 


Affirmation Series : 

Kennedy, G. A. Studdert. Environment ... 1 

MacKenna, R. W. Problem of Pain... ... 1 

Milne, A. A. Ascent of Man ... ... ... 1 

Woolley, G. H. Fear and Religion ... ... 1 

Barton, Bruce. The Book nobody knows ... 3 

Clayton, P. B. Plain Tales from Flanders ... 2 
Creston, Dormer. Andromeda in Wimpole 
Street. (Romance of Elizabeth Barrett 

Browning) ... ... ... ... ... A 

Harrison, Ada. Christina of Sweden. (Repre- 
sentative Women Series) ... ... ... i 

Herbertson, A. J. and O. J. R. Howarth (Editors) 
Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. VI . 

(E. W. Austin Memorial) 7 

Shillito, E. Lamplighters of Old I 

Wright, W. P. and E. j. Castle First Steps in 

Gardening ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Willoughby, Barrett. Gentlemen Unafraid ... 3 

Brazil Angela. Loyal to the School ... ... 4 

Bra?.il, Angela. Princess of the School ... 3 

Strang, H. and R. Stead. Lion-heart ... ... 2 


Maeterlinck, M. !.a vie des abeilles ... ... 7 


Barclay, Florence. Broker. Halo ... ... 7 


The Annual Braille Reading Competition of the 
Northern Branch of the National Library for the Blind. 
5, St. John Street, Manchester, will be held on Saturday. 
14th March, 1031. 

The Competitors will be divided into the following 
classes and candidates will be asked to read unprepared 
passages : — 

Class 1. Adults (used to reading aloud). 

Class 2. Adults (not used to reading aloud). 

Class 3. Juniors, from 16 to 21 years of age. 

Class 4. Juniors, under 16 years of age. 

Two prizes will be awarded in each class. 

Intending competitors wishing to take part must 
send in their names, stating in which class they wish 
to enter, to the Secretary, National Library for the 
Blind, 5, St. John Street, Manchester, before" Tuesday, 
3rd March, 1931. 


The next examination for the School Teachers' 
Certificate v/ill be held on 19th and 20th May, 1931, at 
the School for the Blind, Swiss Cottage, London, N.W.3, 
and for the Home Teachers' Certificate on 5th, 6th and 
7th May, 1931, at the School for the Blind, Swiss 
Cottage, London, N.W.3, and at the School for the 
Blind, Wavertree, Liverpool. Forms of application 
can be obtained from the Honorary Registrar, 224-6-8, 
Great Portland Street, London, W.l, and must be 
returned not later than 18th April in the case of the 
former and 23rd March in the case of the latter. 

The Competition for the E. D. Macgregor Prize will 
be held on the 7th May, 1931, at the School for the 
Blind, Swiss Cottage, London, N.W.3, and the School 
for the Blind, Wavertree, Liverpool. Application 
should be made to the Hon. Registrar, 224-6-8, Great 
Portland Street, London. W.L not later than 23rd 
March, 1931. 

CANDIDATES loi the 'Julv Examinations for 
ORGANISTS will note that the subject set for the 
Essay in the paper work test will be John Masefield's 
" William Shakespeare." This is published by the 
N.I.B. in two volumes (6,687-6,688), 6/- per volume, 
less the usual two-thirds discount. 


The next Examination for Gardner's Trust Scholar- 
ships of the annual value of £40, tenable at the Royal 
Normal College for the Blind, Upper Norwood, S.E.19, 
will be held on Saturday, 7th March, and Monday, 
9th March. Candidates must have reached the age of 
sixteen on or before the date of the Examination, must 
have resided in England or Wales for the last five years 
and be intending to remain so resident. Application 
should be made to the Principal on or before Saturday, 
21st February, and the forms, properly filled in and 
completed, returned to the College on or before 
Saturday. 28th February, or the Candidate's name will 
not be placed on the list. 



" Sunette," fine cylinder, with pressing boards and 
winder, perfect condition. Any reasonable offer 
accepted. 40, Irving Place, Blackburn, Lanes. 


Salary £156 per annum, if certificated and experienced 
£130 if uncertificated. Apply stating age and qualifi- 
cations, enclosing copies of three recent testimonials, 
not later than February 28th, to : The Secretary, 
Northamptonshire (Town and County) Association for 
the Blind, Gray Street, Northampton. 

ROOM MISTRESS— successful Applicant will be 
required to take full charge of Trainees and Journey- 
women engaged in Round and Flat Machine Knitting- 
Chair Caning — Light Basket Making — Weaving, etc 
Applications stating age, experience and qualifications 
with copies of two recent testimonials should be 
addressed to the Secretary, The Norwich Institution 
for the Blind, Magdalen Street, Norwich, immediately 


Applications are invited for the post of Female Home 
Teacher under the Council's Scheme for the Welfare of 
the Blind. Applicants must possess the Home Teachers' 
Certificate of the College of Teachers of the Blind The 
Salary is £3 per week. 

The post is a designated one and the candidate ap- 
pointed will be required to pass a medical examination 
and to contribute 5 per cent, of her salary to the 
Corporation's Superannuation Fund according to the 
provisions of the Local Government and other Officers 
Superannuation Act, 1922. 

Applications must be made on a form to be obtained 
from the Medical Officer of Health, 9, Hamilton Square. 
Birkenhead, and must be returned to the undersigned , 
accompanied by two recent testimonials, by not later 
than Monday, 2nd March, 1931. 

E. W Tame, 
Town Hall, Birkenhead Town Clerk- 

February, 1931 

Smiths' Print 

Company (Londo 








Vol. XV.— No. 171. MARCH 15th, 1931. Price 3d. 


EnUted as Second Class Mattel, March 15, 1929, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass., undo the Act oj March 3, 1879 [Sec. 397, P.L. and R..) 


By ROBERT B. IRWIN, Executive Director, American Foundation for the Blind. 
{Reprinted from " Social Work Year Book" 1930.) 
^^■""^■"'""""'■•HER.E are many points of view from which blindness may be defined. To the 
physician it is a condition the absence of sight ; to the social worker or the 
educator it is a cause — a restriction which keeps one from full participation 
in the educational, employment, and recreational facilities of the community. 
Roughly speaking, a child with less than one-tenth vision, or with an 
eye condition which makes school work unsafe if conducted in the ordinary 
way, is educationally blind. There is, however, a large additional group of 
children, with vision ranging from one-tenth to one-third, for whom special sight-saving classes 
must be organized if they are to receive fair treatment at the hands of the school authorities. 
The adult with less than one-tenth vision is so limited in his choice of occupations as to be 
considered vocationally blind. There are, though, many persons possessing more than one- 
tenth vision who are so handicapped vocationally that they require the assistance of agencies 
for the blind. The ratio of the blind to the general population in this country is usually estimated 
at about one to one thousand. The incidence of blindness varies little geographically except 
in districts like eastern Kentucky, southern Illinois, and southern Missouri, where the prevalence 
of trachoma raises the ratio to a marked degree. A recent calculation based on estimates from 
agencies for the blind indicates that in 1929 there were about 1 14,000 blind people in the country. 
This total is much higher than that shown by the census, first because the Census Bureau's 
definition of blindness is quite restricted ; and second, because many blind people are over- 
looked. According to the census of 1920 the age distribution of blind people was as follows : 
Age Group. Per Cent. 

Under 5 years (Pre-school) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 

5 to 19 years (School) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11.9 

20 to 34 years (Employable but probably in need of vocational training and adjustment) 1 1 .5 
35 to 49 years (Employable) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15.6 

50 to 64 years (Possibly employable, but opportunities limited by age) . . . . 20.8 

65 years and over (Probably unemployable) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.5 


The group between 5 and 19 years was 
probably more completely reported than any 
other, since children in the residential schools 
for the blind would be easily located by the 
enumerators. Similarly, the group under 
5 years is probably the most incompletely 
reported, owing to the difficulty of locating 
young blind children and of determining 
whether they are blind or not. The large 
proportion of blind past 50 years of age — 
over 60 per cent — is to be noted ; many of 
these would be too handicapped by age and 
sickness to be self-supporting even if they 
could see. It is important that the public 
should distinguish between these and the 
young capable blind who ask only for oppor- 
tunity. Age at losing sight is also an im- 
portant consideration in the rehabilitation of 
the blind, and it is interesting to note that 
the census of 1920 showed that 65 per cent, 
of blind people lost their sight after school 
age had been passed. 

History and Present Status. There are in the 
United States 54 residential schools and 21 
city day schools for the blind. The three 
oldest schools in the country — the New York 
Institute for the Education of the Blind, the 
Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction 
of the Blind, and Perkins Institution and 
Massachusetts School for the Blind — were 
organized at about the same time, 1832. 
These institutions are under private manage- 
ment, but they have received State grants 
almost from the start and the States now 
furnish a large share of their support. The 
first State school for the blind was established 
by Ohio in 1837. To-day every State either 
conducts a residential school of its own or has 
a working arrangement by which it pays the 
cost of educating its blind children in a similar 
school in a neighbouring State. Approxi- 
mately 5,500 pupils were enrolled during 
1929 in the 54 residential schools for the 
blind, private and public. The first day 
school for the blind was organized by the 
City of Chicago in 1900. Since that time 20 
cities have followed Chicago's lead, these 
schools enrolling in 1929 about 440 pupils. 
Special institutions of higher learning for the 
blind have never found much favour in the 
United States, but many blind men and 
women attend the regular colleges and 
universities. Through the efforts of Dr. 
Newel Perry, now a teacher in the California 
School for the Blind, New York State in 1907 



established scholarships of S300 a year to 
employ " readers " for blind students attend- 
ing institutions of higher learning in that 
State. At present 21 States have similar 
scholarships, varying from S 1 00 to an indefinite 
amount and limited only by the appropriation 
and the requirement of the student. 

Schools for blind children had not been 
long in operation before it became evident 
that the academic and vocational training 
afforded children in such schools did not 
solve the employment problem of the blind. 
Accordingly several employment institutions 
with boarding facilities were opened, some 
operated by the State and others receiving 
more or less State support. But as the 
activities of these employment institutions 
were quite restricted, State commissions or 
departments came to be organized to care for 
the general needs of the blind, especially 
adults. Twenty-six States now have such 
agencies, with varying scopes of service. 
Among the activities conducted by most 
State commissions is home teaching. This 
work is carried on usually by blind persons 
who call at the homes of blind adults who 
have never attended schools for the blind. 
Instruction is given in finger reading and in 
simple manual occupations, and the blind 
person is helped in other ways to adjust 
himself to his situation. 

Blindness is so definite a cause of poverty 
that special provision of public relief for the 
needy blind has long been demanded. In 
1903 Illinois inaugurated special county 
relief for the blind. This was popularly 
known as a " pension." At the end of 1929 
there were 21 States having such special relief 
laws for the blind, and efforts were being made 
by organizations of blind people to write 
similar laws on the statute books of other 
States. In several large cities private associ- 
ations for the blind have been organized to 
carry on such activities as home teaching, 
placement work, sheltered workshops, recre- 
ation projects, and eye clinics. As a rule these 
associations offer little material relief, pre- 
ferring to leave that function to family 
welfare agencies. 

Owing to the limited market for books for 
the blind their publication has never been 
commercially possible. Finger readers have 
therefore had to depend either upon philan- 
thropy or upon public funds for their reading 
matter. School books for the past half 


century have been largely supplied by the 
federal government, operating through the 
American Printing House for the Blind, in 
Louisville. Because of the great cost and 
bulk of books in raised type, few blind people 
own them, and not many communities feel 
justified in establishing libraries for the 
blind. A few public libraries which have 
such collections very generously lend their 
books over a far larger territory than they 
ordinarily serve, sometimes over several 
States. To facilitate circulation the post- 
office transmits such literature through the 
mails free of charge. In 1907 Mrs. Matilda 
Ziegler, of New York City, established the 
Matilda Ziegler Magazine for the Blind, a 
monthly periodical which is sent free to any 
sightless person in the United States or 
Canada. A number of other secular and 
religious magazines have been started since. 
The Lions International has adopted work 
for the blind as one of its major activities. 
It publishes a magazine in Braille for blind 
children and has helped to inaugurate work 
for the adult blind in several States. 

Workers for the blind find that perhaps 
their chief task is finding remunerative em- 
ployment for their clients. The employment 
field is narrowed not only by the limitations 
imposed by blindness, but also by the lack of 
confidence on the part of the seeing public in 
the productive powers of the blind. Employed 
blind people may be divided into four 
classes : first, those who have set up for 
themselves in business or in professions ; 
second, those who are employed side by side 
with the seeing in factories and commercial 
establishments ; third, those employed in 
sheltered workshops ; and fourth, those 
working in their own homes under the super- 
vision of a central agency for the blind. To 
the blind man with some business acumen, a 
commercial enterprise usually affords the 
best opportunity for success. These enter- 
prises represent almost every line of business, 
from the management of a peanut stand to 
the presidency of a bank. Wherever sales- 
manship, personality, or executive ability are 
of first importance, there are to be found 
blind men in positions of trust. Most blind 
people, however, like their seeing brothers, 
must be wage-earners, leaving management 
to those with special abilities. 

Until the beginning of the present century 
the blind man who had found work as an 

Robert B. Irwin. 

ordinary factory hand was rare indeed. 
About 25 years ago, however, Charles F. F. 
Campbell, an enthusiastic young worker for 
the blind in Massachusetts, became convinced 
that there were more jobs in industry which 
blind people could fill than there were blind 
people to fill them. He demonstrated his 
contention to a limited extent, but the 
employment of blind people in industry did 
not become widespread until the years of the 
World War. Most of the blind who obtained 
positions at that time lost them during the 
industrial recession about 1921. Owing to 
the rapid development of labour-saving 
machinery, to the restricting effect of insur- 
ance regulations, and to the increasing 
difficulty for various reasons of inducing 
industry to assume responsibility for the 
employment of the handicapped, the number 
of blind people now working in factories 
constitutes but a small proportion of those so 
engaged at the close of the war. 

In most large cities may be found one or 
two small sheltered workshops employing a 
dozen or more men. These shops usually 
operate at a loss, and the deficit is made up 
through either private philanthropy or taxa- 
tion. The commonest activities carried on are 
chair caning and the manufacture of brooms, 
mops, rugs, and reed ware. Because blindness 
handicaps individual workers to a varying 
degree, wages are usually paid by piece rate. 


5 1 


Many State commissions and city associa- 
tions arrange to sell the products made by 
the blind in their homes. In some cases the 
organization supplies the material and pays 
for the labour upon delivery of the completed 
work. In other instances the workers 
furnish their own material and the organiza- 
tion sells the articles, returning the amount of 
the purchase price to the blind workers. 
There is usually no charge for selling service. 
Articles so manufactured include dish towels, 
aprons, rugs, baskets, crocheted and knitted 
wear, and stuffed toys. 

Developments and Events, 1929. The out- 
standing events of the year, aside from 
legislative changes, were of an international 
character. Preliminary steps were taken to 
call a World Conference of Specialists in 
Work for the Blind, to be held in New York 
City in 193 1. As the result of a conference 
held in Paris in April, 1929, France, Germany, 
Great Britain, Italy, and the United States 
adopted a common code for the publishing of 
Braille music, so that music embossed in any 
of these countries will henceforth be usable 
by the blind in other countries. During the 
year the American Foundation for the Blind 
made a study of stand concessions operated 
by the blind and a survey of library work for 
them in the United States, and had in 
preparation a manual for home teachers. 
Surveys were also conducted by the Sub- 
committee on the Visually Handicapped of 
the White House Conference on Child Health 
and Protection. 

Hon. Chairman— M. C. Migel (New York). 

Formerly Chairman, New York State 

Commission for Blind. 

President, American Foundation for the 

Chairman — Robert B. Irwin (New York). 

Executive Director, American Foundation 

for the Blind since 1929, and previously 

Director of its Bureau of Research and 


President, American Association of Workers 

for the Blind (1923-27). 

President, The Howe Publishing Society 

for the Blind in Cleveland (1911-1928). 

President, The Clear Type Publishing 

Dr. Edward E. Allen (Mass.). 

Director, Perkins Institution and Massach- 
usetts School for the Blind. 

For many years Commissioner of the 

Blind in Massachusetts. 
Dr. Olin H. Burritt (Pa.). 

Principal, Pennsylvania Institution for the 

Instruction of the Blind. 
Mrs. Mary Dranga Campbell (Missouri). 

First Executive Director, Council of the 

Blind, Pennsylvania. 

For eight years Assistant Editor, Outlook 

for the Blind. 

Now Executive Director, The Missouri 

Commission for the Blind. 
B. P. Chappie (N. Dakota). 

Superintendent, State School for the Blind, 

N. Dakota. 
Wm. Nelson Cromwell (New York). 

President, American Braille Press. 
Dr. John H. Finley (New York). 

President, New York Association for the 

Calvin S. Glover (Ohio). 

Secretary, Cincinnati Association for the 

Welfare of the Blind. 
Miss Lucille Goldthwaite (New York). 

Librarian, New York Public Library for 

the Blind. 
William A. Hadley (Illinois). 

Principal, Hadley Correspondence School 

for the Blind (founded 1921). 


Miss Mary V. Hun (New York). 

Vice-Chairman, New York State Commis- 
sion for the Blind. 

Trustee, American Foundation for the 

B. S. Joice (Pa.). 

Superintendent, Western Pennsylvania 
School for the Blind. 

H. R. Latimer (Pa.). 

Executive Secretary, Pennsylvania Associ- 
ation for the Blind, Pittsburg. 

Thos. S. McAloney (Colorado). 

Superintendent, Colorado School for the 
Deaf and Blind. 

Stetson K. Ryan (Conn.). 

Secretary, State of Connecticut Board of 
Education of the Blind (1928). 

Edward M. Van Cleve (New York). 

Principal, New York Institute for the 
Education of the Blind since 1914. 
Managing Director, The National Com- 
mittee for the Prevention of Blindness from 

i9 I S-i9*3- 

Previously Superintendent, Ohio State 
School for the Blind. 

British Guests to International Conference. 

Several ladies and gentlemen actively 
engaged in welfare work for the blind in this 
country expressed a desire to attend the 
International Conference at New York next 
month, and the following are attending as 
guests : — 

The Rev. E. H. Griffiths, R.N., Royal 
School for the Blind, Leatherhead ; Miss 
Hamar Greenwood and guide ; Dr. Ernest 
Whitfield ; Mr. W. R. Halliday, Mission to 
the Outdoor Blind ; Dr. G. F. McLeary, of 
the Ministry of Health (who will be in 
America at the time of the Conference) ; Mr. 
G. C. Brown, Worcester College for the 
Blind; Mr. S. F. Markham, M.P., Museums 
Association ; Mrs. Starling (wife of the 
British delegate) ; and Mrs. Danby (wife 
of the British delegate). 

The names of the British and European 
delegates to the International Conference were 
given on page 257 of the December issue of 
The New Beacon, and the names of the 
representatives of the British Government 
were given on pages 5 and 29 of the January 
and February issues. 

Edivard M. Van Clcve. 

Log of Lighthouse No. 1. 

We have just received the 24th Report of 
the New York Association for the Blind for 
1930 (" Log of Lighthouse " No. 1). Its 
compilers are once again to be congratulated 
on the photographs that illustrate it (perhaps 
a clearer atmosphere than ours helps to make 
them specially attractive) which are beauti- 
fully grouped, simple in background and 
always convincing in " telling a tale." 
Specially successful examples are " The 
Lighthouse Players " standing out clear-cut 
against the skilfully draped curtains of their 
stage, or the pictures of small children 
handling educational toys with that breathless 
intentness characteristic of them, or again of 
the girl-bathers splashing happily in the 
Lighthouse pool. The letterpress deals with 
a very wide field of activity, including 
industrial training and employment, preven- 
tion of blindness, placement, recreation, 
home visiting, and the provision of holidays, 
but it is impossible in a brief note to do 
justice to any of these varied activities ; 
perhaps the best comment that can be made 
upon them is that given in a letter from 
one of the blind helped by the Lighthouse 
— " I observe you are one of those who 
keep your promises and a little better than 




DELEGATES to the New 
York Conference who want 
to gain a comprehensive 
view of blind relief in the 
United States cannot do 
better than study the 
monograph of the Ameri- 
can Foundation, entitled" Blind Relief Laws," 
and prepared by Mr. Irwin and Miss McKay. 
Accepting the thesis that " blindness is in 
itself a sufficiently well defined cause of 
poverty to require special treatment at the 
hands of the State " the writers set out to 
answer the following questions : — 

i. Who shall pay the relief ? Shall it be 
derived from central or from local 
sources ? 

2. Who shall receive it ? How shall 
blindness be defined, what constitutes 
" need," what residential qualifications 
should be laid down, and what shall 
disqualify ? 

3. What shall be its amount ? 

4. How shall the relief be administered ? 
How often ought cases to be reviewed, 
and how far can relief money be used 
constructively ? 

The questions have a familiar ring to 
anyone who has had to do with the adminis- 
tration of relief to the unemployable blind in 
this country, and the conclusions reached by 
the writers are in agreement with the experi- 
ence of workers here ; but the case is put so 
clearly and well that it is perhaps worth 
while to give a brief summary of the principles 
laid down. 

1 . Who shall pay the relief ? The writers 
deal at considerable length with the source of 
relief — should it come from the State, or from 
the counties which together make up the 
State and are generally the tax-collecting 
units, or should the expense be divided 
between county and State ? 

The Government, whether of State or 
county, in America differs so much from our 
own that a detailed discussion of this part of 
the monograph would not greatly concern 
the English reader, but the conclusions 
reached by the writers may be briefly noted: — 

(a) That the duty of making the appropri- 
ation of a fund for blind relief should 
rest on the local authorities in view of 



their personal knowledge of the local 

(b) That the collection of information and 
the preparation of recommendations 
should be entrusted to whatever agency 
in the State is most closely in touch 
with the blind and their needs. 

(c) That the local authority should have 
the power to make the final awards on 
the basis of information collected by 
the State agency referred to under (b). 

2. Who shall receive the relief ? 

It should perhaps be stated at the outset 
that the Blind Relief Laws are not invariably 
restricted to those whom we call in England 
" the unemployable blind," and may in fact 
(as in Colorado) take the form of a grant for 
vocational training, though as a rule the 
grants are for those who on account of blind- 
ness cannot be self-supporting. 

The question " Who shall receive the 
relief ? " is generally answered under three 
headings : — 

(a) He must be blind. 

(b) He must be needy. 

(c) He must fulfil certain residential quali- 

The definitions of blindness adopted in the 
various States vary considerably, from the 
uncompromising " loss of both eyes " of 
Kansas, to the " inability by reason of loss of 
eyesight to provide oneself with the neces- 
saries of life " of Ohio. Certification varies 
in the States as it does here, some relief 
authorities requiring " a competent oculist," 
but others accepting the certificate of a 
general practitioner. The comment that 
" in some communities it is commonly known 
that for a given fee certain physicians will 
testify to the blindness of anyone who can 
make out a plausible case based on some 
defect of vision " is a serious indictment, and 
one hopes that it is only occasionally deserved. 

The writers go on to discuss the meaning 
of the word " need " and the varying defin- 
itions which may be adopted. Certain 
States have defined the needy blind man as 
one having an income of less than a given 
amount each year, but this is open to many 
objections in that it takes no account of rise 
or fall in the cost of living, the family obliga- 
tions which the blind individual may have to 


meet, or those variations of standard of life 
which cannot in practice be ignored. Most 
of the blind relief laws take into account the 
obligations of relatives ; parents, brothers 
and sisters, husbands and wives are generally 
regarded as having a certain responsibility for 
their blind kinsfolk. A sample case-form is 
given in the appendix to the monograph 
which suggests that fairly stringent inquiries 
are made in certain States in this respect — 
" Have any of your children property of any 
kind in their own names — where and how 
much ? " or " Have any of your children any 
money in Banks — and what amount ? " are 
two questions over which one suspects the 
investigators may sometimes have difficulty. 

There is naturally a temptation for blind 
persons to move into States where conditions 
for them are specially favourable, and such a 
tendency is frequently guarded against in the 
Blind Relief laws, where it is laid down that a 
certain period of residence must be fulfilled 
before help can be given ; such a condition 
sometimes inflicts hardship, but the more 
recently enacted laws have benefited by the 
experience of other States where Blind Relief 
is of older standing, and have so worded 
their regulations as to lessen the hardship 
without loss of the safeguard. 

The attitude of the Blind Relief laws to the 
blind mendicant is generally similar to our 
own, though some counties appear to be 
rather lax ; but the comment that " repre- 
sentative blind people all over the country 
have urged that mendicants be excluded from 
the benefits of the Blind Relief laws " is 
significant. It is interesting in this connection 
to read that in New Jersey " publicly soliciting 
alms shall be construed to mean the wearing, 
carrying, or exhibiting of signs denoting 
blindness," which is surely a rather stringent 
definition. In New Jersey too " no person 
shall be eligible to the relief granted by the 
Blind Relief Act who is suffering from mental 
or physical infirmity which in itself would 
make him a charge upon any other institution 
or agency, and which has so incapacitated 
him prior to the loss of sight, that such person 
was a public charge prior thereto." 

3. What shall be the amount of relief 
granted ? 

This question is only dealt with very 
briefly by the writers who realise that 
" adequacy to meet the need of the applicant " 
is the real answer to the query. They do, 

however, suggest the following general prin- 
ciples : — ■ 

(a) That any maximum should be adjusted 
at intervals in accordance with the 
purchasing power of the dollar. 

(b) That no grant should be so large as to 
discourage industry. 

(c) That nothing should be done to en- 
courage intermarriage among the blind. 

A glance at the table given in the book 
shows that actually the maximum amount of 
relief varies from 150 dollars a year in New 
Hampshire to 600 dollars in Kansas, but that 
the most general figure is the 300 dollars 
payable in Colorado, Maine, Missouri, 
Nebraska and several other States. 
4. How shall relief be administered ? 
The writers point out that an annual 
review of the circumstances of those in receipt 
of relief is essential, both in the interests of 
the blind whose circumstances may have 
changed for the worse since the grant was 
made, and in that of the tax-paying public 
who need to be assured that their money is 
being wisely expended ; such a revision of 
cases is apparently by no means universal, 
and some startling examples of its neglect 
are cited. 

Relief appears to be paid as a rule quarterly 
and even in one case half-yearly ; those who 
are familiar with some of the difficulties 
experienced by recipients of City pensions 
in this country who are paid quarterly 
are not surprised that monthly relief is 
advocated by the writers. Payment in 
cash rather than by cheque or warrant is 
recommended, and proper precautions are 
advised in order that the blind person himself 
shall be assured of the benefit of the relief, a 
trustee being appointed to act on his behalf 
where there is any likelihood of the money 
being squandered either by the recipient or 
his relations. 

Finally we are reminded by the authors 
that merely to place a good law upon the 
statute books is not enough : even a good 
law can fail utterly if it is badly or carelessly 
administered — " All that the legislator can 
do is to provide practicable machinery for the 
administration of adequate blind relief, and 
erect reasonable mechanical safeguards against 
abuses. If this machinery is to function 
effectively, public opinion must afford it 
intelligent direction, a right spirit and com- 
munity support." 





TO no department of blind 
welfare in the United States 
has more attention been 
devoted than to the subject 
of prevention of blindness, 
which is, in the words of 
Dr. Best " one of the most 
significant as well as one of the most import- 
ant undertakings of the day." 

In America, as in England, the first steps 
were taken by the medical profession in the 
campaign against the ravages of infantile 
ophthalmia, but there, as here, the field of 
activity soon widened to include many other 
forms of prevention, and also extended from 
the medical profession to the lay social 
worker, acting under the guidance of the 

In 1887 the New York Medical Committee 
appointed a sub-Committee to investigate 
the question of infantile ophthalmia, and 
their action was soon imitated by various 
other medical bodies. Early in the nineteen 
hundreds two Societies were founded to deal 
with the problem of prevention, known 
respectively as the American Association for 
the Conservation of Vision, and the New York 
State Committee for the Prevention of 
Blindness, and these two later merged as the 
National Committee (now the National 
Society) for the Prevention of Blindness. 

To-day this Society is associated with many 
other health agencies through the National 
Health Council, and consists of over twenty- 
five thousand members and contributors in 
all parts of the States. Its threefold aim is 
described in its constitution as follows : — 

1. To ascertain the causes of blindness 
and of impaired vision. 

2. To work towards the elimination of 
such causes. 

3. To spread knowledge relating to the 
proper care and use of the eyes. 

In the Report of the Red Cross Societies on 
the Prevention of Blindness (1929) where an 
account is given of work in the direction of 
blindness-prevention throughout the world, a 
detailed description is given of the way in 
which the National Society in America sets 
out towards the accomplishment of the 
threefold aim mentioned above. Its work is 



developed in five main directions which may 
be briefly noted here : — 

1. Prevention of blindness in infancy. In 
co-operation with the State and provincial 
health authorities of North America data 
relating to State laws, regulations, and 
practices concerned with infantile prevention 
are compiled and published for the benefit of 
health authorities and legislative bodies. A 
very simple leaflet is published for the use of 
parents explaining what is meant by "babies' 
sore eyes," giving an account of the Crede 
treatment, and emphasising the importance 
of immediate medical attention in all cases of 
eye-trouble in young children. In 1926, the 
National Society, acting on behalf of the 
Standing Committee on Conservation of 
Vision of the State, issued questionnaires to 
the Executive Health Officers of various 
States, to departments of obstetrics in the 
Medical Colleges, and to Maternity Hospitals, 
with regard to the use of prophylactics in the 
eyes of the newly-born, and collected very 
valuable information as a result, with regard 
to the number of States where there is com- 
pulsory notification of infantile ophthalmia, 
the different types of infection that may 
cause it, and the effectiveness of a prophy- 
lactic in preventing blindness. 

2. Examination of the eyes of pre-school 

In 1925 a Centre for the care of the eyes of 
children under school age was opened in 
New York, as a result of a very careful survey 
of the eyes of children between the ages of 
three and six, which had revealed the fact 
that between 10 and 15% had some eye 
defect that in many cases might be corrected 
if taken in time. The tests are carried out by 
means of the Snellen symbol E chart, and 
have proved so successful that demonstra- 
tions of the methods adopted are frequently 
given by agents of the Society in various 
States and in Canada, to associations of public 
health officials, nurses and teachers. 

3. Care of the school child. 

In 1925 an important Report " Conserving 
the Sight of the School Children " was 
prepared and submitted for approval to 
oculists, school authorities and health officials. 
It emphasises the extent of defective vision 


among school children, urges the necessity of 
eye examinations as part of the general school 
health routine, and gives information as to 
the proper use of the Snellen tests by teacher 
or school nurse where the services of an 
ophthalmologist are not available for the 
preliminary examination, as must often be 
the case in isolated rural districts. 

The first sight-saving class was established 
in 19 1 3 in Boston, and the example set was 
soon followed in Cleveland, New York, and 
Detroit. To-day there are about 350 such 
classes in the States, but as the number 
needed is estimated at about 4,650 there is 
still much to be done. In these classes are 
found four types of children — those whose 
sight is corrected by glasses, but who cannot 
use the books and apparatus of the normal 
child for an extended period without feeling 
strain, those whose sight cannot be wholly 
corrected by glasses, those who are myopes, 
and those who have hereditary or acquired 
disease which may be arrested or even cured 
by proper treatment and care. 

The methods adopted in sight-saving 
classes include the use of clear-type books, 
the provision of movable desks, the use of 
educational material that does not involve 
eye-strain, and very careful lighting of the 

The National Society for the Prevention 
of Blindness has published literature on 
Methods of Teaching Sight Saving Classes 
and The Organisation of Sight Saving 
Classes, which they distribute free to teachers 
engaged in the work, and in addition they 
publish a " News Letter " and a magazine, 
" The Sight Saving Class Exchange." Fur- 
ther to help the teacher interested in sight- 
saving methods, special courses are arranged 
by the Universities of New York, Cincinnati, 
Chicago and Southern California, and in all 
these the National Society has taken an 
active part. Important Conferences are 
convened by the Society from time to time 
and the Reports of these Conferences cover 
a very wide field, and are of considerable 
interest and importance. 

4. Trachoma. 

Trachoma is a disease specially prevalent 
among American Indians, and the National 
Society in co-operation with the United 
States Public Service has carried on research 
in a clinic at Rolla, Missouri, and also studied 
the incidence of the disease among the Indians 

at Rice Lake, Minnesota. Important re- 
searches carried on in the Rockefeller Labora- 
tories by Dr. Hideyo Noguchi on the causes 
of trachoma promised to be very successful 
and were watched with deep interest by the 
National Society, but were unhappily cut off 
by the death of the scientist. 

5. Accidents in Industry. 

Though blindness due to infantile ophthal- 
mia steadily declines and should eventually 
be exterminated, industrialism still exacts 
a heavy toll, and the elimination of eye- 
hazards in industry is one of the main tasks 
before the Society. The Society's publication 
" Eye Hazards in Industrial Occupations " 
deals with the types of eye injury due to 
industrial accident, the precautions to be 
taken, the question of industrial lighting, and 
first aid in eye injuries. Conferences are held 
jointly with the National Safety First Council, 
and articles are printed in industrial maga- 
zines, trade journals, and the publications of 
Trade Unions urging the importance of 
proper lighting both in home and workshop, 
the prevention of accidental injuries and the 
elements of eye hygiene. The title of one 
paper read at the Conference noted above — 
" Getting the hard-boiled workman to guard 
his eyes " suggests that at least part of the 
work of the National Society must lie in the 
direction of persuasion. Realising this, and 
that in the past most of the literature and 
statistics used in the " Safety First " move- 
ment have been negative, the National 
Society and National Safety Council have 
lately issued and circulated very widely a 
Report showing how the use of mechanical 
devices has saved sight. 

6. Propaganda. 

Agents of the National Society are con- 
stantly travelling from one State to another, 
lecturing, conferring with health and educa- 
tion authorities, showing exhibits, pictures 
and lantern slides, and co-operating with 
other social agencies in the work of 

It has been possible here only to sketch 
very briefly the great work which the National 
Society is carrying on, but those who study 
the Reports of the work must agree that the 
honour lately conferred upon Dr. Park 
Lewis, its Vice-President, who has been 
elected Vice-President of the newly formed 
International Association for the Prevention 
of Blindness, is one that is well deserved. 





Secretary, Music Department, National Institute for the Blind, London. 

1" UNDERSTAND that it is proposed to 
pay tribute in the current issue of 
The New Beacon to the constructive 
work of the great American nation in 
the Cause of the Blind, and I have 
been asked if I have anything to say 
in this connection on the subject of 

Braille Music. 

On thinking over the matter, I recollected 
a remarkably able article which appeared in 
the June, 1925, issue of the official Organ of 
the American Foundation for the Blind — 
The Outlook for the Blind — contributed by 
Mr. Louis W. Rodenberg, of the Illinois 
School for the Blind, Jacksonville. 

The subject was " Embossed Music, its 
history, present status, and its future." 

After making a masterly survey, Mr. 
Rodenberg indulged in some anticipations of 
future developments, which the sequence of 
events since 1925 have so amply justified that 
he is entitled to be respected as something of 
a seer. 

He divides what he speaks of as " the 
embossing period," into six " eras." 

The first he terms " the dark age for the 
blind," broken in the 16th century when the 
Italian physician, Girolama Cardan, con- 
ceived the idea that the blind might be taught 
to read by touch. 

Second : " the era of speculation," when 
men like Diderot and Rousseau began to 
speculate on the possibilities of overcoming 
blindness', ever approaching the problem 
through the question of palpable reading. 

Third : " the era of experimentation " 
(roughly 1785 to 1871), during which period 
Haiiy, Barbier and Louis Braille in France ; 
Gall, Lucas, Frere and Moon in Great 
Britain ; Howe, Russ and Wait in America ; 
and others, experimented with their various 
systems of either line-letter or of dot embos- 
sing, the latter named bringing out their books 
(or music) in quantity by means of presses 
adapted to each particular style of imprinting. 
Fourth : " the era of codification " (say 
1871-1892), in which the principal develop- 
ment of Braille was in music-notation. 

This began with the publication, in 1871, 



of a short pamphlet compiled at the instance 
of Dr. T. R. Armitage, explaining the Braille 
musical system as then practised at the School 
for the Blind, Paris, where Louis Braille had 
himself been the instructor. 

Incidentally, it is interesting to note that 
in the third year after the inauguration of the 
British and Foreign Blind Association, so 
auspicious a beginning should have been 
made in regard to the musical education of 
the blind on scientific lines. 

Similar explanatory pamphlets made their 
appearance in Germany (1879) and in Paris 
(1885), but local " improvements " having 
been incorporated in the text, variations of 
actual practice in different countries super- 
vened, so that, in 1888, it was necessary to 
refer the whole matter to an international 
Congress, which met at Cologne, the decisions 
of which determined the use in England, 
France, Germany and Denmark for approxi- 
mately a quarter of a century. 

Fifth : " the era of Catalogue-building," 
which Mr. Rodenberg dates from 1892, i.e. 
about the time that the stereotyping machine 
invented by Frank Hall, then Superintendent 
of the Jacksonville School for the Blind, 
enabled metal plate embossing to be done by 
mechanical means instead of by hand, i.e. 
with stylus and hammer. 

Sixth : " the era of disturbance " (say 
1 908- 1 922) during which the whole question 
of Braille music-notation was under discussion 
by experts of every country. Throughout 
this period, tests and experiments were 
everywhere made on the various suggestions 
proffered by practical music-braillists for such 
an improvement of the music-transcription 
method as should bring it into line with all 
the transcription problems presented by 
modern staff-notation for effective solution. 

In England, this culminated in the epoch- 
making publication of the National Institute's 
" Key to Revised Braille Music-Notation, 
1922 " ; and, in the United States, of the 
American " Key " of 1925, under the Editor- 
ship of Mr. Rodenberg. 

In the new (1927) Edition of Grove's 
" Dictionary of Music and Musicians " 


(Macmillan), an article on " Braille Music- 
notation," contributed by myself at the 
request of the Editor, concludes by insisting 
upon the necessity of international uniformity 
of practice, now that the whole question had 
been so thoroughly discussed. The desir- 
ability also of the avoidance of duplication of 
the same publications by the Braille publish- 
ing houses of various countries is stressed, 
particularly as an understanding might easily 
be arrived at by the Publication Committees 
concerned as to what works each Institution 
might produce. This, it was stated, would 
also conduce to an enormously increased 
range of selection of musical works available 
in Braille to students of every country. 

The establishment in the near future of an 
international Clearing House for the acqui- 
sition by the blind of any work of any cata- 
logue, is an idea which is already being 
favourably entertained on both sides of the 
Atlantic, and must undoubtedly materialize 
at no distant date. 

Particularly rapid progress has been made 
during the last four or five years in regard to 
the actual adoption of uniformity of practice. 

Under the auspices of the American Braille 
Press, an important international Congress 
was held in Paris in April, 1929, when 
fourteen nations of Europe and North and 
South America came to an agreement whereby 
the actual symbols used in Braille Music were 
(like those of the staff-notation) to be stand- 
ardized throughout the world. This comes 
into operation this Spring. 

The American Braille Press, through its 
Sec. -General, Monsieur G. L. Raverat, of 
Paris, has suggested that, at a subsequent 
date, it will be prepared to offer its hospitality 
to the delegates of a further international 
Congress convened for the discussion of the 
absolute uniformity of methods of transcrip- 
tion (as distinct from the now happily settled 
question of the actual symbols used in Braille 
music-notation). If the result proves as 
successful as that of the Paris Conference of 
1929, the entire Braille system of music- 
notation will thenceforward be standardized 
throughout the world, just as in the case of 
the Staff-notation system of the seeing. 

Then, to borrow an Americanism, " things 
will begin to hum ! " 

Before concluding, I should like to have 
the privilege of paying a personal tribute to 
the blind delegate who represented the 

American Foundation so ably at the Paris 
Congress of 1929 — Mr. Rodenberg. No 
more alert or efficient international repre- 
sentative could have been elected. As a 
member of that Conference I can speak for 
all the delegates when I say that, from the 
outset, he was appreciated as a man of great 
and varied experience, both as a musician 
and as a Braille-music expert. He brought 
to bear just those qualities of fine dis- 
crimination, combined with breadth of view, 
which were so important in the animated 
discussions of so mixed an assembly of 
internationals, each, perhaps, more or less 
naturally disposed to favour the practice of 
his own country, even though strenuously 
endeavouring to appreciate the view-point of 
others. Mr. Rodenberg's calm, unprejudiced 
mental attitude and manner set an example 
of fairness and of " playing the game " which, 
at certain critical moments, had its salutory 
reactions upon the temper of the whole 
assembly. As an instance : — Though himself 
the inventor of that ingenious American 
system of Braille transcription known as the 
" Bar-ozw-bar " method, his feelings were 
so keen on a vital English point which 
was then under discussion, that he broke 
in at an extremely anxious moment for us 
English delegates with the protest : — " Look 
here, friends, if we are going to drop this 
very important ' *Bar-6y-bar sign ' " (an 
English sign we were all arguing about), " then 
I might as well pack up and get away back 
home at once ! " This unexpected outburst, 
uttered in firm tones of conviction, and 
rendered all the more effective by a slight 
American drawl, had an electrical effect and 
saved the situation. 

Thus our American friends, though they 
do not as yet " see all the way " with us (any 
more than do some of our Continental 
brethren), yet possess a keen desire for that 
uniformity which we all equally hope will 
ultimately be secured, to our corporate 
advantage. And, although this goal has not 
hitherto been attained, still an enormous 
advance has been made in that direction 
during the last few years, during which period 
America — most happily represented in mat- 
ters musical by a man of such all-round 
intellectual, artistic, and business-like quali- 
fications as Mr. Louis W. Rodenberg — has 
played a prominent and important part. 

* Bar-by-bar is the English method of transcription. 




IT is to be hoped that at the New York 
Conference some of the delegates 
will be given an opportunity to inspect 
one of the most interesting collections 
in the blind world, that of the Library 
of the Perkins Institution. More than 
thirty years ago, Mr. Anagnos, then 
Principal of the Institution, paid a visit to 
Vienna, and was deeply impressed by the 
Library at the Royal Imperial Institution for 
the Blind. J With *he help of Dr. Alexander 
Mell, _ who'! had been responsible for the 
Vienna Library, he decided to set himself to 
collect books and pamphlets relating to the 
blind in all languages and from all countries, 
and when he was in his turn succeeded at the 
Perkins Institution by Dr. Edward Allen, the 
present Principal, the work still went on, and 
has indeed been greatly enriched by Dr. 
Allen's devoted labours. 

It is housed in special fireproof stacks, and 
is available for all students of blind welfare, 
who come from far and near to consult it. 
Dr. Best, whose work " The Blind " is 
extraordinarily well documented, made great 
use of the material stored there, and has 
described the Library in high terms of 
praise — " possibly the greatest single collec- 
tion of literature upon the blind in the world 

— certainly in the English language 

among specialised libraries upon any subject 
the Library for the Blind at the Perkins Institu- 
tion is doubtless to be given a foremost place." 
It would be interesting to know how far in 
a collection of this kind any weeding-out 
process is desirable ; sometimes one is 
inclined to think that the waste paper basket 
is the proper resting place at a fairly early 
date for Annual Reports and other " books 
that are no books " of the same type. And 
yet, even the dullest of Reports may yield 
valuable information to the historian, and a 
little thought leads us to the depressing 
conclusion that perhaps nothing ought to be 
destroyed. To say this, however, is only 
half the story ; and the other half must rest 
with the Librarian. A lumber room of 
unsorted dusty documents is quite useless 
and the most skilful filing and cross-indexing 
are necessary if a way for the student is to be 
found through the labyrinth. 

The catalogue of the English books in the 
Perkins Library suggests that such filing and 



indexing have been scrupulously carried out 
there, and though it is less edifying and 
certainly less exciting to wander through a 
catalogue than through a Library, even the 
three volumes of the catalogue afford some 
very pleasant reading, and we are left longing 
to know more of the contents of such books 
as " Catherine Mewis. Faithful account of 
Catherine Mewis of Parton-under-Needwood 
in Staffordshire, who is deprived of her 
eyesight six days out of seven, and can only 
see on the Sabbath," or of " The Museum of 
Diversion, with Horrible Tales." 

Among the many rare volumes to be found 
in the Library, some in original editions, and 
others out of print, are Diderot's " Lettre sur 
les Aveugles " (1772), Valentin Haiiy's 
" Essai sur l'education des aveugles " (1786), 
and a copy of the original pamphlet in which 
Louis Braille described his " Nouveau pro- 
cede pour representer par des points la forme 
me me des lettres." 

The Library falls into ten main sections, 
dealing with the employment and training of 
the blind, blind biography, books by blind 
authors, the causes and effects of blindness, 
the blind in literature, colour-blindness, the 
deaf-blind, education, and specimens of 
embossed type, but it is impossible here to 
do more than touch on one or two of the 
sections ; perhaps those dealing with the 
blind as authors, the causes and effects of 
blindness, and the blind in literature, are of 
most interest to the general reader. 

The list of blind writers is a surprisingly 
long one, and it is interesting to find that John 
Bidlake, D.D., a blind clergyman who 
" delivered eight discourses before the Uni- 
versity of Oxford "in 1821, was the Bampton 
Lecturer, that the last part of the famous 
" The Roadmender " was written by Michael 
Fairless after total blindness had overtaken 
her, or that the only American who holds the 
French honour of" Chevalier de la Melusine" 
is Edward Perry, a blind musician. The very 
wide range of interests represented among the 
blind writers is an ample vindication of the 
view that a loss of physical sight need carry 
with it no narrowing of the spiritual and 
mental vision ; agriculture, history, mathe- 
matical treatises, memoirs, political economy 
and theology are all represented. 

In the section dealing with the physiology 


of blindness a large number of books is 
included, covering a very wide period of 
time, and ranging from " An Essay on 
Vision " (Adams, 1789), or " Observations on 
a Young Gentleman born Blind " (Cheseldon, 
1741), to some of the most recent publications 
on prevention, the care of the sight of the 
school-child, the prevention of eye accidents 
in industry, and the campaign against 

The corresponding section entitled "Blind- 
ness — effect " is made up of books and articles 
dealing with blindness from the standpoint 
of the psychologist, and is one of special 
interest to the educationist, treating as it does 
of such subjects as a comparative study of 
the sense-perception of blind and seeing, 
mental characteristics associated with blind- 
ness, colour hearing, and dreams. 

The division, " The Blind in Literature," 
is extremely interesting, but its usefulness is, 
of course, hardly so apparent as that of the 
other sections. That Rochester became 
blind in " Jane Eyre " does not really matter 
very much to our judgment of the story, 
while the memory of Mrs. Barclay's hero of 
" The Rosary " seems hardly worth perpetu- 

ating, save as an awful example. But perhaps 
this is captious, and in any case there is 
something very engaging in such titles as 
" Little Susan, the blind girl," or " Patience 
and impatience " and, however superior we 
may pretend to be, most of us have a sneaking 
feeling that we would like to know more of 
" Blind Martha, the message girl ; from 
Hunted Down, or the Recollections of a 
City Detective." 

In an article on libraries The Outlook some 
time ago mentioned that in addition to the 
one at the Perkins Institution there is a 
collection, then numbering 800 bound 
volumes, and innumerable pamphlets, being 
built up by the American Foundation. In 
the same issue Dr. Best wrote that the best 
collection in Great Britain " seems to be that 
of the National Institute for the Blind." If 
this is correct, we have an uneasy feeling that 
it is an inadequate best, and it would seem 
that the time has come to attempt something 
more comprehensive. Those who are visiting 
America in connection with the Conference 
will, we hope, come back inspired to imitate 
the Perkins Library as Mr. Anagnos was, in 
his day, inspired by that in Vienna. 


blind American, has re- 
cently published the story 
of her education in the 
pages of The Atlantic 
Monthly. She lost her 

sight, hearing, and speech 
soon after her fifth birthday, and her illness 
which deprived her of these senses left her a 
cripple also for two years. Her story is told 
with great simplicity but marvellous insight, 
and the reader is left with a feeling that while 
every word bears the impress of perfect truth 
Miss Frick must have had, even from early 
childhood, an almost uncanny insight into 
her own mental processes, to enable her to 
present to us so clear and lovable a picture of 
the small girl she describes, with her impet- 
uous affection, her pathetic longing to receive 
attention, even to the point of being naughty, 
her pride in her appearance, and her love of 
neatness and order. 

Fortunately her parents were people of 
imagination and resource, and were unweary- 
ing in their efforts to keep their child in touch 

with the outside world, taking her about with 
them, allowing her to handle everything 
within reach, inventing signs, and encouraging 
her to make sounds even when they were 
meaningless. For some time no school would 
accept the little girl on account of her double 
defect, but finally through the good offices of 
the Governor of Pennsylvania, a special 
teacher was found in Miss Julia Foley, of the 
Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf, and 
arrangements were made for Kathryne's 
admission there. 

To tell the story of her education in words 
other than her own would be to spoil so fresh 
and naive a narrative, but it is impossible 
within the limits of a short article to do more 
than to quote a few characteristic para- 
graphs, with as few comments as possible. 

Miss Frick writes as follows in description 
of her first day at the Institution : — " The 
grass was high . . . and my teacher let me walk 
about and pick the flowers. I discovered that 
there were no stones or fences over which I 
might fall, and therefore decided that it 
would be safe for me to run around alone. I 



loved to run and did not like to be led ... I 
made a plan to fool my teacher. I pointed 
away off and pushed her a little, which told 
her that there were flowers over there that I 
wanted ; then I patted the ground on which 
I stood to tell her I would stay where I was 
while she picked the flowers for me. I knew 
that she was a good-sized woman, and since 
she wore a pointed belt like my grandma's, 
I took it for granted that she was not young 
or over-active. My mother was slender and 
often ran after me when I ran away, but here 
in front of this big, big house, where many 
ladies and gentlemen were, I thought that my 
teacher would not dare to run like a boy. So 
I darted away in the opposite direction (I 
did not know then that she taught physical 
culture in the evenings and that she enjoyed 
running almost as much as I did). It was 
not long before she caught me and held me 
fast. She put my hand on her chin and shook 
her head vigorously to tell me in a most 
emphatic way that I must not run away. I 
knew that already, but I tried to look as if I 
had not done anything wrong." 

The childish plot to " fool teacher," the 
deduction that a belt like grandma's must 
spell inactivity, and the little girl's attempt to 
" look as if I had not done anything wrong," 
are all interesting and important points. 

It is curious and not a little humiliating to 
read how the small Kathryne summed up her 
teacher in those early days. We grown-ups 
are so easily persuaded that children look up 
to us as Olympians, that the cool scrutiny of 
the little deaf-blind girl who tells us that she 
regarded her teacher as " some sort of fussy 
mixy-up person " makes us a little uncom- 
fortable, even though we know that Miss 
Foley's apparently untidy confusion of cubes 
and squares was really part of Kathryne's 
sense training. " She did not know," writes 
her pupil, " where the needles or strings were 
kept, and she was a borrower too. I tried to 
tell her in signs that my mother always knew 
where to find things ... I wished she were 
more like my mother." And Kathryne's 
horror at Miss Foley's appearance without 
gloves, " carrying an old wooden box un- 
wrapped under her arm " is delightfully 
typical of the extreme convention which is a 
characteristic of so many children. 

Perhaps one of the most striking features 
of the narrative is the way in which Kath- 
ryne refused to accept her teacher's word just 



because it was hers, and insisted on holding 
tenaciously to her own opinions till she was 
convinced by reason and not by mere author- 
ity. One extract from her teacher's diary 
illustrates this very well. Miss Foley was 
anxious to teach Kathryne that excessive 
drinking was an evil, and to do so, she told 
her the story of an intelligent man in good 
circumstances who took to drink and in a few 
years lost health, fortune and friends, ending 
her moral anecdote with the rhetoric question 
spelled into Kathryne's hand — " Who wants 
a drunkard for a friend ? " Kathryne's 
answer was a little disconcerting — " Another 
drunkard." Miss Foley tried again on a new 
tack — " Who wants to associate with a bad 
man ? " and once more was rather baffled to 
receive the perfectly logical answer "Another 
bad man." So she set off again with " Who- 
would like to have the President of the United 
States for his friend ? " thinking that this 
time she surely would get " Everyone " as 
her reply and so be able to lead her pupil to 
the opposite " Nobody," and clear up the 
" drunkard for a friend " tangle. But 
Kathryne was equal to the occasion, realising 
like the good little American citizen that she 
was, that the honour of the friendship of the 
American President is something to which 
Kings would aspire, and answered " King 

It is impossible here to give details of the 
way in which Miss Foley taught Kathryne 
to read and write and to cultivate her " lan- 
guage memory," but teachers of the deaf and 
blind would do well to read Miss Frick's 
narrative for themselves. Her story ends 
very simply, for she has not taken up any 
outside career ; following the advice of her 
teachers she returned home when school days 
were over, and is now living with her parents 
" as busy and as happy and content as most 
persons in the circumstances of my parents 
are. I help Mother with her household 
duties and do little things for Father when he 
returns home tired from work ; I dress dolls 
and sell them to get pin money. Then, in 
addition, I am taking a course in English 
composition and rhetoric from the Hadley 
Correspondence School which, with my 
reading, helps to keep me mentally alert . . . 
And the future ? Well, my first teacher 
taught me to enjoy the present and to leave 
bridge crossing until I should come to the 

c DficC^/cw 

Published by \J II, l\ i i IX. Editorial Offices: 

the National W^ ■""* /~\ I 8 I X 22A Greal Por '- 

Institute Jot I I / % \ ,\ / ^ land Street, 

the Blind JL>TjL^i VV> V^JL ^1 ^onJon. If. I. 


NEVER before, we think, has The New Beacon, or any of its predecessors, 
dedicated an issue to another country. But never before has another country 
been able to offer such generous hospitality as the United States is offering 
this Spring to the Blind World as a whole. Any plans for holding an Inter- 
national Conference in America had hitherto been frustrated by the 
expensiveness of the journey from Europe. Our American friends, viewing 
the possibilities with characteristic largeness of view, have made the journey 
possible for many who otherwise must have remained at home, and the Conference, which is 
to begin on April 13th, in New York, will be in the fullest sense a World Conference, at which 
diversity of tongues will, we hope, serve but to emphasize unity of aim and singleness of mind. 
The articles printed in this issue are intended, therefore, to depict, in simple outline, the 
present-day organisation of work for the blind in the United States. The Federal structure of 
the United States leads to wide variations in social legislation and practice in different parts of 
the country. Mr. Irwin's article in this issue shows that this wide variation exists in the affairs 
of the blind as in other spheres. To quote, with our own italics : " At the end of 1929 there 
were tiventy-one States having such special relief laws for the blind . . . In several large cities 
private associations for the blind have been organised to carry on such activities as Home Teaching, 
Placement Work, Sheltered Workshops, Recreation Projects and Eye Clinics . . . ". Into 
such points as these visitors will wish to inquire, and they will certainly be interrogated about 
them on their return by their colleagues who are not attending the Conference. 

The reports to be made by the British delegates will be of the first importance. It is not 
enough that delegates should throw their ideas into the common pot of the Conference and 
pool their experience with that of others who are working under different conditions ; what is 
required, in addition, is that the delegates, on their return to their own work, should be able 
to inform, and even inspire others by telling of what they themselves have learned. 

The English Delegation is going to the Conference to give other nations the benefit of its 
experience, and to learn everything that may be of value to the blind in the British Empire. 
Each delegate will report to his or her own organisation, but it is to be hoped that something of 
a synoptic report will also be prepared by the Delegation as a whole. 

This great opportunity has been afforded by the energy and co-operation of four organisations: 
the American Foundation for the Blind, the American Association of Instructors of the Blind, 
the American Association of Workers for the Blind, and the American Braille Press ; and to 
them we may express the warmest appreciation and gratitude. 


The Council of the National Institute for the Blind has taken a bold step forward in 
reconstituting its Council so as to make it predominantly a representative body, directly elected 
by organisations for the blind throughout the country. 

This step was foreshadowed in 1927 when the N.I.B. made its Unification " pact " with 
the Advisory Committee on Work for the Blind, since when the Council of the N.I.B. has 
contained nearly fifty per cent, of representative persons nominated by the Advisory Committee 
for election by the N.I.B. No one will be more gratified by the further advance towards national 
unity in work for the blind than these " representative persons," who by their services as 
Councillors have removed any lingering fears that a representative Council might not be an 
effective instrument for national work. 

The vital importance at present of strengthening and consolidating voluntaryism in work for 
the blind throughout the country, no less than the development of the Institute's own work, 
makes the Council's new move singularly opportune. 

The Editor. 




Mr. Edward Watson to Address Braille Club. 

Mr. Edward Watson, Secretary of the National Institute's Music Department, 
is to speak at the Annual Meeting of the Braille Club on April 13th, at the Royal 
Pavilion, Brighton. 

First Whist Prize Win by Blind Man. 

The first whist prize in the fourth Annual Programme Whist and Bridge Drive, 
organised by the Worthing Society for Befriending the Blind, was won by Mr. J. Lambeth, 
one of the totally blind guests. 

Effort for Blind Club Postponed through Sunday Observance Act. 

A Newcastle charitable institution — the Tyneside Recreation Club for the Blind — 
has had to postpone an entertainment which was to have been given on Sunday, March 
8th, owing to the resurrection of the Sunday Observance Act. 

The proceeds of the entertainment were to have gone to the funds of the club, and 
the Lord Mayor, Alderman David Adams, had consented to be present. 

Famous Huntsman Stricken with Blindness. 

Mr. Fred Holland, known throughout England as one of the finest huntsmen in 
the country, has had to give up hunting. He met with an accident, which resulted in 
partial blindness three years ago. He is taking the affliction bravely, but he finds the time 
hanging heavily on his mind. 

New Braille Branch of Scripture Gift Mission. 

The Committee of the Scripture Gift Mission have opened a new Braille Branch, 
and are publishing some of the best-known booklets, such as " God hath Spoken," and 
" Four Things that God wants you to Know." The booklets are in half-pocket size, 
and, therefore, are suitable for widespread distribution. Those who would like to 
receive such literature are invited to communicate with the Secretary, Scripture Gift 
Mission, Braille Department, Eccleston Flail, Eccleston Street, S.W.i. 

Blind Married Women Banned from Warrington Workshops. 

The Blind Persons' Sub-Committee of the Warrington Corporation have endorsed 
the action of the Voluntary Society in refusing to accept married women as blind workers 
in their workshops, and have agreed that the question of blind married female home 
workers should be referred to the society for consideration. 

Councillor F. Stringer, chairman of the Health Committee, replying to a discussion 
at the Town Council, said that the committee decided some time ago that they could 
not accept married women into the workshops, and recently acute cases had occurred 
which had caused the committee to put their decision into effect. On the recommendation 
of the blind people themselves, a prohibitive clause was placed in the scheme to prevent 
an influx of blind people who might endeavour to obtain benefits that might be larger 
in Warrington than in other towns. 

Magic for the Blind. 

Members of the Sports Club for the Blind in London were recently given an enter- 
tainment, " Magic for the Blind," by Mr. Fred Gower, a member of the Magic Circle. 
The conjuring and thought-reading items which Mr. Gower has specially adapted for 
a blind audience were greatly appreciated. Mr. Gower's thought-reading " medium " 
was Mr. J. Wakefield, a totally blind man, whose accuracy in reading the totals of long 
addition sums prepared by members of the audience on a blackboard was completely 
mystifying. Among other feats Mr. Wakefield guessed accurately the colour of handker- 
chiefs selected from a multi-coloured collection by members of the audience. A similar 
performance has been given to a gathering of the Magic Circle in Fleet Street. 

Mr. Gower is willing to give this entertainment voluntarily to other social clubs 
or schools for the blind ; in the case of distances from London travelling expenses would 
be required. Secretaries of societies anxious to take advantage of this offer should 
communicatt with the Editor of The New Beacon. 



Sweepstake Winners' Generosity. 

Messrs. Ward, Tormey and Prescott, who drew the first horse in the Irish Sweepstake 
for the Manchester Novemher handicap, have each given £200 to be invested in the 
personal interests of the blind boys who drew the lucky tickets. 

25s. a Week for Leicester Unemployables. 

The Leicester City Council has adopted a scheme proposed by the Parliamentary 
and General Purposes Committee to increase the annual contribution to the Leicester, 
Leicestershire and Rutland Institution for the Blind, to enable unemployable blind 
persons in the city to receive an income of 25s. per week. 

This will probably involve the payment of a further £2,000 a year. 

Councillor H. Simpson said they did not want the administration of the blind to be 
brought on to the city, which would mean a check to the gifts and private donations 
for that cause. 

It was stated that the blind in Leicester were treated more generously than in any 
place of the same size. 

Official Opening of Blind Masseur's Clinic at Hillingdon. 

An interesting function took place at Hillingdon, Middlesex, on Wednesday, March 
4th, on the occasion of the official opening of Mr. Ernest W T oodcock's Massage and 
Electrical Clinic by Capt. Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C. The chair was taken by the 
Rev. H. J. Kitcat, M.A., the Vicar of Hillingdon, supported by Admiral Sir Henry Bruce, 
Captain Harvey, the Rev. Mr. Rutherford, Mrs. Albert German (Hon. local representative, 
Middlesex Branch, British Red Cross Society), Major Wolley, Mr. Nicoll (Secretary, 
Hillingdon Branch, British Legion), Mrs. Burkitt (representing Middlesex Association 
for the Blind), Dr. Barrett, Mrs. F. Chaplin Hall (representing the Association of 
Certificated Blind Masseurs). 

Mr. Woodcock, who is a Chartered Masseur and Bio-Physical Assistant, has started 
in private practice in Hillingdon and district, where he has a well equipped and com- 
fortably furnished clinic at Denziloe Avenue ; he was trained in the Massage School of 
the National Institute for the Blind, and duly qualified in Massage, Remedial Exercises 
and Medical Electricitv. Considerable local interest was shown in the clinic, which, in 
a delightful speech by Sir Beachcroft Towse, was declared officially opened. 

Mr. Woodcock is a blind ex-service man (late Rifle Brigade), and on behalf of the 
Metropolitan Branch of the British Legion, Admiral Sir Henry Bruce expressed much 
interest in his training, and wished him well in his new career. 


Burmese Blind Supplying Government Dusters. 

Fr. Jackson, of the Mission to the Blind of Burma, says that the Mission's workshops 
are " particularly pleased with themselves " at the moment as they have just secured a 
contract for supplying dusters to a Government Department. 

Ming Sam School for the Blind, Canton. 

The Ming Sam School for the Blind, Canton, recently celebrated its fortieth 
anniversary ; it was founded by Dr. Mary Niles, who only returned to America after 
many years of devoted service in 1929, and it is now in the charge of Miss Carpenter and 
Miss Burkwall. There are 41 boys and girls in the Mission-school, and together with 
the Report we received a programme of a concert recently given by pupils and students 
there. Scenes from the life of Helen Keller, a tableau-representation of " Bob " Byer's 
birthday, music on water-glasses, and Chinese songs, all suggest a pleasant note of 
originality. Every effort is made by the workers of the Mission to combat blindness, 
and to take part in co-operation with hospitals and other health agencies in the work 
of prevention. 





AT the instance of the National 
Union of the Professional 
and Industrial Blind a 
deputation of musicians 
and tuners visited France 
and Germany last Novem- 
ber, and have now issued 
their Report, which is obtainable (price is.) 
from 122, St. Thomas' Road, Finsbury Park, 

N '4- . 

It is extremely interesting and very full 

of information closely condensed, so that it is 

rather difficult to give a summary that does it 

justice ; but in the hope that such a summary 

will encourage those of our readers who are 

concerned in the training of blind tuners and 

musicians to buy the Report and study it in 

detail, we give below a rather bald outline of 

its principal features. 

The object of the deputation (which 
included Messrs. C. Kedwell, Sinclair Logan, 
Ben Purse, H. Royston, J. Servant, H. C. 
Warrilow and Dr. Ernest Whitfield) was to 
inquire into the nature and extent of the 
training given in France and Germany to 
blind musicians and tuners, to ascertain how 
that training fitted them for their after- 
careers, and how far these careers were 
successful. Visits were paid to training 
Institutions, Societies for the Blind, and firms 
employing blind labour, and a private con- 
ference was held in Berlin with musicians 
and tuners, when personal contact was 
established and informal discussion took 

The Report naturally falls into three 
distinct parts, first dealing with Germany and 
France, and then going on to make certain 
recommendations as the result of the in- 
vestigations made. It will be convenient 
therefore to take each country in turn, and 
then to summarise the recommendations. 

i. Germany. 

Here among the Institutions and factories 
visited were the Municipal Institute, the 
Brandenburg State Institute, the Training 
Centre for the War Blinded, the Saxon State 
Institution at Halle, and the Bechstein Piano 

With regard to the training of tuners, it is 
observed that very careful selection of candi- 

dates is made, and that the period of training 
generally varies from two to four years, and is 
sometimes carried on together with other 
vocational training so that the tuner may, 
should his main profession prove inadequate, 
have a second string to his bow. 

All pupils begin their training with 
" chipping-up," training in repairs is always 
included in the course, and in certain of the 
Institutions towards the end of their training 
pupils are given experience in outside 
factories and show-rooms. 

Hitherto, in spite of pressure from the 
German Union of the Blind (a very active 
body which afforded the deputation consider- 
able help in their investigations), there is no 
uniform examination of tuners, and the 
certificate granted by the examining board in 
Berlin does not carry much weight with the 
general public. 

Help with tools is given at the conclusion of 
training, but very little organised effort is 
made to place proficient tuners. Unemploy- 
ment is of course a difficulty owing to the 
present world depression, and broadcasting 
and mechanical music have helped to make 
things more difficult. A proficient tuner in 
normal times can earn about £3 10s. 

Certain very useful tuning tools (notably 
those invented by a blind tuning instructor at 
Halle) were shown to the deputation. 

With regard to blind musicians in Germany, 
it is noted that there are no special Music 
Schools for the blind alone, but the blind 
student who takes up music obtains his 
training alongside his seeing fellows. Braille 
music is difficult to procure, but an effort to 
overcome this obstacle has been made by the 
establishment of a central office for the 
production of embossed copies which are 
sold at cost price, or lent to those unable to 

Most of the blind musicians in Germany 
are organists earning up to about £150 in the 
towns and anything from £12 to £50 in the 
villages ; very few are expected to be choir- 
masters as well. 

The difficulties experienced by blind 
concert artistes in obtaining engagements are 
keenly felt, and a very carefully thought-out 
scheme to overcome them has been made by 




the German Union of the Blind. Certain 
tests have been drawn up, sufficiently 
stringent to eliminate all those artistes who 
relied on their blindness rather than their 
intrinsic musical qualities to obtain engage- 
ments, and those who have successfully 
passed the test have been placed on an 
approved list. An agent is employed by the 
Union to arrange concert engagements for 
them and the artistes receive 10 per cent, of 
the gross takings with a minimum of 50s. per 

2. France. 

In France the Institutions and Societies 
visited included, among others, the Institu- 
tion Nationale, the Institut des freres de St. 
Jean de Dieu, and the Association Valentin 
Haiiy, all in Paris. 

The conclusions reached, as far as tuning 
is concerned, were to the effect that the pros- 
pects are better than in Germany, the blind 
tuner being regarded by the general public as 
on the whole more competent than the seeing. 

Training usually continues for about three 
years, and ends with a State examination of 
good repute. Provincial openings are fairly 
numerous and the Association Valentin Haiiy, 
which is affiliated to organisations in the 
country, is often successful in placing trainees 
in country districts. The French tuner in a 
factory generally earns about £6-£8 monthly, 
and though this seems to us poor, the general 
lower level of wages in France should be 
taken into account. 

With regard to the training in France for 
professional musicians, the Report notes that 
at the Institut des freres de St. Jean de Dieu 
it is usual for pupils from the very beginning 
to transpose their exercises and simpler pieces 
into all keys, which is a valuable practice in 
that it makes transposition easier, and 
reduces the effort of memorising. Pupils at 
this Institution do much of their practising 
in a single large room, round which are 
ranged twenty-five pianos, all in use at the 
sarrle time, and they are said " to acquire the 
faculty of concentration and isolation by this 
means." It sounds to the lay observer a 
rather painful method of acquisition. 

The Association Valentin Haiiy does 
valuable work both in employing blind 
copyists of Braille music and also by its 
efforts to obtain work both in town and 
country for blind organists, over eight 
hundred of whom are said to be employed, 
exclusive of a large number of blind women 

thus engaged in convents. Payment is poor, 
and £20 a year is regarded as satisfactory. 

The deputation was fortunate in meeting 
Monsieur Thiberge, a blind professor of 
music at the Ecole Normale, who has proved 
specially successful in the teaching of staff- 
notation, and has invented particularly useful 
apparatus for this purpose, which the deputa- 
tion hopes may be made more generally 

3. Recommendations. 

As a result of their visit to both countries 
the deputation made the following general 
recommendations : — 

1. That " chipping up," which is univer- 
sally included in piano tuning courses in 
Germany and France, should be adopted in 
the curriculum of tuning schools here. 

2. That showroom and factory experience 
during training, which is fairly general in 
Germany, should also be adopted here. 

3. That the performance of repairs from 
outside customers and the purchase and 
reconstruction of old pianos under skilled 
supervision should form part of the training 
course for tuners. 

4. That music-students should be instruc- 
ted to transpose from an early stage of the 

5. That there should be closer contact 
between music schools for the blind and 
such schools as The Royal Academy of 
Music and The Royal College of Music, so 
that gifted blind pupils should have greater 
opportunities of profiting from ordinary 
everyday relationships. 

6. That the policy of those training centres 
which set their face against the blind music 
student learning a stringed instrument 
should be reversed. The organist, for 
instance, might profitably give some time 
to the violin as a subsidiary study, with a 
view to giving lessons in that instrument. 

7. That while such a concert agency as that 
organised by the German Union for the 
Blind might not be possible here, some 
scheme might usefully be devised whereby 
blind artistes could be tested by an inde- 
pendent committee of experts, and those 
who came up to the standard given some 
assistance to obtain engagements by per- 
sonal application on their behalf to concert 


Such are the main recommendations of the 
Report as far as musicians and tuners are 




concerned, but an interesting concluding 
section gives an account of some visits paid by 
members of the deputation to factories in 
Germany, with a view to discovering some- 
thing of the general position of the blind 
worker in that country who is employed side 
by side with sighted labour, under the 
Disablement Law of 1920 which requires that 
2 per cent, of the labour employed shall be 

A warm tribute is paid to the energy and 
ability of Director Perls of Siemens- 
Schuckerts factory, and to the two Berlin 
municipal placement officers, and the con- 
clusion reached is that the German experi- 
ments do show that there is an opening in 
factory work for many of the so-called 
unemployable blind — " None of the workers 
at Siemens-Schuckert had had previous 
technical training. They were unskilled 
workers and nearly all would normally have 
been classified as unemployable." They are 
put to simple operations and quickly become 
proficient, and although the guaranteed 
weekly wage of 28s. sounds small to English 
ears it must be remembered that the wage 
level for the normal worker in Germany is 
much lower than in England. According to 
the management of Siemens-Schuckert, 70 
per cent, of their blind workers are of normal 
efficiency, and when we realise that many of 
those employed have serious physical defects 
in addition to blindness, the percentage seems 
extraordinarily high. 

" What has been possible " says the 
Report " in America and Germany should be 
possible in this country." 

# # # 

A correspondent who is especially interested 
in the question calls attention to a statement 
made in the foot-note on page 21 of the 
Report comparing the definitions of blindness 
in this country and in Germany. The Report 
says that blindness, according to the current 
Ministry of Health circular No. 780, is to be 
reckoned in this country as one-tenth normal 
vision after correction by means of glasses 
has been made. This fraction is compared 
with the one-twenty-fifth which is the corres- 
ponding fraction used in Germany, " any 
person must be considered as blind whose 
sight is not more than one-twenty-fifth of the 
normal." Our correspondent points out 
that the circular in question, in affording 
guidance in determining whether a person is 
too blind to perform work for which eye- 



sight is essential, lays down that a visual 
acuity greater than 6/6oth with the most 
suitable glasses maybe regarded, intheabsence 
of such counter-balancing conditions as 
great contraction of the field of vision, 
marked nystagmus, etc., as presumptive 
evidence that the person is not too blind to 
perform work for which eyesight is essential. 
But the degree of visual acuity should not be 
regarded as the sole determining factor and 
due consideration should, of course, be given 
to all the visual conditions. At the same time 
it is essential that only visual conditions 
should be taken into account, and other 
bodily or mental infirmities should be 


Education and Placement. 

We have received an interesting group of 
folders dealing with education and placement, 
issued by the American Foundation for the 
Blind. Printed in attractive colours, and 
illustrated with well-chosen photographs and 
drawings, they arouse interest at first sight ; 
the reader feels he wants to know more of 
seven-year Arnold intendy tapping out his 
home-letter on a Braille writer, or of the 
groups of schoolboys busy in the poultry 
yard, and at work in the garden. 


We much'regret to report the death of : — 

Henry Josiah Wilson, on February 23rd, 
at the age of 86 (see sketch of his career on 
page 72). 

Dr. Henri Racine, who was knocked down 
by a taxi-cab in the Champs Elysees, although 
carrying one of the recently introduced white 
canes for the blind. Dr. Racine had been 
blind since 19 14. It was only last month that 
he received his degree of M.D. from the 
Faculty of Medicine. 

Chief-Engineer Rahn, of the Siemens 
works in Berlin, who has been the right-hand 
man of Direktor Perls in adapting machinery 
for the use of the blind and in teaching the 
blind to perform processes in ordinary 




' Since the value of words must change with widened or contracted thought, 
no formula expressed in words can be exhaustive." — Bishop Westcott. 

WE have already seen that the 
Founders of great endow- 
ments, at least in modern 
times, possess sufficient 
prescience which enables 
them to admit the validity 
of many claims. Such 
Founders recognize the value of open spaces, 
playing fields and a thousand and one other 
objects of utility and social interest, and it is 
conceivable that endowments, established 
along these lines, will continue to be of 
immense service to untold generations. 

However much we may feel that a reform 
of our endowed charities is called for, it will 
be obvious from what we have previously 
stated that it will be necessary to proceed 
very cautiously. It has been suggested that 
after altering the general law as previously 
mentioned it should be declared that the 
power of making schemes already vested in 
the Court of Chancery and the Charity 
Commissioners should be extended so that, 
to quote the Commissioners, " Tribunals 
having power to establish schemes should be 
at liberty to take into consideration the 
propriety of effecting the modification of any 
provision of the original trust, which, by 
reason of lapse of time, or change of circum- 
stances, shall appear to be no longer calculated 
to promote the substantial object of the 
foundation." It is interesting to observe the 
point of view of the Commissioners in this 
connection, for obviously the opinion is not 
the result of any haphazard speculation, rather 
is it a point of view borne in upon them from 
a very extensive and varied experience. On 
their own initiative and without any application 
from the Trustees, the Charity Commis- 
sioners or the Court of Chancery, should be 
vested with the necessary powers in order that 
foundations that have become obsolete, and 
have ceased to function in accordance with 
the original intention, should be capable of 
being revised from time to time in order to 
meet modern requirements. If the modifica- 
tions required are such that the Charity 

would be unrecognizable by the Founder, the 
endowment should, says Mr. H. F. Brown, 
" With due regard to existing vested interests, 
become part of a national consolidated 
endowments Fund to be administered for 
charitable purposes on the lines indicated by 
the Carnegie Foundations." 

The doctrine of cy praes, though a natural 
corollary to the doctrine of the sanctity of a 
Founder's wishes, has been carried to absurd 
lengths, and it appears more reasonable to 
assume a general charitable intention on the 
part of a Founder, if his original intentions 
fail, than, specifically to appropriate his Fund 
to purposes he could never have contemplated. 

It is obvious, however, that with certain 
rules laid down for their guidance in revising 
charitable foundations the Charity Commis- 
sioners seem to be eminently a body best 
fitted to undertake and discharge duties such 
as are herein suggested. May we again refer 
to the London Parochial Charities Act of 1883 
which forms an excellent precedent. Its 
provisions would be capable of a much wider 
application than the present restricted service 
requires. An additional safeguard would 
remain by retaining an appeal from the 
Commissioners to the Court as at present. In 
these articles we have striven to show that 
whilst many foundations are performing 
service of inestimable value, others are sorely 
in need of reorganisation, and any authority 
which can be given to make the Trusts of 
still greater public utility must surely be 
welcomed by all who are anxious that the 
voluntary system should be capable of enlarged 
functions and still more permanent service. 

May we briefly state other aspects of the 
problem calling for reform, (1) All endowed 
charities should be under an obligation to 
register with the Charity Commissioners and 
should be required to systematically render 
accounts. Its power should be enforceable in 
a summary manner. Those who have 
witnessed the operation of the Blind Persons 
Act, 1920, must agree that registration of 
Charities for the Blind has been, and is, a 



permanent advantage. Certainly such regis- 
tration has given a quietus to bogus organis- 
ations. Generally speaking, those who are 
afraid of registration are the administrators of 
charity who stand mostly in need of such a 

(2) The Commissioners should have power 
to consolidate Charities, for only by this means 
will they be able to exercise the beneficent 
influences on social life intended by their 
founders. Lord Brougham's commissioners 
proved that out of 28,880 endowed charities 
13,331 had incomes of less than -£5 and that 
nearly 6,200 had incomes of less than £1. 

(3) The accounts of endowed charities 
should be made out in a simple standardised 
form and be open for inspection locally ; that 
is, by the County or County Borough 
Authorities, or by any person having an 
interest in the Trusts. 

It should be noted in this connection that 
the Ministry of Health have for years past 
been impressing this point of view on institu- 
tions, societies and agencies for the blind, and 
although they cannot claim to have been 
entirely successful very real progress has been 
made in this direction, and the accounts 
presented by these organisations are much 
more intelligible than was the case a few years 
ago. There is no reason why Trustees of 
ordinary Benefactions should not present 
their affairs in such a manner as can be easily 
understood by the public, and if they fail to 
do so they lend colour to the assumption that 
there is something to hide, when in point of 
fact they have no such purpose or intention. 

(4) The Charity Commissioners should 
have power to make an audit of all charities' 
accounts at their discretion, and it would be 
useful, from time to time, if a note were made 
in the Report of the Commissioners to the 
effect that such audits had been completed in 
a number of cases and the results recorded. 

(5) The administration of charities should 
be in the hands of properly appointed 
trustees as heretofore, but the trustees of the 
Consolidated Endowments Fund should be a 
specially selected body having experience of 
social work and capable of originating and 
carrying through far-reaching experiments in 
social improvement. We have not, hereto- 
fore, dealt at any considerable length with the 
idea that certain Trust Funds should be 
consolidated because it seems to us that if a 
foundation has become obsolete the natural 
and inevitable thing to do is for the State to 



appropriate funds which are no longer 
necessary for application in specific directions. 
Frequently, the Central and Local Author- 
ities have effected such changes by Statutory 
provision so as to meet more completely the 
need prescribed by certain Trust Funds ; 
money has been expended for this more 
comprehensive task, and it is reasonable to 
assume that the wishes of the founder have 
been more completely discharged than could 
have been the case by a simple instrument of 
private benevolence. Therefore, the estab- 
lishment of a Consolidated Fund might very 
properly be instituted for the purposes of 
achieving benevolent objects of which original 
founders of private Trusts would most 
cordially approve. 

Speaking of the necessity for exercising 
caution in dealing with old foundations, a 
writer on this subject says : — 

" Though the reform of existing founda- 
tions must proceed cautiously, new founda- 
tions may be treated with greater freedom, 
and I hold it to be a sound principle that, 
as regards them, there should be a right of 
rejection. The State should not be bound 
to take whatever is offered to it ; it should 
have the right of deciding whether the 
particular character that the founder has 
given to his endowment should take effect, 
or whether the endowment shall be appro- 
priated to some other reasonable purpose, 
or be included in the Consolidated Endow- 
ments Fund." 

We do not suppose that this point of view 
will be seriously contested, for obviously, the 
State, if called upon to place machinery for 
adminstrative purposes at the disposal of 
Trustees, must have the right to decide 
whether the character of a Trust is in con- 
formity with public policy or whether it runs 
counter to such policy, and if the latter, then 
authority should be taken to recast the objects 
of the foundation so as to bring it into harmony 
with modern needs and requirements. It is 
conceded that a certain deference should be 
paid to the founder's wishes, at any rate for a 
definite period, and some writers on this 
subject have suggested during the life of the 
founder, and say for a period of twenty-one 
years after his death, but obviously those 
wishes should never be permitted to interfere 
with public welfare, no matter how such 
period may have to be limited or even can- 

Rejected endowments should be treated as 


Trusts, the purposes of which have failed, and 
they should automatically fall into the 
Consolidated Endowments Fund. Most 
lawyers are agreed that the alternative of 
treating them as cases of intestacy would be 
unsatisfactory, and as a rule be not in accord 
with the wishes of the founder. It may be 
properly contended that such a founder has 
an urge towards charity and none towards his 
next of kin. If, when bequests are being 
made by Will, the Testator so wishes he can 
always give his benevolence a new direction 
in the event of the first choice being rejected. 
It may be contended that if Charitable 
Endowments are to be interfered with in this 
fashion they would not be made. 

Over and over again social history abounds 
with examples completely refuting such a 
notion. In education we were told many 
years ago that public control would destroy 
educational endowments : nothing of the 
kind has happened, quite the contrary ; those 
endowments have been increased and 
strengthened because of the confidence which 
has been established in an enlightened public 

As we have indicated elsewhere, much the 
same thing was said when the Charity 
Commissioners were constituted in the year 
1853, but so far as can be judged the inter- 
vention of the commissioners has tended to 
increase the aggregate Charitable Endow- 
ments. It is pointed out that : — 

" During the years 191 8 to 1927 the 

investments in the Custody of the Official 

Trustee of Charitable Funds increased from 

£40,930,233 to £70,190,218. The capital is 

growing at the rate of two to three million 

pounds a year. In the year 1927 there were 

49,219 separate accounts and the income 

was £2,430,880. This does not take into 

account Real Estate nor the Endowed 

Charities that have not come under the 

cognizance of the Commissioners." 

Earlier in these articles we have given even 

more conclusive figures, and, therefore, the 

point is established beyond refutation that 

increased vigilance and central control is not 

in the least degree disturbing those who have 

money to bequeath for benevolent purposes ; 

rather is it stimulating them to give because 

they know that the probabilities are that their 

bequests will more completely meet the 

objects and purposes they have in view than 

was the case a few generations ago. 

To enlightened founders the example of the 

Carnegie and Rockefeller Foundations will 
appeal, and they will only be too glad to know 
that a means will be provided whereby their 
endowments will be applied to the best 
advantage in future ages ; for no matter how 
far seeing they may be, it is utterly impossible 
for them to comprehend social changes that 
are calculated to affect their bequests. There- 
fore, relying as they do upon a beneficent and 
sympathetic administration, they are content 
to feel that their bequests will be properly 


^The Rt. Hon. Lord Sanderson of 
Hunmanby has been appointed a member of 
the Placement and General Research Sub- 
Committee of the National Institute for the 

Mr. Thomas Lee, of Ravensthorpe, has 
accepted the Presidency of the Dewsbury, 
Batley and District Institution for the Blind, 
in succession to the late Councillor William 
Howgate, of Batley. For many years he has 
been an ardent worker for the blind, and he 
is a well-known figure in the public life of 


To the Editor. 

Grade III— Braille. 

Sir, — The Sub-Committee of the British 
Uniform Type Committee have at present 
under consideration the revision of the above. 
It would help them greatly if they could form 
some idea of the number of people in the 
country who find this grade of service, or 
think it might be of service if improved. They 
would welcome any expression of opinion as 
to the direction the improvement might take. 

Will those who are interested send their 
views either to Miss Prince, National Lending 
Library, 35, Great Smith Street, London, 
S.W.i , or to Miss Glazebrook, of the National 
Institute for the Blind, Great Portland Street, 
London, W.i. 

Yours, etc., 

W. M. Stone, 
Superintendent and Headmaster, 

The Royal Blind Asylum and School, 
Craigmillar Park, Edinburgh. 


7 1 




By P. M. EVANS, M.A., LL.D., J.P. 

the death of Henry Josiah 
Wilson on the 23rd February, 
at his son's residence at Burley, 
Hants, there passes away one 
who has given many years' 
distinguished service in the 
interests of the blind com- 

Born at Lydstep near Tenby on the 1st 
March, 1844, H. J. Wilson was the third son 
of the late Edward Wilson of Hean Castle, 

He was educated at Cheltenham College, 
where he acquitted himself well. An attack, 
however, of scarlet fever when he was 23 
years of age affected his health so seriously 
that his doctors recommended him to winter 
abroad. He accordingly went to Argentina 
and remained there 14 years, in the meantime 
regaining both health and vigour. 

From an accident incurred in 1871 whilst 
lassoing wild horses his right eye was perman- 
ently injured, and in spite of medical assistance 
— for which he had to travel 200 miles — 
could not be saved. 

In 1880 he returned home and shortly 
afterwards married Miss Edith Nairne, 
daughter of the late Rev. John Du Pre 
Addison, who predeceased him a few years 

In 1882 he was selected out of 400 appli- 
cants for appointment as Secretary to 
" Gardner's Trust for the Blind," a post 
which he held for 40 years. This appointment 
marked the commencement of his long, able 
and devoted work on behalf of the blind. 

During his Secretaryship he visited all the 
principal Institutions for the Blind in England 
Scotland and Wales and also many Institu- 
tions abroad. 

He also attended the following Conferences 
of the Blind :— 

York 1883 

Amsterdam . . . . 1883 

Paris 1889 

London . . . . 1902 

Manchester . . . . 1908 

Exeter . . . . 191 1 

and the International Conference held in 

London in 1914. 

He was mainly responsible for the organis- 
ation of the Conferences held from 1902 



onwards, being Chairman of the Conference 
Committees and reading papers on important 
subjects at each Conference. 

In addition to these papers, he also read a 
paper on " The Education and Employment 
of the Blind " before the Royal Society of 
Arts, for which he was awarded the Society's 
silver medal. 

In 1907 he was instrumental in founding 
the College of Teachers of the Blind, and was 
elected a Fellow of the College in 1909. 

The handbook which he issued in 1887, 
entitled " Information with regard to 
Institutions, Societies and Classes for the 
Blind in the United Kingdom " was a most 
important work, forming an invaluable guide 
to the numerous activities of the blind world. 

In 1898 he started the first English Maga- 
zine The Blind solely devoted to work for the 
blind. He edited this paper for 22 years and 
thus left behind him a most valuable history 
of the national and international work being 
done for the blind. 

So great was his knowledge and experience 
that his advice and opinion upon all matters 
connected with the blind were frequently 
sought by the Government. In 1886 he gave 
important evidence before the Royal Commis- 
sion on the Blind and Deaf and Dumb. 

In 1 9 14 he was appointed by the Local 
Government Board a Member of the Depart- 
mental Committee on the welfare of the 
Blind. He was first Vice-Chairman and 
later Chairman of the Advisory Committee of 
the Blind to the Local Government Board, 
now the Ministry of Health, and in 1920 he 
was appointed Vice-Chairman of the newly 
appointed Advisory Committee. 

It was at this time that failing health 
compelled him to relinquish his work and he 
accordingly tendered his resignation which 
was reluctantly accepted by the Committee. 

In the same year he was the honoured 
guest at a farewell Dinner given to him, at 
which Lord Shaw of Dunfermline presided, 
when a cheque for £330, together with an 
album containing the signatures of the 
subscribers, was handed to Mr. Wilson. 

In April, 1921, he was presented with the 
honorary freedom and Livery of the Cloth- 
workers' Company, honoris causa 

" In appreciation of the valuable services 


" rendered by him during the past 40 years 
" in the interests and welfare of the blind 
" community." 

During the course of his strenuous career, 
he held the Chairmanship of the following 
societies and committees : 

College of Teachers of the Blind. 
Union of Unions of Agencies for the Blind 
(now The Union of Counties Associ- 
ations for the Blind). 
Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties 
Association for the Blind (now South- 
Eastern and London Counties Associ- 
ation for the Blind). 
Federation of London Workshops for the 

Special Committee to consider the Bill for 
the Education and Employment of the 
National Committee for the Employment 

of the Blind. 
Federation of Libraries for the Blind. 
In addition to the above he was also 
connected with many other bodies doing 
educational and philanthropic work. 

The loss of his valuable advice and assist- 
ance was severely felt by all, and he carried 
with him into his retirement not only the 
regard, affection and esteem of all those who 
had been privileged to work with him during 
the 40 years above referred to, but also the 
gratitude and blessing of the blind community 
on whose behalf he had so loyally devoted all 
his working years. 

Pearson's Fresh Air Fund. 

" Roses in December " gives an account of 
the work of Pearson's Fresh Air Fund which 
has completed thirty-nine years of service 
and in 1930 gave two weeks' holiday to 2,850 
poor children and a day in the country to 
123,152 others. The Report is delightfully 
illustrated with pictures of laughing boys and 
girls, and accounts are given of the work in 
many of the 41 centres, including London, 
Liverpool, Manchester and Cardiff. Foun- 
der's Day was celebrated on the 17th June, by 
a picnic in Epping Forest, when the children 
had a distinguished fellow-guest in Sir Gerald 
du Maurier. Since the Fund was first 
opened by Sir Arthur Pearson no less than 
5,610,730 day outings and 98,253 fortnightly 
holidays have been given. Mr. Ernest Kessell , 
C.B.E., whose name is almost identified with 
the Fund, still continues his effective work 
as Hon. Treasurer and Hon. Secretarv. 


THE following excerpt from the 
193 1 Year-book of the British 
Federation of Musical Com- 
petition Festivals deals with 
a matter of such importance 
that we trust our readers will 
do their best to see that the 
information is passed on to the blind in 
every district throughout the country. 

" We gladly draw attention to an important 
point made by the National Institute for the 
Blind, viz : — that many blind musicians 
throughout the country are debarred from 
participating in Musical Competition Festivals 
owing to the difficulty of ascertaining, in 
time, which of the various Test-pieces are 
available in Braille. 

" The Braille Music Catalogue of the 
National Institute includes thousands of 
musical works, of all types, and the Federation 
is informed that the Institute would gladly 
(and gratuitously) assist Festival Secretaries 
to indicate which pieces are already in Braille. 

" We imagine that most Festival Secretaries 
would probably find it convenient to send a 
printers' proof-sheet, giving the titles of Test- 
pieces, to the Secretary of the National 
Institute's Music Department, requesting 
that a tick be placed against each item 
published in Braille. Such requests would 
receive prompt attention. 

" The following excellently worded explan- 
atory note appears in the current Syllabus of 
an important Festival which has already 
adopted this plan : — 

" ' The attention of blind competitors, or 
of blind musicians who may wish to present 
sighted or blind pupils, is drawn to the 
fact that all the Test-pieces which may be 
obtained in Braille are indicated in the 
Syllabus by an asterisk (*) and they are 
published by the National Institute for 
the Blind, 224, Great Portland Street, 
London, W.i.' 

" We commend this matter to the attention 
of all Festival Secretaries, as something which 
should not only benefit the blind, but also 
add many new and worthy competitors to 
the lists." 





Cincinnati Library Society for the Blind. 

The Report for 1929-30 states that over 
2,700 volumes have been added to the 
Library during the year, and quotes an 
appreciative letter from a reader who writes 
that in his eighty-third year he mastered 
revised Braille. The Library, in addition to 
its purely literary activities, holds a weekly 
social gathering, sends visitors to the invalid 
and lonely blind, and supplies concert 

The New York Institute for the Education of 
the Blind. 

The Report for 1930 is of interest to 
English readers in the comparison made by 
the Principal of the Institute between the 
work done on the manual side in schools in 
Europe with that done in America, a com- 
parison made as a result of a visit paid to 
Germany, England, and Sweden. He is of 
opinion that the manual work done in 
America is inferior to that in European 
schools, because " quite frankly it is the 
purpose of these European schools to turn 
out artisans." He claims that in America the 
aim is " to give every child capable of receiv- 
ing it an education that will go beyond the 
elementary studies and include the high 
school ... in manual training we shall not 
attempt more than to offer the pupil oppor- 
tunities to learn how to co-ordinate head and 

The Report is delightfully illustrated with 
photographs, and includes a particularly 
attractive one of a scene from a play acted by 
the blind, showing life in colonial days in 
America, when the handicrafts specially 
associated to-day in our minds with the blind 
played a vital part in the life of every house- 

Union of Counties Associations for the 

The name of the Metropolitan and 
Adjacent Counties Association for the 
Blind has been changed to the South 
Eastern and London Counties Association 
for the Blind. 

Its area and function are unchanged. Its 
area includes Berkshire, Bournemouth, 
Brighton, Canterbury, Croydon, Eastbourne, 
East Ham, Essex, Hampshire, Hastings, 
Hertfordshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, City of 
London, County of London, Middlesex, 
Portsmouth, Reading, Southampton, South- 
end-on-Sea, Surrey, East Sussex, West 
Sussex, West Ham. 

North Western Counties Association for the 

A Conference of Secretaries, Home Teach- 
ers and others interested in work for the 
Blind, will be held in the Cathedral Parlour, 
Chester, on 29th April, 1931. Further 
particulars can be obtained from the Secretary, 
North Western Counties Association for the 
Blind, 33, Halkyn Road, Chester. 





The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copy. 
ORGAN — *. d. 

10.633 Bantock, Granville. Processional, 

from " The Song of Songs " (arr. 

by Chris Edmunds) ... ... ... 2 4 

10.634 Mendelssohn. Wedding March ... 2 

10.635 Rowley, Alec. Elves 2 

10.636 Sumsion Corbett. Two Andantes ... 2 


10.637 Bainton, Edgar L. Deux Morceaux : 

(a) The Pool of Rushes ; (b) The 
Enchanted Woods ... ... ... 2 

10.638 Carse, Adam. A Bunch of Keys (12 

Easy Pieces in Easy Keys) ... ... 2 

10.639 Fly, Leslie. Scotland's Story (12 

Characteristic Miniatures) ... ... 2 

Geehl, Henry. Valse Elegante ... 2 

Howells, Herbert. A Sailor Tune ... 2 
Rebikoff. Autumn Thoughts, Book II 

(Eight Short Pieces), Op. 8 2 8 

Schioler, Victor. Swedish Polska 

(Folk-Dance) 2 

Weelkes, Thomas. Galliard (edited by 

Harold Craxton) 2 

Donaldson, W. You're driving Me 

Crazy ! Song Fox-Trot ... ... 2 

Myers, S. Cupid on the Cake, Novelty 

Song Fox-Trot 2 

Weston, H. We must all pull together ! 
(from " Arcadian Follies "), Song 
Fox-Trot 2 

King, R. Moonlight on the Colorado, 

Song Waltz 2 






10,649 Arne, T. 
C— F 1 

When Daisies Pied, F : 




10.650 Halle. The Arrow and the Song, 13 flat : 

D E 1 

10.651 Bridge, Frank. Come to me in my 

dreams, D flat ; C- E 1 

10.652 Coates, John. The Rally-Call. D; 

D— D l " 

10.653 Gourley, Konald. Crossed in l.ove, 

F; C sharp— F l 

l(»,fi.".+ Hely-Hutchinson, Victor. Three 

Nonsense Songs : 1. The Owl and 
the Pussv-cat ; 2. The Table and 
the Chair : 3. The Duck and the 
Kangaroo : Medium Voice ; C — F 1 

10,655 Johnson, Rosamond (arr. by). Lit'le 
David plav on yo' harp (Negro 
Spiritual), G ; D— G 1 

MM>r>(i .Mackenzie, A. C. Lift my Spirit up to 
Thee, B flat ; F— G 1 

10.657 Mortclmans. I. The Angelus, C : 

l>— F 1 

10.658 O'Hara, G. The Living God ! (Sacred), 

F; F— F 1 
10,050 Wood, A. II. The Man with a Single 


10.000 Associated Board of the Royal Academy 

and Royal College of Music, "School" 
Examination (Syllabus B), Papers 
set in Harmony and Grammar of 
Music (1029) ..." 

10.001 " Local Centre " Examination (Syl- 

labus A), Papers set in Rudiments 
of Music and Harmony (1920) 

10.002 Royal Academy of Music. Three 

General Musicianship Papers for the 
Licentiateship Examination (Septem- 
ber. 1020 -Easter, 1930) 


The prices of the following publications are subject 

to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 

the British Isles and throughout the British Empire 

per vol. 

9,634 9,637 Arrow of Gold, The, by Joseph s. d. 
Conrad. Grade 2, Large size. Tnter- 
pointed, Paper Covers. 4 vols. 
F. 238 ti 

0,07s 9,680 Astonishing History of Troy Town, 
The, by Sir A. T. Quiller-Couch. 
tirade 2, Large size, 'Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 168 ... 5 9 

10,108 10. 109 Berridge House Receipt Book. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Cloth Boards, 2 vols. G. 136 ... 8 6 

9,512 Bridge of San Luis Rey, The, by Thornton 
Niven Wilder. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Cloth Boards. G. 72 8 9 

9,681 9,684 Captain Margaret, by John Mase- 
field. Grade 2, Large size, Inter 
pointed. Paper Covers, 4 vols. F. 242 6 

10,532 Concise Music Dictionary, compiled by 

E. Watson. Grade 2, Pocket size. 
Interpointed, Pamphlet. C. 18 ... 1 9 

8,90o 1 >anvers Jewels, The, by Mary Cholmon- 
delay. Grade 2, Large size. Inter 
pointed, Cloth Boards. G, 70 ... (i 

0.01 I 9,615 Flight of the Heron, The, by D. K 
Broster, Grade 2, Large size, Inter 
pointed, Paper Covers. 5 vols 

F. 295 (i 

8,957-8,958 George Meredith, by J. B. Priestley. 

Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Cloth Boards, 2 vols. G. 136 ... 8 6 

9,630 9,633 Greenery Street, by Denis Mac Kail 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed. 
Paper Covers, 4 vols F. 223 ... 5 9 

/>,'. Vi I. 

9,507-9,509 Havoc, by H. Phillips Oppenheim, s d 
Grade 2. Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 196 ... 6 

9,625 1 Ioney Bee, by Anatole France. Grade 2. 
Large size. Interpointed. Paper 
Covers. F. 40 ... ... ... ."> (> 

9,510 '■> "ill Instrument of Destiny. The, bj 
J. D. Beresford Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed. Paper Covers. 
2 vols. F. 115 a 

9,750 !• 7.">2 Keeping up Appearances, by Rose 
Macaulay, Grade 2, Large size. 
Interpointed. Paper Covers, 3 vols. 
F. 185 6 3 

0,747 9,749 My Lady ot the Moor, by John 
Oxenham Grade 2. Large size. 
Interpointed. Paper Covers, 3 vols. 

E. 158 r. 

9,619-0,622 Passage in Park Lane, The, by 

J. de la Mare Rowley. Grade 2, 
Large size, Interpointed, Paper 
Covers, 4 vols. E. 255 ... ... ti 3 

in. 17 I Poems of Childhood, by Githa Sowerby 
Grade 2, Pocket size, Interlined, 
Pamphlet C. 10 1 

9,588-9,590 Poor Gentleman, The, by Ian Hay 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers. 3 vols. E. 154 ... ."> 3 

9,719-0,723 Shakespeare Criticism. Grade 2, 
Large size, Interpointed, Paper 
Covers, 5 vols. F. 281 :> 

9,616 9,618 Silent Handicap, A, by Ann 
Denman. Grade 2, Large Size, 
Interpointed. Paper Covers, 3 vols 

F. 10(1 (i 3 

9,507 0,599 Some Experiences of an Irish R.M. 

by E.O.E. Somerville & Martin 
Ross. Grade 2. Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 170 '■> 9 
0,522 -0,r>28 Sylvia's Lovers, by Mrs. Gaskell. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 7 vols. F. 409 5 


The prices of the following publications arc subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds tor the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per set net . 

3,09(1 Moon Made Easy, by Hilda Bradlield. .•>. d . 

Specially red need price of ... ... I 

The contents can also be supplied separately 
as follows :- Net. d. 
Suggestions for Teachers (Letter- 
press Leaflet) ... ... ... ... 1 

Alphabet Card with Contractions ... 1 

Finger Exercise Card ... ... 1 

Graduated Exercises Nos. 1- Hi ... 3 
Life of Dr. Moon (Wide Line 

Reader) ... ... ... ... 5 

Envelope to hold the above ... I 

3,00) Moon Letter Blocks. Giant siz 

e. 24 

Characters and Numerals ... 

per set t; 






Homer ; Odysscv ... 



Larousse, Nouvcau 



■ Steiner, K. Lectures to Teachers 



Smith, L. Pearsall : Words and Idioms 



Alpha of the Plough 'Seen.! Series) 







Wills and Oliver : Roman 1 .1 

v (192!) 



Edited by J. W, C. Turner 



Fleg, E. Life of Moses 


Guerber, E. Myths of the Middle Age 




Masefield, J. Right Royal. 


Mew, Charlotte. The Farmer' 







Jenks, E. History of Politics 



Green E., and Potter, E. A. 






Redmaync, Sir R. Fuel ... 



Rethune-Baker, J. F. Faith 

of tile 





Hcrold, A. F. Life of Buddha 


Watson, E. \Y. Church of England 




FICTION. vols. 

Baring, Maurice. Coat without seam ... ... 5 

Benson, Stella. Pipers and a Dancer ... ... 2 

Bowen, Marjorie. Sheep's-head and Babylon. 

and Other Stories of Yesterday and To-day 6 
Connington, j. J. Murder in the Maze ... 4 

Connington, J. J. Nemesis at Raynham Parva 6 
Dunsany, Lord. " Blessing of Pan " ... ... 3 

Greene, G. Man within ... ... ... ... 4 

Hamilton, Lord Frederic. P j.. the Secret 

Service Bov ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Munthe, Axel. The Story of San Michele ... 7 
Phillpotts. Eden. Cherry Gambol and Other 

Stories ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Roberts, Cecil. Pamela's Spring Song ... ... 5 

Stern, G. B. Petruchio 3 

Walpole, Hugh. Hans Frost 5 

Wharton, Edith. Age of Innocence ... ... 5 

Wharton. Edith. Hudson River Bracketed ... 8 
Williamson, H. Beautiful Years ... ... 4 


Baring, The Hon. Yenetia. Deafness and 

Happiness ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Benn, J. P. Confessions of a Capitalist (E. W. 

Austin Memorial) ... ... ... ... 4 

Blyton, W. J. Law of Self-sacrifice in Nature. 

Man and God. (Affirmation Series) ... ... 1 

Boyd, A. K. H. Some Graver Thoughts of a 

Country Parson ... ... ... ... ] 

A Buchanan, A. C. Place called Gethsemane ... 1 
Collier, John. Religion of an Artist ... ... 1 

Deane, A. C. Canon. How to understand the 

Gospels ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Gibbs, Sir P. Romance of Empire ... ... 9 

Grensted, L. W. Making of Character. (Affirm- 
ation Series) ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Hammond, J. L., and B. Rise of Modern 

Industry. (E. W. Austin Memorial) ... ... 5 

"Janitor.'' Pulpits and Personalities. (Survey 

of some leading London Churches) ... ... 2 

Knox, E. V. Wonderful Outings. (From 

"Punch") 2 

Lacy, T. A. Sectarianism (Affirmation Series) 1 
Lofthouse, W. F. Hebrew View of Evil. 

(Affirmation Series) ... ... ... ... ] 

Lucas, E. V 7 . Traveller's Luck. Essays and 

Fantasies ... ... ... ... ... 2 

^•McCormick, W. P. G. Be of Good Cheer ... 2 

^Masterman, C. F. G. Frederick Denison 

Maurice ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

f Presented by the Guild of Church Braillists. 

i Produced by the National Institute for the Blind. 

Middleton, S11 T. Co-operation in Rural Life. 

(From Social Service Review " October, 

1930) 1 

Newman. E. Wagner. (Music of the Masters) 

(E. W. Austin Memorial) ... ... ... 3 

1 Priestley, J. B. George Meredith (English 

Men of Letters) 2 

Sandburg. C. Abraham Lincoln ; The Prairie 

Years ... ... ... 16 

Sykes, J. Mary Anne Disraeli ... ... ... 2 

Webb, Mary. Poems and the Spring of Joy ... 2 
Weigall, A. Ancient Egypt. (Benn's Sixpenny 

library) ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Weigall, A. Flights into Antiquity ... ... 3 

Wilson, Barbara. House of Memories ... ... 2 

Wilson, J. M. God is Love- Can this be true ? 

(Affirmation Series) ... ... ... ... 1 


Broomhall, M. Hudson Taylor the Man who 

dared ... ... ... ... ... ... I 

Cutler, U. W. Stories of King Arthur and his 

Knights ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Line upon Line Parts 1 and 2 ... ... ... 5 

Pool, Millicent. Timothy, the Miller's Son ... 1 

Rea, Lorna. Six Mrs. Greenes ... ... ... 4 




In order to prevent disappointment and ensure the 
delivery of extra consignments of books from the 
National Library for the Blind, 35, Great Smith Street, 
Westminster, S.W.I, for the Easter Holidays, readers 
are asked to give as long notice as possible that extra 
books required, so that they may be despatched. 
O. I. Prince, 

Secretary and Librarian 


requires position, preferably in Town. Apply L. 
c/o Editor, New Beacon, National Institute for the 
Blind, 224, Great Portland Street, London, W.l. 


Head Master, resident, unmarried, Elementary 
Teacher's Certificate and Certificate of the College of 
Teachers of the Blind, for new School for educable 
backward blind children, boys and girls, to be opened 
next September, at Court Grange, Abbotskerswell, 
nr. Newton Abbot, Devon. Burnham Scale. Apply, 
Secretary-General, National Institute for the Blind, 
224, Great Portland Street, W.l 


Applications are invited for the position of Male 
Secretary to administer the Council's Scheme for the 
Welfare of the Blind. Applicants must be thoroughly 
experienced in the work and not older than 35 years. 
Salary on scale rising from £230 to £260 per annum. 
Applications with copies of three recent testimonials 
should be addressed to me not later than the 23rd 
March. 1931. 

A. C. Allibone, 
Town Hall, Town Clerk. 


Printed by Smiths' Printing Company (London & St. Albans), Ltd., 22-24, Fetter Lane, London, E.C.4. 







Vol. XV.-No. 172. 

Entered as Second Class 

APRIL 15th, 1931 

Price 3d. 


1S79 {Sec. 397, P.L. and R. 




HERE are few documents more valuable in giving an outline of the position of 
blind welfare in this country than the Reports of the Advisory Committee. 
The ninth Report (for 1930) has just been issued, and is obtainable from H.M. 
Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, W.C., price 6d. 

The matters under discussion are dealt with under fifteen headings, and 
a brief summary of these may be given. 

Blind Persons Act. 

It is stated that 19,048 persons between the ages of 50 and 70 ^or 87 per cent, of the total 
number of such persons) are in receipt of blind pensions, an increase of 1,532 over the figures 
for 1929, and of 11,222 over the first recorded figures for the year ending March, 1921. 
Attention is called to two familiar " hard cases " under the Act, the first being that of a blind 
person who has been in receipt of both contributory and blind pensions between the ages of 
65 and 70, and loses the pension granted on account of his blindness at 70. The fact that he has 
been fortunate enough to draw two pensions for five years is but cold comfort when the sudden 
reduction of income comes, but the Committee is of opinion that the remedy lies not in 
amended legislation, but in more widespread adoption of local schemes for assisting the 
unemployable blind. The other case is that in which a blind claimant who is married cannot 
draw the full pension on account of the earnings of a seeing partner, and it is pointed out that 
such a case is specially hard where a wife goes out to work to help support herself and a blind 
husband. In such cases amended legislation is recommended, which shall either treat blind 
claimants for pension as single persons, or extend the present allowance of £39 unearned 
income to income that is earned. 

Grants for the Welfare of the Blind. 
In the year 1929-30 a sum of £131,368 was distributed by the Ministry of Health for 
services on behalf of the blind provided by voluntary associations and local authorities, being 
an increase of £5,339 on the previous year. It is pointed out that the rate of expansion on the 


employment services in workshops or under 
Home Workers' schemes appears to be 
slowing down, but we are reminded that there 
are still many blind persons in training who 
will have to be absorbed in industry during 
the next few years. An interesting suggestion 
is made that the provision of small Cottage 
Homes might meet a need among the aged 
and lonely blind, many of whom are leading 
very uncared-for lives. The Report notes 
regretfully that in future under the new 
block-grant arrangements it will not be 
possible to gain quite such a comprehensive 
view of the comparative development of 
various services, and expresses the hope that 
the local authorities will still endeavour to 
" preserve a proper balance of benefits as 
between one class of blind and another." 
Local Government Act, 1928. 

The Report proceeds to discuss at some 
length the working of the Local Government 
Act, and points out that the voluntary associ- 
ations may suffer in some areas if additional 
contributions are not made in respect of 
developments since the standard year (1928- 

While it is felt to be too early to say any- 
thing of the effect of the new system of grants 
on the voluntary associations, the hope is 
expressed that the local authorities will make 
every effort to retain the services of voluntary 
workers who have, through years of personal 
interest in the welfare of the blind, acquired 
experience that is most valuable. 

The detailed supervision exercised in the 
past by the Ministry of Health through its 
Inspectors has now ceased, but it is hoped 
that the . local authorities throughout the 
country will consider the possibility of 
combining together to appoint officers in a 
position to give expert advice on the conduct 
of services to the blind especially where 
technical knowledge is essential. 
Registration and Certification of the Blind. 

The last official statistics available give the 
number of registered blind persons as 52,727 
on March 31st, 1929; according to the 
Registers of County Associations the number 
a year later was 56,853, an increase of 4,126. 
While such an increase is probably due less 
to an actually increasing number of blind 
perspris than to improved registration, the 
Committee points out that the figure is one 
high enough to give considerable cause for 
concern, and notes with satisfaction the 



formation of a Sub-Committee of the Union 
of Counties Associations to consider the 
causes and prevention of blindness. Once 
more, too, the Committee emphasises the 
importance of careful medical examination 
before registration and calls attention to the 
Minister's circular urging local authorities to 
accept certificates only from practitioners 
with ophthalmological experience. 

Education and Training. 

Attached to the Report is a valuable 
memorandum on the maintenance of the 
blind in schools and training institutions 
drawn up by the Board of Education and the 
Ministry of Health at the special request of 
the Advisory Committee, and dealing in 
detail with the position of children under 16, 
and persons over 16, whether in the charge 
of the Poor Law authority or not. Local 
authorities who have not yet declared their 
readiness to give all education and training 
through the Education authority and not by 
way of Poor Relief are urged to do so. 

Domestic Training. 

The Committee emphasises the importance 
of domestic training for all blind and partially 
blind girls, as part of the normal, school 
curriculum, in order that they may be fitted 
for the domestic duties of the home, and 
notes with approval the action of the Manches- 
ter Education Committee in providing special 
Cookery Classes for the Blind. 


A Table is given from material supplied by 
the Counties Associations, showing the num- 
ber of employed persons, varying in different 
areas from 14 to 21 per cent. Of these less 
than half are in Workshops or under Home 
Workers' schemes, and it is suggested that 
many of the rest are probably only casually 
or partially employed and " should more 
properly be classified as pastime workers." 
The reader of the Report cannot but feel that 
when every allowance is made for old age and 
physical infirmity and for the fact that women 
who are employed in domestic duties at home 
are curiously classified as " unemployable," 
the very small percentage of the employed 
blind is rather disquieting. 

Central Marketing Board. 

The Association of Workshops is com- 
mended for its enterprise in framing a 
constitution for such a Board, and all Work- 


shops are urged to participate in the scheme, 
and to help forward so hopeful a project. 
Home Workers. 

The qualification laid down by the Ministry 
of Health that grant could only be payable to 
a Home Worker engaged on an " occupation 
usually practised in Workshops " has in the 
opinion of the Committee rather unduly 
restricted the scope of the scheme in the past, 
but it is now open to local authorities to 
reconsider the position and to recognise any 
occupation which is on the plane of industrial 
effort, and which can under the supervision 
of the Association concerned " render tangible 
and continuing service to the home workers." 

Insurance of Home Workers under the 
National Health Insurance Acts. 

Hitherto Home Workers who purchased 
their own materials and were free to sell to 
any willing buyer the goods they made have 
not been liable to be insured, though Home 
Workers who received work from a voluntary 
association and returned it to them to be 
marketed were regarded as out-workers and 
thus should be compulsorily insured. The 
Committee has considered whether there 
should be more uniformity with regard to the 
insurance of Home Workers, but without 
further evidence feels unable to pass judgment 
in the matter, and has therefore referred it to 
the Association of Workshops, which has been 
asked to report. 

Placement and Research. 

The Report discusses the first Bulletin on 
Placement and Research issued by the 
National Institute for the Blind, and recom- 
mends that the Institute should invite the 
larger Institutions, the seven Counties 
Associations and the Union of Counties 
Associations to explore the possibilities and 
limitations of finding employment for the 
blind in ordinary factories as thoroughly as 

Unemployable Blind. 

In July, 1929, it was reported that 60 local 
authorities had adopted a scale for the 
assistance of the unemployable blind and 
since then 20 have been added to the number, 
of whom 32 have agreed that domiciliary 
assistance to the blind shall be given by virtue 
of the Blind Persons Act and not through the 
Poor Law. Institutional assistance must in 
most cases remain for the present a matter 
for the Poor Law to deal with for obvious 
reasons of economy. 

Ordinary Residence within the Meaning of 
the Blind Persons Act, 1920. 

While the term " ordinarily resident " as 
used in the Blind Persons Act, has apparently 
never been legally defined, the Minister of 
Health has stated that he is of opinion that 
if a blind person moves into an area for the 
purpose of living there he can be regarded as 
becoming ordinarily resident in it. A 
difficulty, however, has arisen in that there 
is a natural tendency for blind persons to 
move into areas where the scale of relief for 
the unemployables is most substantial, but 
it is a difficulty that the Advisory Committee 
does not feel able to suggest any remedy for 
at present, in view of a Departmental Memor- 
andum on the subject, which is given as an 
Appendix to the Report, and which local 
authorities and voluntary associations are 
advised to study. 
Travelling Facilities. 

The travelling facilities granted by the 
railways to blind persons on business have 
proved a most valuable concession, and it is 
regretted that the omnibus services associated 
with the Railway Companies are not within 
the jurisdiction of the latter, and therefore 
the privilege cannot be extended to them, 
unless by local application to individual 
omnibus companies. 

American Conference, and Changes in 

The Report closes with a sympathetic 
reference to the New York Conference, with 
notes on changes in the personnel of the 
Committee and an appreciative record of 
the services rendered by its Secretary, Mr. 
Chapman, of the Ministry of Health, in whom 
the blind " have a devoted friend." 


Notices of Annual Meetings and important Committee 
meetings are inserted in The New Beacon as space 
permits. Secretaries are requested to send intimations 
to the Editor not later than the 3rd of the month for 
insertion in the next issue. 
April 22nd. 2.30. NIB. Education and Research 

May 1st. 2.30 N.I.B. Finance Committee. 
May 5th-7th. College of Teachers of the Blind ; Home 

Teachers' Examination — London, Liverpool, Edin- 
May 6th. 2.30. NIB. Home Industries Advisory 

May 18th. Official opening of Sunshine House, East 

Grinstead, by Lady Adelaide Colville. 
May 19th 20th. College of Teachers of the Blind ; 

School Teachers' Examination — London. 




The Duchess of York Patron of the Greater London Fund for the Blind. 

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of York has graciously consented to become a 
patron of the Greater London Fund for the Blind. The announcement was made by 
Capt. Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C., at a Reception given in the New Burlington Gallery 
to welcome Geranium Day Collectors and other helpers of the blind. Geranium Day 
this year is being held on the 12th May. 

Flag Days for Blind Babies' Homes. 

Flag Days in aid of the Blind Babies' Homes of the National Institute for the Blind 
are being held as follows : — 

Saturday, 19th September — All Metropolitan Boroughs, except the five noted 

September 22nd — Westminster, Marylebone, Holborn and Kensington. 
September 27th — Stepney. 

South Shields Blind Appreciate Wireless Fund. 

We have received a letter from the Secretary of the South Shields Institution for 
the Blind, asking us to express to the promoters of the British Wireless for the Blind Fund 
the thanks of the South Shields blind for the gift of 62 one-valve wireless sets which they 
have just received. At the last of the series of winter concerts arranged for the blind, 
Mr. Cooper, a member of the South Shields Institution, formally moved a vote of thanks 
to the Fund, saying that the gifts would bring new happiness to the homes of the blind. 

Eisteddfod Competitions for the Blind. 

In connection with the Royal National Eisteddfod of Wales to be held in Bangor 
in August next there are a number of competitions confined to the blind, including 
basketry, mat and rug work, hand and machine knitting, Braille, etc. A list of subjects 
can be had from Messrs. Hughes & Son, Wrexham, is. 3d. per post. Entry forms can 
be had from the General Secretary of the Eisteddfod, Town Hall, Bangor, North Wales, 
and must be sent in by May ist-ioth. Work for competition to be in hand by July 1st. 
Nos. 173 to 193 inclusive are confined to the blind. 

Satisfactory Results at Yorkshire School for the Blind. 

Last month Lady Hamilton distributed prizes at the Yorkshire School for the Blind. 
Colonel W. A. White presided. 

The Rev. C. F. Hardy, Principal of the School, read a report from the Board of 
Education, which stated that the Board were glad to learn therefrom that the domestic, 
educational, and medical arrangements were very satisfactory. The report made special 
mention of the healthy appearance of the children, and of their eagerness of response, 
which testified to the care bestowed on their physical welfare and the development of 
their intellectual powers. The educational curriculum was of wide and varied interest, 
but could be improved on the practical side by the inclusion of domestic science for the 

Mr. R. Elton Laing, Headmaster of the School, presented his report, which stated 
that there were 77 pupils in residence ; 46 boys and 31 girls. During the school year 
13 pupils had left, and 15 had been admitted. It was satisfactory to note that 60 per 
cent, of the boys could swim. At an examination held by the London and City Guilds 
four pupils entered for basket work and had been successful. Pupils also gained music 
successes. At the Yorkshire Choral and Instrumental Competitions Olive Stead took first 
place and gained a first-class certificate for piano solo for competitors under the age of 14. 
This was the second year in succession that a pupil obtained such a success. At the 
Trinity College Examinations six pupils were entered and passed, three with honours, 




Worthing Society Opens Shop for Goods Made by Local'Blind. 

The Worthing Society for Befriending the Blind has opened a shop, for the sale of 
goods made by the blind, at 2, Victoria Buildings, York Road, Worthing. 

Civic Recognition of Work of Mr. and Mrs. E. Crew for Leicester Blind. 

Leicester City Council have adopted a resolution of the General Purposes Com- 
mittee " That the Council present a framed illuminated address to Mr. Edwin Crew, 
expressing their appreciation of his services as president and joint founder of the Wycliffe 
Society for Helping the Blind, and as founder and honorary manager of the Wycliffe 
Cottage Homes and Hostel, and of the large amount of time and energy he has devoted 
to the general welfare of the blind of the city for a period of nearly 40 years." In adopting 
the resolution, the name of Mrs. Crew was added for her loyal co-operation with her 
husband in all his work. 

Reorganisation of Blind Welfare Work in Staffordshire. 

With a view to unification and reorganisation of the work amongst the blind, the 
Staffordshire County Council have decided that from April 1st, 193 1, the duties in the 
northern portion of the County Administrative Area, shall be undertaken by the Stafford- 
shire Association for the Welfare of the Blind, of which the Chairman is Mr. Alfred 
Lathe, C.C., and the County Secretary Mrs. Barton Land, of Ingleneuk, Uttoxeter. 

For some years this work has been deputed to the Stoke-on-Trent and North Staf- 
fordshire Committee for the Care of the Blind, who have received considerable help, 
both monetary and in service, from sympathisers in the county area. It is hoped that, 
as all efforts are for the benefit of the local blind, the public will continue to give their 
sympathetic help. 

Dogs for the Blind to be Trained at Wallasey. 

A movement to supply dog guides to the blind of this country has been under con- 
sideration for many months, and the National Institute for the Blind has decided to accept 
the affiliation of a special fund for training the animals. An experimental school will 
be opened at Wallasey immediately. This school will be in charge of technical instructors 
supplied by " L'Oeil qui Voit " (" The Seeing Eye "), an organisation with headquarters 
in Switzerland, which has already been described in The New Beacon. If the experiment 
proves successful, the school will be put on a permanent basis and the number of dog 
students increased. It has been decided that the experiments at Wallasey shall be carried 
out on dogs actually bred in this country, and four Alsatians and two Scotch collies have 
been obtained for the purpose. Each of these will be educated with its future master, 
for, as the owner of such an animal also needs instruction, man and dog must go to 
school together. 

"E. W. Austin" Memorial Reading Competition. 

The Tenth Annual Reading Competition was held on March 14th, at the National 
Library for the Blind, Westminster. A record number of candidates had entered — 
ninety-three — including readers from as far afield as Northampton, Swansea, Carlisle 
and Sunderland. The preliminary testings in the morning resulted in sixteen candidates 
being selected to read the difficult passages in the Finals to Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson, 
Professor Gilbert Murray, and the Very Rev. the Dean of Winchester, who most kindly 
acted as judges. 

An Open Event for the reading of unseen passages from Shakespeare was this year 
inaugurated at the special request of some of the candidates. Everybody was eligible for 
this, including winners of previous Competitions. Mr. Bassett Roe came to the Library 
in the morning to hear the preliminary readings of the candidates for this event. 

Professor Gilbert Murray announced the names of the winners, and Sir Johnston 
Forbes-Robertson testified to the excellence of the reading, congratulating the com- 
petitors on the ease and fluency with which they had tackled the passages, which, as he said, 
he would have been very sorry to have had to read without any preparation. 




The first prize in the Shakespeare Event was awarded to Miss Jameson for her very 
beautiful rendering of Cranmer's Speech from Henry VIII, Act V, Scene V. The second 
and third prizes were won by Mr. Sharp and Mr. Oke. 

The " Blanesburgh " Cup and first prize in Class A were awarded to Mr. Lloyd, 
of Swansea, who read a passage from " The Vicar of Wakefield," and " The Rover," by 
Sir Walter Scott. Mr. Sharp was awarded the second prize and Miss Ivens the third. 

In Class B, Mr. Gates, of the Royal Normal College, won the first prize for his 
reading of an extract from Priestley's " English Humour," and " To a Pair of Egyptian 
Slippers," by Sir Edwin Arnold, the second and third prizes being won by Miss Jean 
Hewlett, of the Royal Normal College, and Miss Beadley. 

The Juniors were divided into four Classes : — Senior Juniors : 13-16 years ; 11-13 
years ; Juniors : 9- 11 years ; under nine years ; and prizes were awarded as follows : — 

Senior Juniors (13-16) : — 1 — Marie Dimtchenko, Swiss Cottage School ; 2 — Ronald 
Cottingham, Royal Normal College ; Runner-up — Joyce Middleton, East London 

Senior Juniors (11-13): — 1 — Rose Pilgrim, Enfield Road, L.C.C. School; 2 — 
Ronald Randall, East London School ; Runner-up — Jean Hall, Royal Normal College. 

Juniors (9-1 1) : — 1 — Arthur Wright, Swiss Cottage School; 2 — Joan Woodcraft, 
Elm Court L.C.C. School ; Runner-up— Robert O'Borne, Enfield Road L.C.C. School. 

Juniors (under 9) : — 1 — Muriel Easter, Royal Normal College ; Runner-up — Mary 
Theobald, Swiss Cottage School. 

Sir Frederick Thomson, who had very kindly consented to act as Chairman in the 
place of Lord Blanesburgh, who had been called to Paris, presented the prizes, to which 
Dr. Oswald Fergus had added a box of chocolates for each of the successful Juniors. 

The Chairman congratulated each prize-winner on the wonderful facility with which 
the unseen passages had been read, expressing the keen enjoyment which the reading 
had given to all present. 

Mr. Sharp proposed a vote of thanks in which he included the Chairman, the Judges, 
both morning and afternoon, Mr. Walter Dixson, the founder of the Competition, and 
the staff of the Library. This was seconded by Mr. Oke. 

Braille Reading Competition — Northern Branch National Library. 

The Ninth Annual Reading Competition of the Northern Branch was held on 14th 
March, 1931, at the National Library for the Blind, 5, St. John Street, Manchester. In 
view of the record number of 86 entries preliminary testings were held in the morning 
in each of the four sections, by Mrs. Stanley Jast, Miss Gladys Conway, Miss M. Hughes, 
and Dr. Christine Arscott, who had kindly consented to act as judges. This resulted in 
a selection of 16 candidates for the afternoon's competition. Owing to the lack of space 
in the library premises it was found necessary to arrange the final meeting in the Milton 
Hall, where a large gathering of friends and competitors welcomed an opportunity of 
listening to some excellent renderings of the passages chosen for the final tests. Three 
of the judges made the awards which were announced by the Chairman, Dr. George 
Murray, who expressed his personal enjoyment at the remarkable achievement of so 
many candidates. 

The first prize in the " Experts' " division was awarded to Mr. D. Kirkpatrick, of 
Southport and Birmingham, whose melodious rendering of a passage from Swinburne 
was a delight to the auditors. The second prize was won by Rev. E. Rowlands, of Dolgelly. 

In Class II, Miss G. Clough, of Skipton-in-Craven, received the first prize and Miss 
S. Davies, of Liverpool, the second. 

In the Senior Juniors (16-21) John Duckworth, of Henshaw's Institution, Old 
Trafford, Manchester, and George Avery, of Liverpool, were the recipients of the first 
and second prizes respectively, whilst in the Juniors' Class (10-16) the first prize was 
gained by Mary Smith, of Burnley, the second by Wilfred Hickson, of Henshaw's Insti- 
tution. A special prize of a box of chocolates was given to Phyllis Armstrong, of Bolton 
(10), the youngest competitor, whose rendering of a passage from'E. V. Lucas's " Out 




of a Clear Sky " was much appreciated. A box of chocolates was also awarded to Nellie 
Glendenning whose reading in Class III (Senior Juniors) was especially distinguished. 

Perhaps the most striking achievement was the reading of Miss E. Mitchell, of Hull, 
a candidate who was both blind and deaf, and to whom a special prize was awarded. All 
present marvelled at her sympathetic interpretation of Gerald Gould's " Wanderthirst." 

Lady Mabel Smith distributed the prizes, and after congratulating each prizewinner, 
gave a brief address on " Books as friends," emphasising in a few appropriate sentences 
the important part which books take in the life of the blind, and urging the competitors 
to make friends with the authors whose books they enjoyed. 

Mrs. Eastwood then proposed a vote of thanks to Lady Mabel Smith, expressing 
the audience's appreciation of her interest in the competition ; this Mr. Jast seconded. 

Mr. H. P. Turner proposed a vote of thanks to the judges and the staff, this being 
seconded by Mr. Siddall. 

Tea was provided for the competitors and their friends, an enjoyable day being 
rounded off by music and songs. 

Result of Young Blind Music Students' Competition. 

Two prizes, of £5 5s. and £/[ 4s. respectively, have been awarded in the above 
Competition, organised by the National Institute for the Blind. 

The Adjudicator, Mr. William Wolstenholme, Mus.Bac, F.R.C.O., wrote : — 

" The two works are really quite good, and the young musicians are to be 

complimented and should be encouraged. They have my very good wishes. 

" The Part-Song for Male Voices — ' Gather ye Rosebuds ' is a well- written 

work, singable and musicianly. The changes of Key come naturally, and the 

four voice parts are well laid out. I give it first place. 

" The ' Diversion for Violin and Pianoforte ' also shows good writing, both 

for solo instrument and in the Pianoforte part, and is altogether a good effort in 

modern vein." 

The successful competitors are Mr. John Edward Robinson, (nom de plume " Harvey 
Spring ") and Mr. Charles Edwin Gates, (" J. Sariph "). 

In congratulating them, we would express the hope that they will be stimulated 
by this early success to apply themselves still more assiduously to the study of serious 
composition, thereby justifying the aim of the Competition, i.e. — " The discovery and 
encouragement of talent for Musical Composition in young blind students." 




Chairman : Mr. E. M. 


Van Cleve, Prin., N.Y. Institute for the Education of the Blind. 
Miss M. M. R. Caraway, College of Teachers, England. 

-1 p.m. 

Dr. Siegfried Altmann, Director, Israelitisches Blinden-Institut, 

Vienna, Austria. 
Mr. Donatien Lelievre, Director, Institution Regionale des Sourds- 

Muets et Jeunes Aveugles, Bordeaux, France. 
Mr. Paul Grasemann, Director, Provinzial-blindenanstalt, Soest- 

Westfalen, Germany. 
Syndikus Dr. Carl Strehl, Leiter der Blinden-studienanstalt, 

Marburg-Lahn, Germany. 
Prof. Augusto Romagnoli, Direttore della R. Scuola di Metodo per 

Gli Educatori dei Ciechi, Rome, Italy. 
Mr. Halfdan Karterud, Dalens Blindeskole, Nidaros, Norway. 

The First Steps in Education of the Blind 

The General Education and Vocational 

Training of the Blind Child. 
The General Education and Vocational 

Training of the Blind Child. 
Higher Education for the Blind and 

Occupations Open to Them. 
The Training of Teachers of the Blind. 

The Special Psychology of the Blind. 

8 p.m. — 10 p.m. 


Ways and Means in Planning School Activities. 

Organizer : Mr. J. T. Hooper, Supt., Wisconsin School for the Blind. 
Purposes in Education. For Life and for a Living. 

Organizer : Dr. O. H. Burritt, Principal, Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 15th. TOPIC : EMPLOYMENT. 9 a.m.- 1 p.m. 

Chairman : Mr. S. Merwyn Sinclair, Executive Director, State Council for the Blind, Pennsylvania. 

Capt. E. A. Baker, General Secretary and Mr. J. F. Clunk, National 
Supervisor of Industrial Employment, Canadian National Insti- 
tute for the Blind, Toronto, Canada. 

Mr. Ernst Retsler, De Blindas Forening, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Mr. S. W. Starling, Manager, Birmingham Royal Institution for 
the Blind, England. 

Prof. Pierre Villey, Secretary-General, Association Valentin Hauy, 

Mr. George Danby, General Manager, Royal Glasgow Asylum for 
the Blind, Scotland. 

Comm. Dott. Aurelio Nicolodi, Unione Italiana dei Ciechi, Florence, 

Mrs. Harrison Eustis, The Seeing Eye, Mont Pelerin, Switzerland. 

Employment of the Blind on Work for 
which Sight was Formerly Considered 

Home Occupations for the Blind. 

Workshop Occupations. 

Music as a Profession and Occupation for 

the Blind. 
Workshop Management. 

Economic Position of the Blind. 

Dog Guides. 

ROUND TABLES. 8 p.m.— 10 p.m. 

Mr. Peter J. Salmon, Business Manager, Industrial Home for the 

Blind, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr. H. R. Latimer, Executive Secretary, Pennsylvania Association 

for the Blind, Pittsburgh. 

Miss Kate M. Foley, Home Teacher, San Francisco, California. 


Chairman : Mr. A. C. Ellis, Superintendent, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky. 
L. Raverat, Secretary General, American Braille Press, Paris. 

1. Workshops. 

2. Outside Occupations 

3. Home Teaching. 


Rapporteur : Mr. G. 

Dr. W. Dolanski, Warsaw, Poland. 

Dr. E. E. Allen, Director, Perkins Institution, Watertown, Massa- 
chusetts, U.S.A. 

Miss L. A. Goldthwaite, New York Public Library, U.S.A. 

Mr. Frank C. Bryan, Howe Memorial Press Fund, Watertown, 
Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

Mr. J. Ulises Godino, Director, Instituto Nacional de Ciegos, Buenos 
Aires, Argentine. 

Apparatus and Appliances for the Blind. 
Museums for the Blind. 

Libraries for the Blind. 
Printing for the Blind . 

Co-operation in Printing for the Blind in 
South America. 

6. Mr. U. Akiba, President, Tokyo School for the Blind, Tokyo. Japan. 

7. Mr. G. B. Fryer, Superintendent, Institution for the Chinese Blind, 

Shanghai, China. 

The Condition of the Blind in Japan. 
Missions and the Blind in Asiatic Coun- 

1. Printing and Appliances. 

2. Libraries and Museums. 

3. Music. 

ROUND TABLES. 8 p.m.— 10 p.m. 

Organizer : Mr. G. F. Meyer, Supervisor, Classes for the Blind, Minneapolis, 

Organizer : Mrs. Liborio Delfino, Free Library of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Organizer : Mr. L. W. Rodenberg, Illinois School for the Blind, Jacksonville, 



9 a.m. — 1 p.m. 
Prevention and Sight-Saving Classes. 
Causes and Prevention of Blindness. 


Chairman on PREVENTION : 

1. Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, Secretary, National Society for the Pre- 

vention of Blindness, New York. 

2. Dr. Merida Nicolich, Director, Instituto Municipal para Ciegos, 

Malaga, Spain. 

Chairman on WELFARE, Etc. : Mr. Calvin S. Glover, Executive Secretary, Cincinnati Association for the Welfare 

of the Blind, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

1. Capt. Ian Fraser, C.B.E., Chairman, St. Dunstan's Headquarters, 

London, England. 

2. Dr. Lothar Gabler-Knibbe, Vorsitzender des Reichdeutschen 

Blindenverbandes, Berlin, Germany. 

3. Mr. P. Guinot, General Secretary, Federation Nationale des 

Aveugles Civils, Paris. 

4. Miss J. A. Merivale, Lnion of Counties Associations for the Blind, 

Rapporteur : Mr. W. McG. Eagar, Secretary General, National Institute for the Blind, London, England. 

ROUND TABLES. 3 p.m.— 6 p.m. 

Organizer : Mr. Lewis H. Carris, Managing Director, National Society for 
the Prevention of Blindness. 

Organizer : Mrs. Mary D. Campbell, Executive Director, Missouri Com- 
mission for the Blind, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Organizer : Mr. H. M. Immeln, Director, New York Association for the 
Blind (Lighthouse), New York City. 

Organizer : Miss Lydia Y. Hayes, Chief Executive, New Jersey Commis- 
sion for the Blind, Newark, New Jersey. 

Organizer : Mr. R. B. Irwin, Executive Director, American Foundation 
for the Blind, New York City. 

The State and the Blind Community. 

Pensions for the Blind. 

What the State Ought to Do for the 

Home Visiting and Home Teaching. 

Prevention and Sight Saving 
Social W'elfare. 
The Deaf-Blind. 
International Organization. 



Report of Home Office Departmental Committee. 

A VERY enthusiastic friend of the 

^L writer of this article talks 

/ M a good deal about the 

/ M " romance that is to be found 

I m in the White Paper and the 

/ ^ Blue Book." 

_JL. Ml. Government publications 

are a source of inspiration to 

him, much more acceptable than the most 

thrilling narratives of modern fiction. He 

suggested that over the holiday period one 

might do much worse than read again the 

Report of the Home Office Departmental 

Committee on the Supervision of Charities*. 

Since this document has not been reviewed 
previously in The New Beacon, it may be of 
interest to some readers, even though the 
reviewer may fail to capture that spirit of 
romance which some very sanguine people 
declare to be ever haunting the purlieus of 

The fact may be recalled that in April, 1925, 
the then Home Secretary, Mr. Joynson-Hicks, 
appointed an Interdepartmental Committee to 
" consider and report whether any form of 
supervision is desirable over collecting 
charities." The composition of the Commit- 
tee sets forth an imposing array of names, 
though it is difficult, in a number of instances, 
to reconcile such names with any knowledge 
of the subject which they were called upon to 
review. Probably a little knowledge was 
dangerous, whilst great knowledge and still 
greater experience were thought to be 
undesirable. However, the composition of 
the Committee was the choice of a Secretary 
of State and those poor mortals who only 
undertake the practical work are rarely, if 
ever, consulted. 

The Committee held 21 sittings and heard 
25 witnesses representing the various Govern- 
ment Departments concerned, the police, the 
London County Council, religious bodies, 
and societies connected with or engaged in 
charitable work. In addition to taking oral 
evidence from these witnesses (whose names 
are appended to the report) the Committee 
had before it memoranda from a large number 
of representative Chief Constables and local 
authorities and considered various statements 
submitted to them by individual charities and 

* Published by H.M. Stationery Office. Adastral 
House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2. Price 9d. 

by members of the general public. The 
Editor of Truth was also good enough to let 
the Committee see a file of extracts from that 
journal relating to matters under inquiry. 

It will be convenient before we proceed 
further to set out briefly the main features of 
the existing law and practice with regard to 
charitable organisations, including, for the 
moment, those charities which are not wholly 
dependent upon funds derived by appeal to 
the public. 

Endowed Charities and partly endowed 

The Charitable Trusts Act, 1853, provided 
for the appointment of Commissioners (there 
are now two paid Commissioners and one 
unpaid Parliamentary Commissioner) whose 
duties, as extended by the Charitable Trusts 
Amendment Act, 1855, are : — 

(a) to inquire into the administration of 
charities ; 

(b) to assist Trustees in developing the 
property and in executing the trusts of 
charities by supplementing their powers 
where defective ; 

(c) to control the action of the Trustees 
of charities in dealing with the corpus of 
endowments ; 

(d) to control, facilitate, and diminish the 
cost of legal proceedings taken on behalf of 

By later Acts further powers were conferred 
on the Charity Commissioners, including 
some previously exercised exclusively by the 
Court of Chancery. These powers enable them 

(a) to make schemes for the improved 
administration of charities ; 

(b) to appoint and remove Trustees and 
Officers of charities ; 

(c) to secure the safe custody and due 
investment of the property of charities by 
means of vesting orders ; 

(d) to incorporate in suitable cases the 
Trustees of a charity. 

The schemes can only be made when the 
Trusts have wholly or partially failed, and 
under the general law schemes must provide 
for the application of the income cy-pres, i.e. 
to purposes as similar as practicable to the 
original objects. The Commissioners are not, 
however, empowered in any case to undertake 
the management of charities. 




The Charitable Trusts Acts require the 
Trustees of every Charity falling within the 
jurisdiction of the Commissioners under those 
Acts to furnish them with an account of the 
income and expenditure of the charity during 
each year, but they do not require the 
Commissioners to audit those accounts. 

The Commissioners' jurisdiction under the 
Charitable Trusts Acts relates to endowed 
charities only, i.e. to charities entitled to 
property, real or personal, the capital of which 
is settled upon permanent trusts, and the 
income only of which is applicable for 
charitable purposes. Charities solely sup- 
ported by voluntary subscriptions or dona- 
tions do not come within the Commissioners' 
jurisdiction, and those which are supported 
partly by subscriptions and partly by endow- 
ment only come under their jurisdiction so far 
as the endowments are concerned. On the 
other hand, Trustees of charities exempt 
from the Commissioners' jurisdiction may 
apply to the Commissioners for an order 
extending it to the charity concerned. 

The Charitable Trusts Acts also constitute 
certain officers of the Charity Commission to 
be corporations under the names of the 
Official Trustees of Charitable Funds and 
the Official Trustee of Charity Lands for the 
purpose of holding personalty and realty 
belonging to charities. Complete adminis- 
trative powers are left with the Charity 
Trustees, so that by vesting stocks or land in 
the Official Trustees or Trustee, a charity can 
secure the advantages of incorporation. 

The Commissioners' jurisdiction applies 
to all charitable endowments whether ad- 
ministered under Trust Deeds, Schemes, 
Royal Charter, Act of Parliament or the 
Companies Act. 

Under the Board of Education Act, 1899, 
and the orders in Council made thereunder, 
the jurisdiction over endowed educational 
charities formerly exercised by the Charity 
Commissioners is now exercised by the 
Board of Education. 
Incorporation of Charities. 

Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908. — 
Under the provisions of Section 20, of this 
Act, the Board of Trade may by licence direct 
that an association about to be formed as a 
limited company for promoting inter alia 
charity, which intends to apply its profits, if 
any, or other income solely in promoting its 
objects and to prohibit the payment of any 
dividend to its members, shall be registered 



as a company with limited liability without the 
addition of the word " Limited " to its name. 

In considering applications for licences 
under this Section the Board of Trade require 
the submission of full particulars w r ith regard 
to the financial position of the unincorporated 
body, if any, and as to the status of the 
promoters of the association. These must 
include the accounts and balance sheets for 
the past two years and any reports of work 
during that period, together w r ith a detailed 
statement of assets and liabilities. 

Before a licence under the Section is issued 
to an association the Board of Trade require 
to be satisfied that it is formed for the purposes 
set out in the Section, and that the provisions 
of the Memorandum of Association comply 
with the above conditions. The Board also 
require that certain provisions shall be in- 
serted in the Memorandum of Association. 
These provisions refer, inter alia, to : — 

(a) the holding of property subject to the 
jurisdiction of the Charity Commissioners 
(or Board of Education as the case may be) ; 

(b) the application of income and pro- 
perty solely towards the promotion of the 
objects of the association, except for the 
payment of reasonable and proper remuner- 
ation to its officers and servants, of interest 
not exceeding 5 per cent, per annum on 
money lent, and of reasonable and proper 
rent for premises ; the prohibition of the 
payment of any dividends or bonus to 
members and the reception by any member 
of the Governing body of any remuneration 
or payment other than out-of-pocket 
expenses (except under the heading of 
interest and rent) ; 

(c) the undertaking by every member, in 
the event of the association being wound 
up, to contribute a fixed sum towards the 
payment of debts and liabilities and the 
general expenses of winding up ; 

(d) the application of cy-pres of any 
residue after winding up ; 

(e) the keeping of true accounts, open to 
the inspection of members and an audit, 
at least annually, by a properly qualified 
auditor or auditors. 

After the issue of the licence by the Board 
of Trade and the registration of the association 
under the Companies Act, no supervision is 
exercised by the Board over the conduct of 
the business of the association. The Board's 
duties are thereupon . confined to the con- 


sideration of 

(a) any proposed alterations of the 
Memorandum and Articles of Association ; 

(b) any circumstances brought to the 
notice of the Board which might necessitate 
the exercise of their powers under sub- 
section (4) to revoke the license. 

Any principal advantage to be gained by a 
charity by incorporation under this Act is that 
it is thereby able to hold land without the 
appointment of trustees, but in spite of what 
has been said as to the absence of any con- 
tinuing control by the Board, there can be no 
doubt that the possession of a license is 
commonly regarded as evidence, in some 
sort, that the charity is well conducted. 

Royal Charter. 

Royal Charters granted in modern practice 
to charitable institutions follow substantially 
a model form which provides inter alia for an 
annual audit by a member, or members, of a 
recognised body or society of accountants 
and the presentation of accounts at an Annual 
General Meeting. The older charitable 
institutions established by Royal Charter are 
nearly all endowed charities and therefore are 
subject to the jurisdiction of the Charity 
Commissioners or the Board of Education. 

The grant of a Royal Charter of Incorpor- 
ation like the Board of Trade license gives, 
among other rights, that of holding land 
without the appointment of trustees, but since 
it is well known that Charters are granted 
only after the very closest scrutiny of the 
objects of the charity and the standing of the 
petitioners, the possession of a Charter is, of 
course, a very much greater asset from the 
point of view of repute than the holding of a 
license. No supervision is exercised over the 
affairs of such a charity so far as the Charter 
is concerned. 

Private Act of Parliament. 

A few charities (e.g. King's College 
Hospital, St. George's Hospital and Univer- 
sity College Hospital) are incorporated by 
Private Act of Parliament. The remarks just 
made with regard to the effect of the grant of 
a Royal Charter and the absence of any 
consequential supervision except that of the 
Charity Commissioners, apply equally to 
charities of this kind. 

In the next article attention will be drawn 
to Health Institutions, Street Collections, 
War Charities and Charities for the Blind. 
{To be continued.) 


The Future of Local Government. 

In these days when the industrial and 
economic structure of society is undergoing 
drastic reorganisation and when the mode of 
life of individuals is changing in order to take 
advantage of and to conform to new condi- 
tions, one might expect a widespread demand 
for the reform of our system of local govern- 
ment in order to bring it into line with 
modern requirements. For local bodies are 
taking an increasingly active part in providing 
for our needs, in looking after our general 
well-being and even in directing our lives. 
And yet apart from sporadic criticisms, 
remarkably little has been written pointing 
the way to reconstruction. Dr. Robson's 
book" The Future of Local Government "by 
W. A. Robson (Allen & Unwin, 12s. 6d., 
is, therefore, of importance since it surveys 
the whole field of local government, points 
out its many shortcomings and, what is of 
most value, plans out the ways to be followed 
in order to secure a much more efficient, 
serviceable and inspiring structure. The 
system, as we know it to-day, is the more or 
less haphazard growth of nearly a century. 
The result is a large amount of overlapping, 
much lack of co-ordination, often hostility 
between rival authorities, waste and ineffici- 
ency. Often, too, authorities are too small to 
be able adequately to perform the duties 
imposed upon them by Parliament ; some- 
times, as in the case of drainage boards, they 
are uncoordinated or have incomplete 
jurisdiction so that much of the work per- 
formed is wasted. The importance of the 
work carried out by local authorities may be 
gathered from the fact that they control an 
annual expenditure which is considerably 
greater than that of the central government, if 
we leave out of account National Debt 
charges. These sums include large grants 
from the National Exchequer. Local bodies 
are, furthermore, the agents for putting into 
execution many of the enactments of Parlia- 
ment. Yet the methods of recruitment of 
those who are directly entrusted with the 
actual carrying out of this work is entirely 
unsatisfactory. Not only are the qualifications 
which are demanded of local officials from one 
end of the scale to the other, not commensurate 




with the functions to be performed, but the 
manner in which vacancies are filled is 
generally unsatisfactory. 

It is impossible in the space of a few 
sentences to sketch out Dr. Robson's sug- 
gestions for improving the system, but one or 
two must be mentioned here and will suffice 
to indicate the courage and imagination with 
which the problem has been handled. 

The larger boroughs are to be given county 
Borough status. In order, however, to 
secure a greater measure of co-ordination in 
the general system and to prevent the more 
sparsely populated areas from being hampered 
in their work, authorities are to be linked 
together federally for specific functions, the 
structure of the composite authorities being 
determined by the work they have to perform. 
The personnel should be recruited on lines 
somewhat similar to those laid down by the 
Civil Service Commissioners. In order to 
enhance efficiency the author advocates an 
interchange of officials, not only between local 
bodies, but also between the latter and the 
central departments. The removal of most 
of the restraints at present existing on munici- 
pal enterprise would, he believes, be wholly 
desirable and would revive interest in local 

All those interested in local government 
would do well to read this book for, although 
they may find much with which they could 
not agree, they could not fail to find it 
stimulating and suggestive. 

The Sight-Saving Review. 

The National Society for the Prevention of 
Blindness, 450, Seventh Avenue, New York, 
N.Y., U.S.A., has, in the words of the 
Editorial of its magazine " added one more 
powerful machine to its ammunition " in the 
issue of the new quarterly " The Sight- 
Saving Review," whose first number for 
March, 193 1 has just reached us. " The 
Sight Saving Review " (published at 3 dollars 
per annum) sets out to give authoritative 
information on all matters relating to the 
preservation of eye-sight to those concerned 
with public health, and in its first number 
interesting papers are published dealing with 
glaucoma, proper lighting of home, school 
and workshop, the work of sight-saving in 
Kindergarten and Nursery School, an ap- 
preciation of the great work of Ernst Fuchs, 
and notes on the work of blindness-prevention 


in all parts of the world, together with 
important book-reviews., 

In the recently published Ninth Report of 
the Advisory Committee in this country, the 
following words occur — " It seems to us that 
the time has now come for an intensive and 
concerted campaign to be undertaken with 
this purpose (i.e. prevention of blindness) in 
view." May we commend to those interested 
in the subject the " ammunition " provided 
by the new quarterly ? 

Dr. Strehl's Handbook. 

The second part of the Handbook on work 
for the blind edited by Dr. Strehl of Marburg/ 
Lahn has now been published, and deals in 
considerable detail with blind welfare in 
Europe and the United States. Dr. Strehl 
has been careful to secure the views of experts 
in the various countries, and sections have 
been contributed by them dealing with the 
history of blind legislation, statistics relating 
to the blind, their education and training, and 
their general welfare ; the names and ad- 
dresses of the principal institutions in the 
countries dealt with are also given, and a final 
summing-up of the present position in the 
blind world is contributed by Dr. Strehl 

Professor Villey has been responsible for 
the section dealing with France, Signor 
Soleri treats of Italy, Dr. Best discusses the 
position in the United States, while Captain 
Ian Fraser, Mr. Merrick and Mr. Halliday are 
responsible for the sections on England and 

Dr. Strehl is to be congratulated on the 
production of an important work which 
should do much to stimulate interest in 
Germany in what is being done in other 
countries to meet the needs of the blind. 

The Queen at L.A.B. Exhibition. 

The Blind Record (March, 193 1) gives an 
interesting account of a surprise visit paid by 
Her Majesty the Queen to the Christmas Fair 
and Exhibition organised by the London 
Association for the Blind at Bush House. 
Photographs of their workers, reports of their 
Annual Christmas Party, written by two 
blind girls (" in the morning we were busy 
going to the hairdressers to have our hair 
waved, after dinner we were dressing till it 
was time to start," strikes a festive note) and 
an account of the St. Valentine Eve Ball, all 
contribute to the interest of the magazine. 

c DficZNcw 

Published by 
the National 
Institute for 
the Blind 


Editorial Offices: 
224 Great Port- 
land Street, 
London, W.\. 


THE practical sympathy of the B.B.C. with the interests of blind listeners has 
been exemplified in many ways. Outstanding instances of the effect of that 
sympathy are free licences, the " Braille Radio Times," and the British 
" Wireless for the Blind " Fund. There is, however, one offer of co-operation 
on the part of the B.B.C. which has not, we consider, received the attention 
it deserves. Two years ago, we published an article by a B.B.C. official 
drawing attention to the " vast educational possibilities of broadcasting," and 
suggesting group listening and group discussion of serial talks amongst the blind. 
The writer pointed out the four essentials for the successful conduct of a group : (i) a good 
group leader, (2) a suitable meeting place, (3) good reception and (4) co-operation with the 
B.B.C, and expressed the hope that " among the many blind listeners some will be found 
sufficiently keen to undertake the organisation of a wireless listening group." Anyone 
proposing to do so was advised to get in touch with the Adult Education Section of the B.B.C. 
Now, although this article was reprinted in the Braille magazines, apparently there has been 
no definite result. This is somewhat surprising, as undoubtedly the average blind listener takes 
an interest in the " serious " side of the wireless programmes equal to, or even greater, than that of 
a listener with sight, because he depends so much more on wireless for enlightenment. We recognise, 
of course, that in many resident Institutions for the Blind the inmates may be either below or 
above the age when adult education is an active interest. But all resident Institutions are not 
of this kind, and there are several clubs for the blind where group discussions might be introduced 
by initiative on the part of some individual, provided he were assisted by the British " Wire- 
less for the Blind " Fund in the provision of suitable sets. 

Alternatively, there is no reason why blind people should not join existing groups of sighted 
people. If readers of The New Beacon belong to, or know of, such groups, they will be doing 
the blind in their neighbourhood great service by introducing them to discussion circles. There 
are two main types of groups — that which meets in private houses, and that which meets in a 
more or less public place, such as a library. Of the latter there were over 500 in existence last 
Autumn, many being run in conjunction with such organisations as Men's Clubs, Miners' 
Welfare Institutes, the Adult School Union and the Workers' Educational Association. The 
object of these groups is, of course, to give people an opportunity of getting full value out of 
the broadcast talks by means of discussion under a competent leader, and there is no doubt at 
all that they are succeeding admirably in this respect. Many listeners have expressly stated 
that the value of the talks to them has been very greatly increased by listening to them with others. 
Area Councils have been established in the North West, Yorkshire, the West Midlands, and 
the West, and the B.B.C.'s Education Officers in these areas and at Savoy Hill and in Edinburgh 
will be glad to hear of blind listeners and to put them into touch with listening groups. It is 
of interest to note that it has been decided to hold a Summer School at New College, Oxford, 
from June 27th to July 3rd, for the purpose of training group leaders, and it is hoped that the 
blind will be represented at the conferences. " Group leading " may prove to be a very fascin- 
ating pursuit for blind people. 

In connection with some of the talks, the B.B.C. issues " Aids to Study " pamphlets while 
The Listener " reprints many of them, and Talks and Lecture Programmes are published. 
If the blind become interested in group discussion, a selection of these pamphlets should be 
available in Braille. As yet, there is no apparent demand for them, but if the educational value 
of wireless is once fully realised by the blind and by those concerned in their welfare, then we 
have no doubt that the necessary Braille literature will be forthcoming. 

We hope that when every blind person possesses a wireless set, every blind person will 
likewise possess the desire to obtain the greatest possible advantage from the greatest means of 
alleviating blindness this generation has produced. The Editor. 






By Capt. J. H. W. PORTER, M.J.I. , F.R.E.S. 

(All rights reserved.) 

TO answer this question involves 
some difficulty in getting the 
right expression by which to 
convey the exact meaning of 
the disadvantage, penalty, or 
something in the nature of 
either, to which the blind person is subjected 
or by which he is made to suffer. 

First of all, let it be understood that, in 
dealing with the question, I have endeavoured 
to acquire the most charitable frame of mind 
possible, and that I make no sweeping asser- 
tion that blind people are deliberately and 
with malice aforethought either exploited, 
victimised, taken advantage of, or penalised 
by sighted people generally. 

Perhaps I have not been able to strike the 
happiest word to express the circumstance or 
condition. This may be due to the paucity 
of expression in our language or possibly I am 
but poorly familiar with my native vocabulary 
and so am unable to convey exactly what is 
generally meant, when it is remarked that 
" blind people are always being exploited." 
Let us turn to the dictionary. We find 
that exploitation conveys the idea that to 
exploit is to use for one's own profit or purpose 
to the disadvantage of another, and is 
especially used by opponents of the present 
industrial system of employers of capital in 
industry. Clearly, this is not exactly what is 
meant when the blind person is said to be 
exploited, but the term is so closely akin that 
it somewhat savours of it. To penalize a 
person may be to place some bar or barrier 
upon him which would emphasise an ordinary 
handicap from which he obviously suffers or 
under which he labours. This does not 
exactly convey what is meant but, again, it 
savours of it. To victimise a person is to make 
a victim of or swindle him. This is not 
exactly what is meant by the expression, but 
there is a strong suspicion that, sometimes, 
actual swindling does result from the treat- 
ment to which blind persons may be subjected 
either by thoughtless or by callous people. 
We are left now with the word advantage. 
Are blind people " taken advantage of " ? 



The word means any state or condition 
favourable to some desired end or purpose. 
Here again, this is not exactly what is meant, 
but consciously or unconsciously, many 
people do " take advantage " — perhaps with- 
out knowing or even thinking that a gesture 
of the hand, a movement of the head or an 
expression of the face, may convey to a 
sighted witness of a conversation, between a 
blind person and a third party, that an 
" advantage is being taken," and unconscious 
that the sighted witness involuntarily comes 
to the conclusion that the other sighted person 
is designedly out to take an advantage. The 
conclusion may not go so far as this, but, if 
not, the conviction of the sighted friend will 
often find expression in the words : " I do 
not like that person, I do not know why, but 
I do not," or in other words " / do not like 
thee, Dr. Fell, the reason why I cannot tell, 
but this I know and know full well, I do not 
like thee, Dr. Fell." And probably the blind 
person has, separately, come to the same 

I am sure there are many high souled, 
kindly, conscientious people of most charit- 
able disposition who will say that this is all 
sheer nonsense and is the result of mere 
suspicion, begotten of the condition of blind- 
ness, but let these dear people ask the blind 
person, whose almost unerring instinct can 
be trusted, and he or she will tell you that 
suspicion has not been aroused by the words, 
much less by the look or the gesture, but by 
an atmosphere which is irresistably borne in 
upon the sightless person. Blind people 
will tell you, and you can see it for yourself, 
that they become uneasy, their nervous 
system is affected, sometimes so violently that 
they begin to perspire in the hands and head 
and betray restlessness, or an attack of fidgets 
and a desire to escape from the presence. 
Comedians and others have often cracked the 
joke about putting a halfpenny in the blind 
beggar's tin cup and taking out a penny and 
coaxing away the blind man's dog, if it does 
not happen to be on a lead. I fail utterly to 
see anything funny in this. It is mean and 


contemptible, as are many more stupid things 
that people do or leave undone when they 
might do something to help a blind person. 

I was staying one winter in a Wiltshire 
town. I had been in the habit of crossing the 
road from my lodging to a barber's shop on 
the opposite side of the road. This necessi- 
tated a left incline while crossing the road. 
One morning I came down to go and have a 
shave and haircut, only to find that there was 
nearly a foot of snow on the ground. For a 
moment I hesitated and listened, and then 
dismissed the left incline and walked straight 
across the road. I was nearly at the opposite 
curb, when, simultaneously, I, felt a warm 
breath on my hand, heard a slight tinkling of 
harness and buckles, and noted a slight disturb- 
ance in the atmosphere. I accelerated. A man 
and woman, who should have known better, 
had been standing watching me and the man 
remarked, " That was very clever, old chap. 
I was wondering whether you would miss 
the pony." The lady agreed with him. I 
felt such utter contempt for both of them 
that, perhaps fortunately for them — and me — 
words failed me, and I requested to be guided 
to the premises of the tonsorial artist. I 
maintain that these people gratified their idle 
curiosity at my expense, and exploited me or 
took advantage of my condition in order to 
gratify their curiosity. 

On another occasion, in another town in 
the west of England, I had learned to walk 
along a certain pavement. One morning I 
essayed the same short journey, when I 
stepped into a trench which had been exca- 
vated across the pavement since I had passed 
that way the day before, and fell heavily, 
grazing my hand on a pick head — one point 
of which had been driven into the bottom of 
the trench and left so — and beautifully 
" gravel-rashing " my face on the earth on 
the side of the excavation. Two people came 
from the opposite side of the road to my 
assistance and one of them, a tradesman of 
about fifty years of age, remarked, " I thought 
you knew the hole was there and I was 
wondering how you would find it." His 
curiosity was very practically satisfied, and I 
hope he liked the demonstration I gave him. 
Clearly, he should have warned me, but he, 
also, took advantage of my condition to gratify 
his curiosity. There are thousands of such 
people in the world. 

There are also many careless people who, 
although they are associated every day with 

blind people, become utterly careless in their 
habits and often subject the blind persons 
about them to grave danger. I once knew a 
woman who habitually left dustpan and 
brush on the stairs, or a pail in the middle of 
the bathroom. In both cases, and on more 
than one occasion, her blind husband narrowly 
missed what might have been a very serious 
accident. There are other well-intentioned 
people who become so accustomed to a blind 
person about them that they frequently 
forget that the person is blind, with the 
result that unexpected accidents, which might 
have been avoided, often happen through 
thoughtlessness. Familiarity breeds contempt 
— in this case, contempt for blindness. There 
is the funny person, too, whom the blind man 
or woman has only met on two or three 
occasions at considerable intervals, who, 
usually when he is in company, walks up to 
the blind individual and asks : " Who is 
speaking ? " and who looks horribly dis- 
appointed when the blind person, usually 
inwardly embarrassed, fails to recognise the 
questioner. Not satisfied, however, with this, 
the funny person will frequently insist that 
his voice must be immediately identified, 
when perhaps it is as flat and expressionless 
as running water. 

When travelling about the country, one 
often comes across the sordid-minded person 
who will not do a hand's turn unless there is 
" something hanging to it " but, as a compen- 
sation for this, there are those great-hearted 
men among men who will go out of their way 
to do anything, and will even attempt to 
carry you. I have frequently found myself 
trying to get on to a 'bus or into a railway 
carriage. Wanting above all things to get a 
grip and a firm foothold, I am naturally slow, 
or slower than sighted people, and on 
hundreds of occasions I have been uncere- 
moniously pushed aside by sighted people — I 
am sorry to say, mostly women — who have 
taken advantage of my indecision to push in 
front of me, although there has been ample 
room in the 'bus or railway carriage. I am 
proud to have this opportunity of saying, 
however, that these people, if seen to resort 
to these tactics, usually get considerably more 
than they bargain for from the men in the 
employ of the London General Omnibus 
Company. The latter are of an highly 
intelligent order and seem to scent a blind 
man or woman by instinct, and conductors 
have frequently barred the gangway to the 




general public while the blind person has been 
got safely aboard. Railway men, too, are in 
the main particularly observant and con- 
siderate. I am sorry I cannot say the same 
thing of some others. The public are, in the 
main, very selfish and inconsiderate when it 
means boarding a 'bus or train. They simply 
do not observe. They can only see, and all 
they are looking for is accommodation for 
themselves. On one occasion, a very small 
woman with a very long hatpin jumped in 
front of me as I was stepping on to a 'bus and 
ripped my cheek from the jawbone to the eye 
with the said pin. On another occasion, 
having got inside, I found a seat and apologised 
to a man, whose sprawling feet I had almost 
fallen over. I remarked, " Excuse me, I am 
blind," and his reply was, " Then why the 
devil haven't you a board on the front of you 
to show that you are ! " The 'bus was nearly 
full of women and he got such a rough time 
of it from a couple of Victorian dames that 
he rang the bell and left hurriedly amid a 
chorus of jeers which may or may not have 
impressed the incident on his memory for 
years to come. 

So far, I have said nothing of designed 
intent to take advantage of the blind with a 
view to gain or profit of a financial character. 

But there are people who are mean enough 
to do this. I knew a blind shoemaker, an 
ex-serviceman, who told me that his great 
difficulty in connection with his occupation 
was getting payment for the work he had done. 
People would use all kind of tricks and 
subterfuges to obtain the repaired goods and 
then leave, promising to pay to-morrow, and 
while he was holding forth as to his inability 
to give credit, the exploiter had slunk slyly 
and noiselessly out of the shop. These 
people know that the blind man cannot see 
them pass the premises and that he cannot 
recognise them if they meet him in the street 
unless he hears their voice, so they carefully 
avoid speaking until they are out of earshot. 
Most blind people whom I have met are 
kind-hearted and generous, and I have known 
men, quite unable to afford it, lend money 
to a sighted person, never of course to see it 
again, for the borrower avoids putting in an 
appearance wherever the blind person is 
likely to be found and if there is no means of 
escape when they do happen to meet under 
the same roof, the borrower drops his voice 
to a whisper so that the blind man shall not 
detect his presence. 


Then there are people who exploit by 
failing to help because they have the erroneous 
idea that all Institutions for the Blind, 
occupied in the general welfare of the blind, 
feed them, clothe them, pay them unusually 
well for anything that they do, find them 
pocket money, Xmas hampers, and a seaside 
holiday free of charge ! Yet these are the 
very people who, if asked for a donation, say 
" Let the State do it," and, at the same time, 
if a tax of five shillings a year were imposed 
upon every sighted person for the mainten- 
ance in comfort of the blind portion of the 
community, would be the first to rail against 
the tax. Of course, these people never think 
that it is neither charity nor pity that blind 
people want, but an opportunity to do some 
kind of useful work in order to enjoy happiness 
in occupation and so help to maintain 
themselves as respectable citizens. 

Undoubtedly, blind people are handicapped 
or penalised by employers of labour, who are 
loth to give sightless persons an opportunity 
of showing what they can do in spite of their 
particular disability. Much has to be done 
to educate the sighted public to realise that 
blind people are neither daft nor lazy. 

Sighted people forget that blind people can 
sense environment even to knowing, by some 
wonderful instinct, when they are in a 
disordered and untidy apartment. They also 
forget that blind people put great reliance 
upon the tone of voice of the person who is 
speaking to them and the quality of a hand- 
shake. People with sight have a lot to learn 
about blindness and blind persons and they 
would learn it much quicker if they were to 
talk frankly and openly with the sightless, 
rather than try to be " funny " and to take 
mean and petty advantages which can only be of 
transitory amusement and benefit. There are 
people who delight in trying to find out how 
readily a blind shopkeeper can discriminate 
between coins of the realm and treasury notes, 
and I know cases where these blind persons 
have been deliberately cheated and robbed. 

And now, good reader, it is for you to say 
whether blind people are exploited, victimised, 
taken advantage of, or penalised — wilfully or 
intentionally or otherwise does not much 
matter — and if you do not like any one of the 
words I have used, it is up to you to suggest 
a more appropriate one ! At any rate, I shall 
be glad to have your experiences, so address 
your correspondence to the Editor and we 
ought to land a splendid catch of ideas. 



THE American Braille Press, 
74, Rue Lauriston, Paris, 
have just published, in 
letterpress and in Braille, 
the new French Text-book 
on the above subject, enti- 
tled " Notation Musicale 

The title-page explains that the manual has 
been compiled in accordance with the decis- 
ions of the International Congress held in 
Paris in April, 1929, at which our readers will 
recollect that uniformity as to the actual 
symbols henceforward to be used in Braille 
Music-Notation throughout the world was so 
happily secured. 

In the Preface, contributed by Monsieur 
Georges L. Raverat, Secretary-General of the 
American Braille Press, due acknowledgment 
is made of the co-operation of the authorities 
of those Institutions for the Blind, on both 
sides of the Atlantic, who sent their Braille- 
music experts as delegates to the Congress. 

Recognition is also made of the immense 
labour undertaken by Monsieur Remy Clavers, 
Professor at l'lnstitution Nationale desjeunes 
Aveugles, Paris, and Monsieur Paul Dupas, of 
the American Braille Press, in the preparation 
of the text of the manual, for discussion, and 
of the skill with which they afterwards 
prepared it for publication. 

M. Raverat concludes by stating that it has 
always been his view that uniformity in the 
method of transcription is of secondary 
importance compared with uniformity of 
musical symbols, and that this was the general 
opinion, and governed all the decisions of the 

Following upon this there appears a 
Foreword, written (at request of the delegates) 
by Mr. Edward Watson, who acted as 
Secretary to the Congress, and who, together 
with Mr. P. T. Mayhew, represented the 
English National Institute thereat. The 
writer gives a concise but comprehensive 
survey of the history and development of 
Braille Music-notation, from its invention, in 
1829, to tne Centenary Year 1929, which so 
propitiously marked the date of the Congress. 

The text-book (which is in French) is 
arranged as a Tutor, and consists of twenty- 

two chapters, covering the whole range of 
Braille Music-notation. In the letterpress 
edition, illustrations of transcription from 
Staff notation to Braille (the latter printed in 
black-dot characters) appear throughout the 
work, just as in the inkprint edition of the 
National Institute's Tutor. 

Although the notation signs themselves 
(with the exception of the half dozen or more 
which were conceded, for uniformity) are 
familiar to English Music-Braillists ; yet, it 
is to be observed that the method of tran- 
scription is not by any means always in line 
with English practice as exemplified by our 
" Bar-by-bar," and " Vertical Score " style. 
But, of course, the Paris Congress concen- 
trated on the task of securing agreement first 
as to international uniformity in regard to 
symbols, leaving method of transcription for 
discussion on another occasion, and, it was 
hoped, at not too remote a time. 

In the French manual, for instance, 
intervals are still read downwards from the 
Treble, in the '' old style " long since aban- 
doned in this country. 

Again, the French retain, in Choral and 
Orchestral music, special signs for the 
various C clefs, to correspond exactly with the 
inkprint notation, a point which is not now 
stressed in this country, especially in regard 
to Vocal music, either in Staff Notation or in 

The chapter on " Figured Bass " would 
not be very helpful to a blind student resident 
in England, owing to the different way in 
which the subject is expounded in the 
standard Text-books on Harmony, etc., 
compiled by English professors. 

There is an excellent chapter on Plainsong 
(Vatican method), which to the French 
organist, or organ student, is invaluable ; 
whereas to his English brother organist it 
could not be of much practical value in his 
work as Director of the Music in the Anglican 
Church, though, of course, to some it might 
be an interesting study. 

Apart from these friendly criticisms — which 
are intended to show that ample provision 
has now been made for the student across the 
Channel — we have nothing but praise for the 
splendid way in which this difficult subject 



has been expounded. It meets a great need, 
as did the English Key and Primer in this 
country, and will undoubtedly have the effect 
not only of confirming and standardising the 
Notation Symbols, but of securing uniformity 
as regards the method of teaching the subject 
of Braille music on the Continent, as did the 
publication of our own manuals in the Schools 
for the Blind throughout the British Empire. 
The American Braille Press is also to be 
congratulated on the way in which the 
letterpress edition is got up. We know, from 
experience, how difficult it is to set up Braille 
in black-dot characters with that meticulous 
precision which is essential if it is to be 
absolutely " to scale." The excellent manner 
in which this has been accomplished, together 
with the general lay-out of the whole treatise, 
is beyond criticism, and we are glad to extend 
a hearty welcome to this new contribution to 
Braille musical culture. 


We much regret to report the death of : — 

The Rev. A. T. Dence, at the age of 60, 

formerly rector of Swindon, near Cheltenham, 
afterwards living in retirement at Torquay 
and at " Court Grange," Abbotskerswell. 
Two years ago when the Blind Babies' Home 
at Chorley Wood, Herts, was destroyed by fire, 
Mr. and Mrs. Dence offered " Court Grange" 
to the National Institute as a New Home for 
the babies. The offer was accepted and the 
babies lived at " Court Grange " until the 
Home at East Grinstead, Sussex, was opened 
just before Christmas. " Court Grange " in 
future will be used as a Home for Mentally 
Retarded Blind Children. 

Alexander Dow. head of the firm of 
Murdoch and Murdoch, piano merchants. 
For many years Mr. Dow was Chairman of 
the Home |for the Blind, Hanley Road, 
London, N., and was a most generous friend 
to the institution. 

Mary Elizabeth Watson, of Torquay, in 
her 79th year. During her lifetime she was 
closely connected with the work of the Tor- 
quay Aid Society for the Blind and the 
Torquay Blind Persons' Club. 

Dr. Florence Buchanan, daughter of the 
late Sir George Buchanan, F.L.S., Chief 
Medical Officer of the Local Government 

Board. She had a most distinguished scien- 
tific career, being the first woman to be 
elected a member of the Physiological Society. 
In 1 90 1 she had the first attack of an eye- 
trouble (detachment of the retina) which 
ultimately rendered her almost completely 
blind ; but she worked on in spite of her 
failing sight. In the same year the degree of 
D.Sc. was conferred on her by London 
University, mainly in recognition of a paper 
on " the electrical response of muscle in 
different kinds of contraction." This paper 
was dictated while she was for three months 
kept lying on her back in the hope of averting 
the further progress of her eye trouble. She 
was also elected a Fellow of University 
College, London, and awarded several prizes 
for scientific contributions. Up till the end 
she continued her scientific work, in spite of 
advancing blindness, and it was characteristic 
of her that she became greatly interested in 
the subjective phenomena due to her eye 

" In her dress and her attitude of inde- 
pendence, Dr. Buchanan was unconven- 
tional," says the Star, " but the picture of 
this sightless scientist making her regular 
visits to the laboratories, conducting experi- 
ments and making detailed notes upon the 
progress of her own affliction, brings home 
the indomitable courage of this heroic 


Mr. Cyril Moore has resigned his position 
as Organiser for the Stoke-on-Trent and 
North Staffordshire Committee for the Care 
of the Blind, as from the 31st March. 
Tributes were paid to his work at the last 
meeting of the Committee. 

Mrs. A. 0. B. Nicholson has resigned the 
position of Superintendent of the Liverpool 
Workshops and Home Teaching Society for 
the out-door blind. 

Miss D. Hooey, of " Sunniholme," Pen 
Street, Boston, is now the Secretary of the 
Boston and Holland Blind Society. 

Mr. John Carmichael has succeeded Mr. 
Bell as Secretary and Treasurer of the Society 
for Teaching the Blind at their Homes in the 
Counties of Stirling and Clackmannan, the 
address of which is 27, Mar Street, Alloa, 





To the Editor. 

1,800 Deaf-Blind. 

Sir, — I was very much interested in the 
article entitled " A Deaf-Blind Child's Out- 
look," in The New Beacon for March. 

I do not think it is generally known that 
there are about 1,800 deaf-blind persons in 
this country and I think it should be more 
widely known. 

I have read of a school for deaf-blind 
children, but there seems to be no provision 
made for the adult deaf-blind, apart from 
what is done for those who are only blind. 

Many of them live in institutions as the 
only inmate so afflicted. In such cases a 
deaf-blind person has no one who is able to 
talk to him except when a visitor happens to 
call who is able to talk by means of the 
Manual Alphabet. 

The deaf-blind are so delighted to meet 
others afflicted in the same way and to enjoy 
a little friendly conversation that it seems to 
me that those who are living alone in an 
institution might be placed where there are 
one or two others, or that a Holiday Home 
should be provided where they can meet one 
another from time to time ; either of these 
courses would bring much happiness into 
their dark and silent lives. 

As so much has of late been contributed 
for the Wireless for the Blind Fund, which 
opens up a new world for the Blind, might 
not more be done for those who are so much 
more heavily handicapped and who can have 
no share in this wonderful Fund ? 

Yours, etc., E. H. Lee (Mrs.). 

Moseley, Birmingham. 
To the Editor. 
i/ Journalism for the Blind. 

Sir, — This subject interests me very deeply, 
as I have been engaged in writing for various 
newspapers for the last fifty years. Of course, 
I was only partially blind at first, when T 
began to write in the year 1880, while I was 
still in my teens. But even then I had to 
hold books or papers close to my face before 
I could read them, and I had to lean closely 
over the sheet as I wrote. Still I managed to 
learn Pitman's Shorthand, and could take 
copious notes at public meetings, and sent in 
local news from a purely rural district to 
Aberdeen papers. In 1910 I lost my sight 
altogether, and since then I have read in 

Braille type, and I have made use of 
a typewriter for writing. Before I was 
compelled to give up my ordinary work, that 
of Postman in this district, I had succeeded in 
forming a close connection with an Aberdeen 
daily paper, by writing a column of Rural 
Notes and a second column of Dialogue, 
written in the Aberdeenshire Dialect, and 
these two columns are still being produced, 
and bring in a small salary from the paper. 
As I am now 69 years of age, I confess it is 
somewhat difficult for me to find matter of 
sufficient public interest to fill these two 
columns, but up to the present I have never 
failed my paper one week. 

I began my column of Dialogue as far back 
as 1901, and it still goes on. It is made up of 
the Talk between two farmers who discuss 
all sorts of matters connected with the farm, 
and also local affairs such as the Church and 
religion, parish politics, and the like. 

Practice has taught me that it is possible to 
think and write your thoughts with a type- 
writer simultaneously. It does require some 
practice to do that, but I prefer to carry on 
my work in this way, and write as little 
Braille as I can. As for reporting meetings, 
I do that only from memory, and take no 
notes of any kind. 

It was well for me that I had made some 
connections with this newspaper before 
blindness came altogether upon me, as I had 
only a small pension and had to earn a living 

I may only add that the work is fascinating, 
and for those who are handicapped like Mr. 
Keiley and myself, there is nothing more 
agreeable than to have some work to do of a 
congenial character. 

I must also say how much I value the 
Literary Journal [published by the National 
Institute for the Blind]. I read four of the 
Institute's Braille Magazines as well as the 
Braille Mail, and find myself as well posted 
up in current affairs as those who read all 
sorts of books and papers. It is one of the 
most blessed happenings in this world that 
Braille type was invented, and that it can be 
made to occupy so little room and yet be so 
clear and readable. Although I was nearly 
fifty, I learned to use Braille and a typewriter 
without personal supervision. 

Yours, etc., 
Post Office, James Alexander. 

Ythan Wells, 

Huntly, Aberdeenshire. 




To the Editor. 

Dr. Edward £. Allen. 

Sir, — The Trustees of the Perkins Institu- 
tion and Massachusetts School for the Blind 
desire to place on record their deep appreci- 
ation of the services of Edward Ellis Allen, 
who retires as Director about July ist, 1931. 

Mr. Allen taught at the Institution from 
1888-90, and in 1907 after a successful service 
as Principal of the Pennsylvania Institution 
for the Blind at Overbrook, returned to the 
Perkins Institution as Director. Thus he has 
been the active head for twenty-four years. 
During this period it is not too much to say 
that the Institution has been entirely remade, 
with new and beautiful physical equipment, 
and with a constantly more effective standard 
of teaching, of administration, and of service 
to the blind. In all of this progress Mr. Allen 
has been the source of leadership and of 
inspiration. It is not possible to enumerate 
all of the permanent contributions he has 
made to the science of the education of the 
blind. But in this field he has been a pioneer, 
emphasizing the many sides of the need, 
physical, mental, artistic, and spiritual. As 
author, founder of, and lecturer at, the 
Harvard course for educators of the blind, 
administrator and teacher, he stands foremost 
in his profession. For all this the Trustees 
express their gratitude and admiration. 
Especially they desire to record their feeling 
for Mr. Allen as a man and as a friend ; 
unselfish, tireless, he has given of himself to 
the very limit. To work with him has been 
a privilege. He retires with the affection of 
everyone connected with the Institution. 

In recognition of these services the Trustees 
have elected Mr. Allen Director Emeritus, 
with the hope that in the years to come the 
Institution may be helped by his counsel and 

The Trustees announce the election of Rev. 
Gabriel Farrell, Jr., as Director, to take effect 
about July ist. Mr. Farrell has had experi- 
ence both in education and executive work. 
The Trustees are confident that with his 
spirit of understanding and of co-operation 
the Perkins Institution will continue its great 
service to the Blind. 

Yours, etc., 

For the Trustees, 
Watertown, Robert H. Hallo well, 

February 24th, 193 1. President. 



WE have received two letters 
from Mr. J. P. Neary, of 
the Irish Association for 
the Blind, but as they are 
rather too long to be 
quoted in full we append 
the following summary: — 
Mr. Neary criticises the statement that 
" there has been up to now* no voluntary 
system of blind welfare in the Free State and 
consequently no organisation at work to watch 
the interests of the blind," pointing out that 
the Irish Association for the Blind, 35, North 
Great George Street, Dublin, has been 
actively engaged in endeavouring to advance 
the cause of the blind since 1922. 

He further suggests (1) that the statement 
which implies that a blind child in the Irish 
Free State must attend school is erroneous, 
stating that there is no legislation in the Irish 
Free State to compel either parents or local 
authorities to send a blind child to either of 
the two voluntary schools for the blind, and 
(2) that the statement that there are four 
workshops, of which three are in Dublin, is 
open to misconstruction as there are only two 
workshops employing outdoor workers in the 
Free State. 

We are grateful to Mr. Neary for bringing 
to our notice the work of the Irish Association 
for the Blind, and for pointing out that our 
statement with regard to the blind child was 
open to misconstruction through being some- 
what condensed. The statement with regard 
to the four workshops was taken from the 
League of Nations Report on the Welfare of 
the Blind and we are glad to amplify it by the 
statement that of the four, two only employ 
outdoor workers. 

Since the publication of the article in the 
February issue of The New Beacon our 
readers will be interested to know that a 
Central Committee has been set up for the 
welfare of the blind in Ireland, on which the 
Irish Association for the Blind, the Irish 
League for the Blind, and various Institutions 
are represented. Our correspondent states 
that the Irish Association for the Blind has as 

* That is, since the passing of the Blind Persons 
Act in 1920. Earlier than this Mr. Rochford Wade 
had founded the Hibernian Blind Society, later ab- 
sorbed in the National Institute for the Blind in 
Ireland, which came to an end in 1920. 


its aim " to press forward its claims for a 
more just and more generous enactment 
capable for providing for all the needs and 
requirements of the sightless " ; and this, too, 
will be the aim of the new Central Committee. 


Success of Young Blind Pianists. 

The distinctive feature of the past Season's 
Monthly Concerts at the National Institute, 
has been the array of young blind pianists who 
have taken part in the programme. 

At the opening and closing Concerts 
respectively, the pianists were Mr. Alec 
Templeton, L.R.A.M., and Mr. David 
Williams, F.R.C.O., L.R.A.M., who are now 
students at the Royal College of Music, and 
who, it may be remembered, carried off 
prizes some years back in connection with the 
Daily Express Piano Playing Competition. 

Their playing at the Monthly Concerts bore 
ample testimony to the exceptional character 
of their musical gifts, and to their having 
taken full advantage of the excellence of the 
tuition they have received at the Royal Normal 
College for the Blind, and later at the Royal 
College of Music. Both showed not only 
fluency of technique, but also great delicacy 
of expression ; while Mr. Templeton — in a 
charmingly written Prelude, and a brilliant 
Toccata — gave evidence of great promise as 
a Composer. 

The other Pianists were Miss Mary Munn, 
L.R.A.M., a young Canadian studying at the 
Matthay School, London ; Miss Audrey 
Lidington, L.R.A.M., and Mr. David Buchan. 
The two last named studied at the Royal 
Normal College, and are doing well in their 
profession. All three gave pleasure by their 
playing, and in addition to admirably 
rendered Solos, Mr. Buchan acted as accom- 
panist to the eminent baritone, Mr. Roy 
Henderson, and played the piano part in 
Piano and Organ Duets. Here it may be 
noted that Mr. Henderson, who had not 
previously had a blind accompanist, expressed 
particular satisfaction with his collaborator, 
whose power to transpose immediately any 
song struck him as a remarkable gift. Mr. 
Buchan consummated his triumphs on the 

particular evening in question, by a masterly 
improvization upon themes supplied by the 

The other blind artistes who participated in 
the Season's Concerts were Slippere, Enter- 
tainer at the Piano, and Mr. F. H . Etcheverria, 
Baritone, both of whom gave pleasure in their 
respective roles. 

Choir of Blind Girl Guides. 

The feature of the fourth day bf the London 
Musical Competition Festival at Central Hall, 
Westminster, was the success of a choir of 
girl guides, the First Swiss Cottage Rangers — 
all of whom are blind — who won the Princess 
Mary (Countess of Harewood's) Challenge 
Standard against seven other choirs. They 
were accompanied by Mr. Osborne, who is 
also blind. 

Blind Clerk at Office of Works. 

Miss Violet Harper, of Beckenham, has 
been appointed a junior clerk in the Office of 
W'orks. She was trained at the Royal Normal 
College for the Blind and at the National 
Institute for the Blind. She has been practi- 
cally blind since she was six, but she can still 
see a little with her right eye. Her shorthand 
speed is ioo words a minute, and she can 
typewrite at 60 words a minute. 

Blind Theatrical Company. 

A theatrical company of seven blind girls 
is giving plays at the Booth Theatre, New 
York, astonishing audiences by their compe- 
tence. The group calls itself " The Light- 
house Players," after the New York organis- 
ation for the blind of that name. Their per- 
fection in such necessary accomplishments 
as walking easily about the stage, chatting to 
each other and so on, is due to the most 
careful attention to details. Small slips of 
carpet, for instance, invisible to the audience, 
guide the feet, and each performer has a 
perfect mental picture of the stage. It is 
essential that everything used or touched is 
in exact position. The actresses, of course, 
are not professionals, but the standard of 
their amateur performances led them to a 
regular Broadway theatre. The actresses 
support themselves. One teaches dancing 
and elocution, and there is a dictaphone 
operator and others are stenographers and 
typists. Despite their blindness they make 
their own dresses for their repertoire. 





The Midland Counties Association Conference. 

Authorities, Secretaries, 
Home Teachers and others 
interested in Blind Welfare 
was held at the Birmingham 
Royal Institution for the 
Blind, by kind permission 
of the Committee, on Thursday and Friday, 
19th and 20th March, 193 1. 

The Conference was presided over by Miss 
J. A. Merivale, Chairman of the Midland 
Counties Association, who gave a cordial 
welcome to all present and referred to the last 
Conference at which the chief subject had 
been the Prevention of Blindness ; this was 
now being dealt with by a special Committee 
set up to carry out investigations with a view 
to further action. On the present occasion the 
Conference had met to discuss a number of 
vital subjects. Miss L. A. Winter, Vice- 
Chairman of the Middlesex Association for 
the Blind, would address the meeting on 
" Services for the Unemployable Blind," to 
be followed by Alderman C. Lucas, Chairman 
of the After- Care Committee of the Birming- 
ham Royal Institution, Mrs. Cowley, Secre- 
tary to the Northern Counties Association for 
the Blind, on Registration and Statistics, 
Miss Jean Robinson, M.A., and Mr. Charles 
Mclnnes, M.A. (Lecturer in History, Bristol 
University), on the Mental Outlook for the 
Blind, and Mr. Fuller, Organising Secretary 
to the British Wireless for the Blind Fund, on 
Wireless for the Blind in the Midland area, 
followed by Miss Urmson (Hon. Secretary, 
Midland Counties Association). 

Delegates from the Midland area and 
visitors from other parts of the country 
attended the Conference and the discussions 
which followed the papers were evidence of 
the keen interest they had aroused. 

Miss Winter, in her helpful and sympathe- 
tic paper on " Services for the Unemployable 
Blind," spoke of the ways in which the blind 
who were prevented by age, health or circum- 
stances from following a wage-earning trade 
could be helped to take part in normal life, 
so that they might learn in time to overcome 
their blindness. There were those who, not 
without a fierce and secret battle, used their 

blindness to the glory of God and the service 
of man, but there were others for whom the 
fight was long drawn out and who needed 
wise and unobtrusive help in learning the 
patient practice of doing without sight. Side 
by side with Braille, there were numerous 
ways of training the memory and the sense 
of hearing and touch, such as telling coins, 
playing card games with sighted people, 
comparing memory notes of lectures or talks 
heard on the Wireless, and welcome occupa- 
tion could be found in the many pastime 
handicrafts that the resourceful Home 
Teacher had at her command. There were 
many friendly services that could be rendered 
by voluntary helpers who were willing to be 
an escort on a walk, to help in the choice of 
books from the Library, or to provide 
companionship or small pleasures of one kind 
or another. Such services were by no means 
one sided, for the blind were not debarred 
from the happiness of friendship, and the 
visitor who had gone to cheer might quite well 
come away with a sense of having left their 
own burden behind them. 

Alderman C. Lucas gave an account of the 
financial help given to the blind in Birming- 

Mrs. Cowley, in an able and comprehensive 
paper on Registration and Statistics, ap- 
proached her subject from a scientific point of 
view, and spoke of the need for greater 
uniformity and accuracy in the records at 
present being kept. She had consulted an 
expert whose opinion was that until good and 
comparable records had been kept for at least 
ten years no reliable information could be 
gained on which to base a scientific conclusion. 
She went on to say that blind welfare had 
changed its nature in recent years. In the 
past the driving force had been emotional, 
sentimental and religious. The sentimentalist 
had had sufficient statesmanship to build up 
a good organisation which provided a frame- 
work on which those able to command more 
adequate resources could build. Now that 
the efforts of the pioneers had succeeded and 
blind welfare was passing into a public 
service, it had become a social problem, 
needing not less humanity, but what she could 


only call more scientific treatment, a prelim- 
inary step towards which was the compilation 
of correct, reliable and adequate statistics. 
She suggested that in order to achieve this end 
greater care was needed in filling in registra- 
tion cards, a clearer understanding of the 
term " partially blind " should be arrived at, 
arrangements to safeguard the quick transfer 
of cases from one area to another should be 
made and a system of standardisation and 
codification of the causes of blindness agreed 
upon. She referred to the various methods of 
certification of blind persons and emphasised 
the need for examination by an ophthalmic 
surgeon in order that greater uniformity 
might be attained and the causes of blindness 
scientifically ascertained. 

Miss Jean Robinson and Mr. Mclnnes gave 
generously of their own experience in speaking 
on the Mental Outlook of the Blind, giving 
an impression of high courage and humorous 
fortitude that could not fail to impress their 
hearers. Towards the end of her speech Miss 
Robinson put in a plea for Post Guides and 
gave a brief description of the way in which 
they worked. 

Mr. Fuller spoke on local Wireless problems 
and a number of points were raised and 
dealt with. 

A feature of the Conference was the 
excellent exhibition of work done by the 
unemployable blind in the Midland area. 
Among the objects displayed were a piano 
made from a variety of unlikely materials, a 
gramophone, a script writing frame, toys, a 
three valve wireless set, in addition to carpen- 
try, knitting, rugs, netting, basketry and other 
handicrafts. There was also an interesting 
show of hyacinths grown by the blind, which 
had evoked keen interest. 

At the close of the afternoon session on each 
of the two days of the Conference the pupils 
of the Birmingham Royal Institution for the 
Blind presented a play entitled " The Sand 
Castle," the performance of which must 
remain as a memorable experience in the 
minds of those who witnessed it. The acting 
was delightful in its unaffected simplicity, the 
singing charming, and it was evident that the 
children entered into their parts with keen 
appreciation and a real sense of character. 

Tours of inspection of the Schools, Training 
Departments and Workshops were arranged 
by the Superintendent of the Birmingham 

Royal Institution for the Blind and a number 
of delegates availed themselves of the op- 
portunity of learning something of the work 
that is being carried on. 

The Conference came to a conclusion with 
a vote of thanks to all who had contributed to 
its success. 

A full report of the Conference will be 
available shortly, to be obtained on application 
to Miss B. Urmson, Midland Counties 
Association for the Blind, 23, Leckford Road, 

Clovernook Home for the Blind, Ohio, 

The Report for 1929-30 gives an interesting 
account of the Home, which employs twenty 
women and girls in its printing department, 
and about fifteen weavers. A children's 
Braille magazine, thousands of Braille Christ- 
mas booklets and calendars, games, playing 
cards and books are among the activities of 
the printing shop. A legacy of 25,000 dollars 
recently received and to be expended 
on building and equipment is gratefully 

A Blind Philanthropist. 

Miss Kate Griffith, of Hartley Wintney. 
Hants, was for five years a successful ex- 
hibitor at the Royal Academy. But an 
accident destroyed the sight of one eye com- 
pletely, and left her little vision in the other. 
Paralysis of the left side also occurred, and 
she became bed-ridden. 

Cut off from the art she loved, Miss 
Griffith determined to devote her life to the 
welfare of the blind. In her native county 
there was a number of sightless men and 
women endeavouring to make a livelihood by 
handicraft in their own homes, and she 
offered to act as their sales- wo man. 

Her bedroom served as a clearing-house ; 
business developed beyond the Hampshire 
borders ; and more than £1,200 has been 
handed over to the blind during the past six 

In addition to giving them financial help 
Miss Griffith has been serving the blind in 
other ways. When her own sight failed she 
immediately set herself to learn Braille which 
she can now read and write fluently. She 
has already transcribed into Braille several 
books and stories for blind readers. 





Servers of the Blind League. 

The Report for 1929-30 falls into two parts, 
the earlier dealing with the Social Clubs in 
London and the provinces, and the latter with 
the work of the Ellen Terry Home, Reigate. 

There are now ten clubs in the London 
area, and seven in the provinces, and to those 
familiar with the excellently run clubs 
already existing are not surprised to read in 
the Report that " the demand for the estab- 
lishment of further clubs continues insistent." 

That part of the Report which deals with 
the Reigate Home is from the pen of its 
medical officer, and deals in detail with 
several of the eighteen children in the care of 
the League. The work of training the men- 
tally defective blind child is one that requires 
untold patience and there must be many 
disappointments ; but there is much encour- 
agement also especially in records like the 
following : — " This child came to us in 1925, 
and has made such good progress that though 
feeble-minded, almost blind, and very deaf, 
he left us on September and, 1929, to go to 
a school for normal blind children in London, 

where he is doing very well." " K.P. 

continues to improve markedly, and helps in 
the schoolroom. She is having pianoforte 

lessons." " M.A. came to us four 

and a half years ago with the report that she 
was an absolutely hopeless case. Now, 
however, she seems almost like a normal 
child, her face lights up as she talks, and she 
has developed a great sense of humour." 
The second Home for older girls is nearing 
completion, and is likely to open before the 
next Report is issued. 

Royal Institution for the Blind, North 

The 45th Annual Report for 1929-30 
shows that the Institution has suffered like so 
many others from the general financial and 
industrial depression, though even so nearly 
£16,900 was taken in the sale of goods. That 
the standard of work continues very high is 
evident from the fact that at a Palace of 
Industry Exhibition gold, silver, and bronze 
medals were won by the Institution. 



Royal Victoria School, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Annual Report for the year ending 
March 31st, 1930, records " another year of 
progress and usefulness." There are now 146 
inmates altogether in the School, and the 
many photographs which illustrate the Report, 
whether of boys and girls at work or play, or 
of the buildings themselves, bear out the 
comment of the Hon. Medical Officer that 
" they live under ideal conditions from a 
hygienic point of view, as regards both their 
living and working quarters and their outdoor 
surroundings." It is interesting to read that 
the Stand taken at the Exhibition by the 
Institution proved a great success, and aroused 
much public attention. 

City of Sheffield Welfare of the Blind 

The Report for 1929/30 describes some 
interesting experiments in the Workshops, 
and the introduction of new processes. The 
aim of the Committee " to produce only the 
very best quality goods in all grades " is a 
high one, but the fact that in spite of general 
trade depression the sales for the year ending 
March 31st, 1930 showed an increase over 
those of the previous year more than justifies 

The Sheffield and District Voluntary 
Committee for the Welfare of the Blind 
continues to carry out its special work of 
providing special grants in cases of sickness or 
other emergency, and has organised a choral 
class which has given several concerts during 
the season. The handicraft classes have 
proved so successful that in one centre two 
weekly meetings have had to be held in order 
to accommodate increased numbers. 

National Institute for the Deaf. 

The sixth Annual Report, for 1930, is an 
interesting record of progress in the two-fold 
work undertaken by the Institute, in the 
general provision for the needs of the deaf, 
and the creation or encouragement of institu- 
tions for particular classes of the deaf, and 
the help of individuals. 

Information on deaf welfare throughout the 
world is being collected by the Institute, and 
with the knowledge thus obtained steps are 
taken to improve the care of the deaf in this 
country through the Regional Associations 
which already cover a large part of England 
and Scotland. Among the objects of the 


Institute are the prevention of deafness, the 
inquiry into suitable forms of employment 
for deaf persons and the encouragement of 
lip-reading. It is hoped that a full inquiry 
into the conditions of the deaf and the 
establishment of a Government Committee 
for their welfare mav be achieved in due 

Societe Royale de Philanthropic de Bruxelles. 

The Report (1929-30) of this Society, 
which in addition to blindness deals with 
various forms of physical disability, states 
that the financial position of their Blind Home 
is particularly satisfactory. 49 men, 70 
women, and 30 girls are at present accom- 
modated, and it is proposed to extend the 
premises shortly in order to accommodate 
20 more blind people and to provide a small 
operating theatre, an isolation block, a room 
for convalescents and a roof garden. 

The Society has lately been supplying 
special badges for the blind and these have 
been found of great assistance to them in 
getting about the streets. 

Dorset County Association for the Blind. 

The Association are very pleased to note 
the result of the co-operative scheme with the 
National Institute for the Blind, which has 
increased last year's collection figures by £16 
with a month's payment still to come. The 
amount received by the Institution being 
£290. A £200 grant by the County Council 
for necessitous blind has been a tremendous 
help towards the quarterly grants. 

Wolverhampton, Dudley, and Districts 
Institution for the Blind. 

The Report for 1929-30 gives an interesting 
statistical table, snowing very clearly the 
growth of the work of the Institution since its 
beginnings in 1874, when 53 blind persons 
were visited in their homes, the total grants 
paid amounted to £12, and the income of the 
Society was £50 ; to-day there are 450 
registered blind in the care of the Society, 
nearly £3,000 is paid out in grants, and the 
income of the Institution is £7,441. Wolver- 
hampton, like many other industrial centres, 
owes much of the support given to the Blind 
Institution to the generosity of workers in 
factory and foundry, and nearly £1,800 of its 
last year's income is derived from this source. 

Tasmanian Institution for the Blind, Deaf, 
and Dumb. 

The Report for 1929-30 mentions the 
formation of a gymnastic class for the blind 
workers in the Industrial Department, and 
states that the innovation is much appreciated 
by them. The commemoration of the Braille 
centenary took the form of a rendering of 
" The Hymn of Praise " by the Hobart 
Philharmonic Society. 

Sydney Industrial Blind Institute. 

The Society reports a fairly successful year 
which in view of the very general trade depres- 
sion in Australia speaks well for the efficiency 
and management of the organization. The 
blind have been kept almost fully employed 
and the subscription list has actually increased, 
but more money is needed and an appeal has 
been made which it is hoped will lead to a 
substantial increase in the funds of the 

National Library for the Blind. 

The Northern branch of the Library gives 
an account of the lecture course on present 
day international problems, elementary science, 
musical appreciation, etc., with a considerably 
increased attendance over other years. Among 
the voluntary copyists of the Northern branch 
mention is made of " a very active group of 
schoolgirls who have taken up the task of 
transcribing as their Toe H ' job.' " 

Southampton Association for the Blind. 

The Association reports a most satisfactory 
year. The Appeal Committee has been 
extremely successful in collecting £1,000 in 
various ways, including a house-to-house 
collection by a partially blind man, 
organizing entertainments and voluntary sub- 
scriptions from private individuals and firms. 

Workshops for the Blind of Kent. 

In the Annual Report for 1930, the Com- 
mittee note with regret that the general trade 
depression has been the cause of a drop of 
£1,000 in sales value. The Committee, how- 
ever, are confident that all difficulties will be 
overcome with the help of a sympathetic 
public in view of the real value of the work 
being accomplished for the Blind. 







The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copy. 
CHURCH— s. d. 

10.663 Bach. Mighty Lord and King All 

Glorious, Bass Air, from " Christmas 
Oratorio," D; A x — E 1 2 

10.664 Handel. With Honour Let Desert be 

Crowned, Tenor Recit. and Air, from 
"Judas Maccabaeus," A minor; 

E— A 1 2 


10.665 Bridge, Frank. Andante Moderato in C 

minor ... ... ... ... ... 2 

10.666 Chopin. Funeral March (arr. by W. T. 

Best) 2 

10.667 Guilmant. Finale in E flat (from 

" Pieces in Different Styles," Book 

10) 2 

10.668 Karg-Elert. Gregorian Rhapsody, Op. 

141, No. 2 ... " ... 2 


10.669 Casella, A. Due Canzoni Popolari 

Italiane ... ... ... 2 

10.670 Chamberlain, Ronald. Two Pieces : 

1, Prelude ; 2, Slow Dance 2 

10.671 Cohen, Harriet. Russian Impressions 

(Four Characteristic Pieces) ... ... 2 

10.672 Craxton, Harold. Gavotte in E flat .. . 2 

10.673 Dale, B. J. A Holiday Tune 2 

10.674 Friml, Rudolf. Melodie Sentimentale, 

Op. 36, No. 3 2 

10.675 Froberger. Gigue and Sarabande (arr. 

by Craxton and Moffat) ... ... 2 

10.676 Glazounow. Prelude and Fugue in D 

minor, Op. 62 3 

10.677 Holbrooke. Valse Caprice (on " Three 

Blind Mice ") 2 

10.678 Jaques-Dalcroze. Children's Songs, 

Book I, Nos. 1-3 2 

10.679 McNaught, W. The Bird in Fennel's 

Wood 2 


10.680 Berlin, Irving. Reaching for the Moon, 

Song- Waltz 2 

10.681 Hupfeld, H. Sing Something Simple 

(from " Folly to be Wise "), Song 
Fox-Trot 2 

10.682 Romberg, S. I Bring a Love Song 

(from "Viennese Nights"), Song 

Fox- Trot 2 

10.683 Rose, P. de. When your Hair has 

Turned to Silver, Song- Waltz ... 2 


10.684 Bach. Song of Pan, Recit. and Air 

from " Phcebusand Pan," A ; A x — E 1 2 

10.685 Giordani, T. Caro Mio Ben (O, my 

Belov'd), E flat ; D— F 1 2 

10.686 Goatley, A. Can't Remember, E flat ; 

B x — F 1 2 

10.687 Leoni Franco. Tally-Ho ' F ; E— F 1 ... 2 

10.688 Peel, Graham. The Early Morning, F ; 

B!— F 1 2 

10.689 Peel, Graham. The Little Waves of 

Breff ny, A flat ; C— F 1 2 

10.690 Whittaker, W. G. The Ship of Rio, 

D; A,— E 1 2 

5. d. 

10.691 Williams, Vaughan. " Boy Johnny " 

and " If I were a Oueen," Low Voice ; 

B l ~ E l 2 

10.692 Yon, P. A. Gesu Bambino (The Infant 

Jesus), E ; B r — E 1 2 


The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol . 
10,000-10,004 Abraham Lincoln, by Noah s. d. 
Brooks. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 5 vols. F. 287 5 9 

9,813-9,815 Autobiography of a Super- Tramp, 
The, by W. H. Davies, Grade 2, Large 
Size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 
3 vols. F. 194 6 6 

9,915-9,916 Bambi, by Felix Salten. Grade 
2, Large size, Interpointed, Paper 
Covers, 2 vols. F. 95 5 

9,626-9,629 Berrington, by Sir Edward A. 
Parrv. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Cloth Boards, 4 vols. G. 272 8 6 

9,760-9,761 Boys' and Girls' Life of Christ, A, 
by Archdeacon Paterson Smyth. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 2 vols. F. 117 ... 6 

9,877-9,880 Darkened Rooms, by Philip 
Gibbs. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 4 vols. F. 214 5 6 
Forsyte Saga, The, by John Galsworthy. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 13 vols. 

7,491-7,494 Book 1, The Man of Property, 

Vols. 1-4. F. 266 6 6 

9,736-9,739 Book 2, In Chancery, Vols. 5-8. 

F. 222 5 6 

9,740-9,743 Book 3, To Let, Vols. 9-12. 

F. 210 5 3 

9,744 Interludes, Vol. 13. F. 59 6 

10,612-10,620 Good Companions, The, by J. 
B. Priestley. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 9 vols. 
F. 557 6 3 

9,801-9,807 Harry Lorrequer, by Chas Lever. 
Grade 2, Large Size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 7 vols. F. 435 ... 6 3 

9,866-9,870 House of Fear, The, by Robert 
W. Service. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 5 vols. 
F. 289 5 9 

9,832-9,834 Island of Captain Sparrow, The, 
by S. Fowler Wright. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 
3 vols. F. 155 5 3 

9,881-9,882 Island Nights' Entertainment, 
by R. L. Stevenson. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 2 
vols. F. 103 5 3 

9,918-9,921 Nada the Lily, by Rider Haggard. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 4 vols. F. 249 ... 6 3 

9,871-9,876 Old Mortality, by Sir Walter 
Scott. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 6 vols. F. 370 6 3 

9,822-9,827 Ovington's Bank, by Stanley J. 
Weyman. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 6 vols. F. 337 5 9 

9,985-9,987 Rewards and Fairies, by Rudyard 
Kipling. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 168 5 9 

9,917 Rose and the Ring, The, by Thackeray. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Cloth Boards. G. 70 8 9 



-10.05S Saki's Bowl, by Robert Blatch- s. d. 
ford. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
polated, Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 162 6 3 

-10,040 Saracincsca, by F, Marion Craw- 
ford. Grade 2, Large size. Inter- 
pointed, Cloth Boards, 5 vols. G. 337 8 6 

-0,817 Selections from "The Natural 
History of Selbourne," by Rev. G. 
White. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 2 vols. F. 125 6 3 

-9,989 Shallow End, The, by Ian Hay. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interlined, Cloth 
Boards, 2 vols. G. 142 8 9 

9,624 Short History of Western Civilis- 
ation, A, by Alan F. Hatterslev. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpolated, 
Cloth Boards, 2 vols. G 162 ... !) 9 

0,831 2 LO, by Walter S. Masterman. 
Grade 2, Large Size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 160 ... 5 

0,755 Viaduct Murder, The, by Ronald 
A. Knox. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 137 4 9 

0,796 Welsh Singer, A, by Allen Raine. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 4 vols. F. 241 ... (i 

10,071 White Fang, by Jack London. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 163 ... 5 

Map of India. Rivers and Towns ... 9 
Map of India. Rivers and Mountains 9 
Map of North America. Rivers and 

Towns ... ... ... ... ... ( ) ! > 

Map of North America. Rivers and 

Mountains ... ... ... ... o 9 

Map of Europe. Rivers and Towns ... 9 
Map of Europe. Rivers and Mountains II 
Guides to Maps of India. Grade 2, 
Intermediate size, Interlined, Stiff 
Covers. B. 15 3 

8.253 Guides to Maps of North America. 

Grade 2, Intermediate size, Inter- 
lined, Stiff Covers. B. 17 3 (I 

5.254 Guides to Maps of Europe, tirade 2, 

Intermediate size, Interlined, Stiff 
Covers. B. 17 3 


The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol . 
3,044-3,055 Fane Evre, by Charlotte Bronte, s. (/. 

12 vols. (Limited Edition) 12 

3,056-3,058 Madame Luxuron, by Robert 
Kerr Kennedv, 3 vols. (Limited 
Edition) 12 








Wotton, Sir Heary ; by Izaak Walton ... 

Yeats, W. B. : by Forrest Reid 


Bury, J. B. 

Motley, J. L. 

Stubbs, W. Selected Charters 

Holdsworth, W. 



Lawrence, D. H. Sea and Sardinia 

Racine ; Bajazct ... 

Invasion of Europe by the 

William the Silent 

S. History of English haw 


Muir, Ramsay ; Political Consequences ( 

( ireat War 
Stoddard, L. Revolt against Civilization 


Caspari, W. A. Structure of Matter 
Jeans, Sir J. The Mysterious Fnivcrse 
McKendrick, J. G. Principles of Physioh 


Fosdick, H. E. Twelve Tests of Character 




Hopkins, E. J. Select Organ Movements, Bk. 1 (120). 
Hopkins and Smart. Select Organ Movements 1121;. 
W T idor. Organ Svmphony, No. 2, in D (122). 
No. 5, in F (123). 
Smart. H. Grand Solemn March in E flat (124). 
Postlude in E flat (125). 
A Three-Part Study (No. 27 "Original 
Compositions") (126). 
Schumann. Finale from an Overture, Scherzo and 

Finale, Op. 52 (arr. by W. T. Best) (127). 
Parry, C. H. Hubert. "Choral Prelude on "Croft's 
136th " (128). 

Garrett in A (129). 

Stainer in E flat (Service No. 1) (130). 
Maunder in F (131). 
Kin- Hal! in C (132). 


Published by the National Institute for the Blind. 
Those marked with an asterisk (*) are published by 
the Institute for customers ; the remainder are owned 
bv the Institute. After the name of each periodical, 
the date of publication, the price per copy and the 
annual subscription (including postage) are given. 

Braille Mail, Friday, lid., 6/6. The week's news 

arranged in sections — home, foreign, etc. — and 

selected " leaders." 
Braille Musical Magazine, Monthly, 20th, 6d., 6/-. 

Deals with all matters of interest to blind musicians 

and tuners. 
Braille Packet, Monthly, 12th, 7/6 per annum, 

11/6 overseas. General articles, chiefly political. 
Braille Radio Times, Friday, lid., 6/6. Resume of all 

programmes broadcast from B.B.C. stations, with 

technical and general supplements. 
Channels of Blessing, Bi-monthly from February, 6£d. 

Devotional magazine. Supplement for Sunday 

School Teachers. 
Light Bringer, Quarterly from March, Free. Theoso- 

phical magazine. 
Literary Journal, Monthly, 10th, 1/-, 11/6. Literary, 

scientific, artistic and political review. 
Massage Journal, Monthly, loth, 6d., 6/-. Devoted to 

professional interests of qualified masseurs and 

Progress, Monthly, 1st, old.. 5/6. Popular magazine, 

general articles, fiction, matters of the moment, 

prize competitions, correspondence, chess, home 

Punch, Monthly, 5th, 6-J-d., 6/6. Selections from each 

weekly issue of " Punch," descriptions of cartoons 

and pictures. 
School Magazine, Monthly, 15th, 3id., 3/6. Reading 

matter for schools. ' Instructive and amusing. 

Compactions. Supplement " Comrades " in Grade I 

Seeker, Quarterly from January, Free. Christian 

Mj'sticism and Comparative Religion. 




■Tribune, Monthly, 25th, 9d.. 8/-. General and 
Official Organ of the National Union of the Profes- 
sional and Industrial Blind. 

Venture, Monthly, 15th, lid., 1/6. Notes and articles 
of interest to Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. (Produced 
by the Institute in conjunction with the Girl Guides 
and Boy Scouts Associations.) 

* Weekly Summary, Wednesday. 2d., 8/8. Short 
summary of the world's news. 


"Lutheran HeraliS, Quarterly, tree. Lutheran devo- 
tional magazine. 

Moon Newspaper, Wednesday, I'd.. 8/8. A resume of 
the world's news under Countries, with American 
Supplement. News of the Blind World. 

Moon Magazine, Monthly, 1st. 9£d., 9/6. Short 
articles, light fiction, humour. 

FICTION. v is. 

Austen, jane. Sanditon ... ... ... ... ■> 

Benson, E. F. Miss Mapp 4 

Best Short Stories of 1927. Edited by E [ 

O'Brien ... 5 

Buchan, John. Courts of the Morning ... 7 

Carr, J. Dickson. It walks bv night ... ... 5 

Corelli, Marie. Sorrows of Satan ... s 

Deeping, Warwick. Exiles ... ... ... (i 

de la Roche, Mazo. Whiteoaks ... ... <; 

Francis, M. E. and M. Blundell. Wood Sanctuary 3 

Galsworthy, J. On Forsyte 'Change 4 

Garstin, Crosbie. West Wind ... ... ... 6 

Hudson, J. L. Tall Chimneys 4 

Hughes, J. S. Ordeal by Air 3 

Jacobs, W. W. Ship's Companv 3 

La Farge, O. Laughing Boy ' 3 

Larminie, Margaret K. Galatea li 

Mason, A. E. W. Dean's Elbow :{ 

Nichols, B. Prelude ... ... ... ... ;i 

Sherrifi, K. C. and Vernon Bartlett. Journey's 

End ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Stern, G. B. Debonair ... ... ... ... 5 

Tynan, K. Fine Gentleman ... ... ... 4 

Vates, Dornford. Fire Below ... ... ... 4 

Venner, N. Gay Tradition ... ... ... 4 

Wallace, Edgar. Double ... ... ... 4 

Wallace, Edgar. Flat 2 ... ... ... ... 3 

Walpole, Hugh. Jeremy at Crale ... ... 4 

Wren, P. C. Soldiers of Misfortune ... ... 7 


Bayley, G. B. and Coxwain \\ . Adair s. Seamen 

of the Downs ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Bell, Gertrude. Persian Pictures 

Bowen, Marjorie. Sundry Great Gentleman. - 

(Some Essays in Historical Biography) ... 5 

Chesterton, Mrs. Cecil, St. Teresa 3 

Gwynn, D. Cardinal Wiseman ... 5 

Haldane, J. B. S. Daedalus, or Science and the 

Future. (A Paper read to the Heretics 

Cambridge. February, 192:j) ... ... 1 

j Haldane, J B. S. Science and Ethics ... ... ] 

-J Murray, G. Stoic Philosophy (Conway Men' 

{ orial Lectures) 

Hume, M. Court of Philip IV. (Spain in 

decadence) ... ... ... 8 

Inchfawn, Fay. Adventure of a Horn ly 

Woman ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Jones, E. S. Christ of Every Road ... ... 3 

McFee, W. North of Suez ... ... ... 5 

Mitchison, Naomi. Anna Comnena (1083-1148) 

(Representative Women Series) ... ... 1 

Ring, Ann?. Story of Princess Eli zabeth ... 1 

Russell, B. Icarus, or the futnr of Science ... 1 
Russell, B. Initiate . Some impressions ol ;i 

Great Soul 5 

Selected English Essays. Peacock 

Thomas, Lowell. Bevond Khyber Pass 

Williamson, H. Lone Swallows 

Woolf, Virginia. Room of One's Own ... 

Sowerby, Githa. Little Stories for Little 

Westerman. P. T. Mystery of the Broads 

Lang, Jeannie. Stories from the Odyssey told 
to the Children ... 

Pixley, Olive C. B. Listening in 

Babits, M. Cikoni-Kalifo 

Bogdanov, A. Ruga Stelo 

Conscience, Hendrik. La Leono de Flandrujo ... 

Jaumotte. M. Belga Antologio ; Franca Parto 



HELEN KELLER in " My Religion " says of SWED- 

ENBORG, His message "has travelled" like light." 
Swedenborg's " Heavenly Doctrine " and " God the 
Creator,'' in Braille, 2/6 each volume. Order from 
Swedenborg Society (Inc.), 20, Hart Street, London, 

basket-maker, desires post London or district. Certifi- 
cated College of Teachers of Blind, honours craft and 
Braille. Other employment entertained. 

" Beta," c/o New Beacon, 224, Great Portland 
Street, W.I. 


Small school for the Blind in Cyprus requires English- 
woman with initiative and energy to act as Superin- 
tendent Housekeeper and teach English, Braille, 
Basket making, drilling, games, etc. Applicants should 
be prepared to stay lor two or three years, to learn 
modern Greek and should have had experience in a 
blind school. Salary offered £100-£120 per annum, 
together with living expenses at the school and 
passage. Apply in writing with full details of qualifica- 
tions and experience and copies of testimonials to the 
Secretary- General, National Institute for the Blind, 
224, Great Portland Street, London, W.J. 


Applications are invited for the post of Secretary 
Home Teacher to take charge of and administer the 
Council's Scheme for the Welfare of the Blind. 

Applicants, who should be under 40 years of age, 
must be certified Home Teachers with administrative 
and general experience of blind welfare work, including 
some knowledge of the management of a Flome Work- 
ers' Scheme and experience in marketing the goods 
produced. Salary rising from £230 to £260, Grade B2, 
if male, and rising from £200 to £210, Grade D, if 

Applications, giving detailed particulars of experi- 
ence, with copies of three recent testimonials should be 
addressed to me not later than 22nd April, 1931. 

There is a possibility of the post becoming designated 
under the Corporation's Superannuation Scheme. 

Town Clerk. 

Printed L»y Smiths' Printii,, 

irany 'London & St. Albans), Ltd., 22-14, Fett 







Vol. XV.-No. 173. 

MAY 15th, 1931. 

Price 3d. 


Entered as Second Class Matter, March 15, 1929, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass., under the Act of March 3, 1879 {Sec. 397, P.L. and R.) 


THERE are few European countries which have a record of work done for the 
blind more honourable than that of Denmark. The State and private 
enterprise have combined over a period of many years to care very adequately 
for the education, training, employment and general welfare of its blind 
population of about 1,800 persons. 
Interest in the welfare of the blind goes back at least 120 years, when 
the Society known as The Chain (which is believed to have had its origin in 
one of the Guilds of the Middle Ages) decided to include work for the sightless among its 
activities, and founded the first Danish Institution for the Blind, which was taken over nearly 
fifty years later by the Government. 

Prevention of Blindness. The Danish Society for the Blind reports that owing to the care 
taken of new-born children, infantile ophthalmia is greatly decreasing, and we are told that 
between 1912 and 1928 only two of the children admitted to the Royal Danish Institute were 
cases of such blindness. The National Board of Health has for some years past made the use 
of nitrate of silver obligatory by midwives, whose training is carefully supervised by the Ministry 
of Education. 

Education. Since 1858 education in Denmark has been compulsory, and since 1926 the 
blind child has been specifically included in the provisions made. School attendance is not, 
however, insisted on if the parents are able to prove to the satisfaction of the Education authority 
that they have both the means and the will to educate their child at home. The period of 
education extends normally from the age of eight to eighteen, but it may begin at the age of six, 
especially in cases where parents do not appear to be able to give their blind child adequate 
training and care. The cost of education is borne by the parent if he is in a position to afford 
it, but where this is not possible, a part or the whole of the expense involved may be assumed 
by the public authority. 

Since 1898 there has been a school for younger children, ranging in age from 7 to 12, at 
Refsnaes in North Zealand ; Refsnaes is on the coast, and is a particularly healthy place, where 
the delicate child from a poor home has every chance of growing strong in conditions that are 
particularly favourable, great stress being laid on physical development, remedial gymnastics, 
and sea-bathing. At Refsnaes, too, there is a special department for mentally backward blind 


girls, who remain there till they are 18 or 19, 
and are then transferred to a Home for 
Unemployable Blind Women, where they 
may remain for the rest of their lives. 

At the age of 1 1 , the normal child is trans- 
ferred from the preparatory school at Refsnaes 
to the Royal Institution for the Blind at 
Copenhagen, where for four years his general 
education is on the lines of that given to the 
seeing pupil. Braille books are of course 
used, but much of the teaching given is oral, 
and visiting masters and mistresses from 
schools for the seeing are employed, in order 
that the blind child's education shall as far 
as possible resemble that of the sighted. At 
the end of the four years the specially gifted 
blind child may be considered suitable for 
higher education, but for the average boy or 
girl manual training is judged most suitable. 

Training. The trades taught are similar to 
those followed in English institutions, and 
include brush-making, basket-making, piano 
tuning, mattress-making, and boot-making for 
men, and hand or machine-knitting for 
women. The cost of training is generally 
divided between the State and the local 
authority in cases where the blind person and 
his friends are not in a position to pay. An 
apprenticeship scheme is favoured for the 
adult trainee, who is usually placed with an 
individual employer for a period of one, two, 
or three years. 

A number of blind people receive musical 
training, and this is particularly thorough, 
and extends over several years, usually ending 
at the age of about 22 with an examination 
for the organist's diploma ; many find employ- 
ment at its close as Church organists and 
teachers of music. Training in pianoforte 
tuning begins at the Institute at Copenhagen, 
but ends with a year's practical work in a 

Employment. At the end of his training, 
the pupil is generally provided with tools for 
his trade, and with a complete outfit of clothing 
which should last him about three years. 
Capital is given in certain cases to help the 
blind worker to set up in business, and there 
is a depot for the sale of his goods, which is 

In 1929, all the Associations concerned 
with blind welfare formed themselves into a 
body for the purpose of unifying their work 
especially in relation to the employment of 
the blind. Under their auspices Workshops 
are carried on at Copenhagen and at Aalborg, 

and retail shops sell both the products of the 
workshops and those made by home-workers. 
Special efforts are made to secure orders 
from public bodies and from hospitals as well 
as from private customers. 

General Welfare. The fact that the blind 
person is handicapped by reason of his 
blindness, however industrious and capable 
he may be, has long been recognised in 
Denmark, and a paper read at the Inter- 
national Conference held in London seventeen 
years ago, which speaks of free railway passes, 
augmentation of wages, and an amendment 
of the Poor Law in favour of the blind shows 
that a progressive outlook is nothing new. 

In 191 1, just a hundred years after The 
Chain had begun its work on behalf of the 
blind, at a meeting held to celebrate the 
centenary of this event, The Danish Blind 
Association was formed to unite all the blind 
of Denmark for their common good, and 
especially in an effort to secure State aid. One 
of the first pieces of work undertaken by the 
Association was the reform of the Poor Law 
relating to the blind, and in 1914 it was 
successful in removing from them the stigma 
of Poor Law relief. Seven years later, the 
legal right of the blind to public assistance 
was recognised in the law dealing with Health 
Insurance which gives to all those whose 
capacity for work is reduced through physical 
disability an annual grant of 500 crowns, 
provided their earning capacity is only 50 per 
cent, of the normal. 

A Dutchman's Impressions of Blind 
Welfare Work. 

In " De Blinde Mens " Mr. C. J. Vos, of 
the Dutch Society for the Welfare of the 
Blind has gathered up his impressions of work 
done for the blind in England, Germany, and 
Switzerland ; he has visited many of the 
principal Institutions in each of the three 
countries named, so has been able to write of 
them at first-hand. His book is illustrated 
with several attractive photographs, and the 
bibliography given at the end shows that he 
has read widely. 

The various chapters of the books deal in 
detail with the definitions of blindness accepted 
in varying countries, with the physical and 
psychological results of the blindness, with 
the education of the blind child, with employ- 
ment in blind workshops and in " sighted " 




factories, and with the economic position of 
the blind. The whole problem of blind 
welfare is thus discussed, the solutions arrived 
at by the various countries described, and 
the author in conclusion sums up the position, 
and makes suggestions for the well-being of 
the blind in his own country as a result of his 

He urges that a Central Committee, con- 
sisting of Government officials, and repre- 
sentatives of the various Dutch Institutions 

together with an expert on ophthalmology, 
should be set up to consider blind welfare. 
Such a Committee should undertake the 
purchase of raw materials, set up a central 
warehouse for stocking and selling the finished 
products of the blind, and have under its 
control an Inspector who should visit 
Institutions and also " seek out " the blind 
living in their own homes. A Home Teaching 
scheme rather on the lines of that in this 
country is advocated. 


What are the Requirements? 

THE Publications Committee 
of the National Institute for 
the Blind has recently been 
considering the publication 
of a concise and up-to-date 
dictionary of the English 
language in Braille. The 
great difficulty is, of course, the large number 
of volumes which even the most concise 
dictionary would occupy. It is estimated 
that the " Little Oxford Dictionary," an 
exceedingly valuable epitome of the Oxford 
Dictionary, would fill 17 or 18 large volumes 
published in Braille. As this would be an 
expensive work to undertake, the Publications 
Committee is desirous of finding out whether 
there is a real need for a dictionary. 

It should be borne in mind that there are 
several ways of producing a new dictionary in 
Braille. Should it be merely a guide to 
spelling, or just a list of words with their 
meanings, or a complete dictionary, that is, 
giving the pronunciation and derivation of 
every word ? 

One opinion is that the dictionary should 
be kept as simple as possible, since any 
complete system of accent signs would render 
the dictionary so involved and complicated 
as almost to defeat its own object as a book of 
reference, while any partial system would 
necessarily entail the defects of a compromise. 
Another opinion is that the dictionary should 
be a complete and standard work of reference 
on spelling, definition, pronunciation, 
derivation, etc. 

Three methods of arrangement have been 

The first method is that the root word be 
first written in contracted form, immediately 

followed (in square brackets) by its Grade I 
substitution, the vowels being treated with 
their various signs as in the letterpress copy, 
the stress (dot 6) preceding the vowel of the 
accented syllable, instead of following the 
syllable as in the print. The parts of speech, 
meanings, etc., remain unaltered. 

The only variation of the second method 
from the first method, is that the stress (dot 6) 
precedes the stressed or accented syllable, 
instead of being placed before the vowel of 
the syllable. 

In the third method there is no guidance 
as to pronunciation, or division into syllables. 

Finally there is the idea of a simple spelling 
book, giving the word alone without any 

The Editor would be very glad to hear from 
Institutions, Schools and Libraries for the 
Blind, firstly as to whether they would 
consider the purchase of : — 

(a) A full Dictionary running to about 18 
large volumes, at about 9s. each, or less 
the discount allowed, 3s. each. 

(b) A Dictionary of words with meanings 
only, running to 6 or 7 volumes, or 

(c) A Spelling Book running to 1 or 2 

Secondly, as to their opinions of the 
methods of arrangement, suggested above. 

It should be noted that if a full dictionary 
is put in hand, the volumes would be issued 
as completed, possibly one every six months. 

The Committee also desires to ascertain 
the demand for Braille editions of " Practical 
English" and "Advanced English" by 
C. F. Allan, and " Groundwork in French," 
by A. W. Green. 





Official Opening of Home for Blind Babies at East Grinstead. 

" Sunshine House," East Grinstead, will be officially opened on May 18th, at 3 p.m., 
by the Lady Adelaide Colville, the Dedication Service being conducted by the Rev. 
Canon C. E. Bolam, Hon. Chief Chaplain to the National Institute for the Blind. This 
Blind Babies' Home takes the place of the parent Home at Chorley Wood, Herts., which 
was destroyed by fire two years ago. The babies were temporary accommodated at 
" Court Grange," Abbotskerswell, but were removed to East Grinstead just before 
Christmas. " Court Grange " is now being prepared as a Home for the Mentally 
Retarded Blind. 

The Blind and Broadcast Running Commentaries of Sporting Events. 

Owing to the report that there was a possibility of the curtailment of the broadcast 
running commentaries of sporting events, resolutions have been passed by the National 
Institute for the Blind, St. Dunstan's, the British Wireless for the Blind Fund and the 
National Union of the Professional and Industrial Blind expressing the hope that the 
B.B.C. will continue the weekly commentaries of sporting events, because of the very 
large number of blind people who appreciate them. Copies of the resolutions have 
been sent to the B.B.C. who, in acknowledging the letter from the National Institute, 
state that they are doing everything possible to counter anti-broadcasting influences. 

National Baby Week. 

The National Baby Week Council this year urges that special attention should be 
given to the following problems : — (a) The physical, mental and spiritual care of the 
child from 1 to 5 years of age ; (b) A National Maternity Service Scheme. National 
Baby Week is from July 1st to 7th. A National Conference, organised by the National 
Association for the Prevention of Infant Mortality is to take place at Cardiff on July 1st, 
2nd and 3rd, and is to discuss : — (a) An effective Maternity Service for the whole popu- 
lation ; (/;) The physical health of the normal child from 1 to 5 years of age ; (c) The 
mental health of the normal child from 1 to 5 years of age ; (d) Children in institutions 
and boarded-out children. 

A big display of propaganda films is being organised by the Council to take place 
at Kingsway Hall, London, on Monday, July 6th, from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. Admission 
by free tickets, for which application should be made to the National Baby Week Council, 
117, Piccadilly, London, W.r. 

Dinner to the Prince of Wales as President of the Wireless Fund. 

II.R.H. the Prince of Wales, as President of the British Wireless for the Blind Fund, 
will be entertained at dinner on May 27th by the Company of Clothworkers at the Cloth- 
workers' Hall, Mincing Lane. His speech will be broadcast on the National wavelength. 

Amongst those who have already accepted invitations to be present are the following: — 
The Lord Mayor, Baron Albert Profumo, Capt. Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C., Capt. Ian 
Fraser, the Rt'. Hon. Winston Churchill, M.P., the Rt. Hon. J. H. Whitley, Sir Hugo 
Hirst, Bart., Sir Robert Waley Cohen, Sir Felix Schuster, Bart., Sir William R. Morris, 
Bart., Sir Herbert Austin, the Hon. Sir Arthur Stanley, Sir Edward Stern, Bart., Sir 
Thomas Horder, Bart., Sir Lionel E. Darell, Bart., Sir Albert Levy, Sir Max Bonn, Sir 
Francis W. Goodenough, the Rt. Rev. John Love Morrow, Mr. S. H. Whitbread, Capt. 
Victor A. Cazalet, M.P., Mr. J. S. Elias, the Rev. Pat McCormick, the Rev. H. L. Johnston, 
Mr. Maurice Browne, Wing Commander Louis Greig, Mr. E. V. Lucas, Mr. T. H. Dey, 
Mr. Harry Preston, Sir Herbert Cary, Sir William Noble, Colonel W'yndham Portal, 
Vice Admiral C. D. Carpendale, Mr. Edward Baron, SirP.Reckitt, Bart., the Rt. Hon.C. A. 
McCurdy, Mr. G. F. Mowatt, Sir Gerald du Maurier, the Earl of Balfour, Lord 




Formation of New Belfast Association. 

An organisation known as the Belfast Blind Persons' Welfare Association has been 
formed for the purpose of looking after the interests of the unemployed and unemployable 
blind persons in Belfast. There are almost nine hundred blind persons in the city. 

The Association proposes erecting a clubroom in a central position in the city for 
concerts and social evenings, and where the blind can have newspapers read to them by 
sighted friends. 

Councillor Mrs. Coleman, P.L.G., 220, Donegall Road, Belfast, has consented to act 
as hon. treasurer, and to her all donations and subscriptions should be forwarded. 

Hull Institute's Arrangement with Trawler Owners. 

Promoted by the trawler owners a scheme has been brought into operation at the 
Hull and East Riding Institute for the Blind for the training of selected disabled fishermen. 
It was originally intended by the representatives of the fishing industry to erect their own 
workshops and they inspected the Lord Robert's Memorial workshops with the object 
of obtaining information, but when it was pointed out to them that their proposal would 
interfere with the activities of between 20 and 30 blind people who for a considerable 
time have been engaged in basket work and have supplied approximately 60 per cent, of 
the requirements of the industry, they reconsidered the matter and effected an arrangement 
whereby disabled fishermen will be given employment on this work at the Blind Institute. 
The trawler owners on their part have agreed to place the whole of their orders in future 
for landing baskets with the Institute. The orders represent as many as 1,200 baskets 
in a month and about a thousand dozen annually. 


Eye Specialist Loses his Sight. 

After having saved the sight of hundreds of his patients during his career as an eye 
specialist in New York, Dr. James A. McTiernan, of Middlebury, Vermont, is now 
totally blind, says the British United Press. 

Dr. McTiernan lost his sight in a motorcar accident when his car overturned in a 
ditch. Pieces of the windscreen entered his eyes, and doctors state that there is no 
chance of his ever recovering his sight. 

Blind Man Recovers Sight After Twenty-Two Years. 

Earl Musselman, a young man of Philadelphia, who was born blind, has been given 
the use of his eyes as the result of an operation. For 22 years he has lived in darkness, 
but now he can see through the skill of Dr. G. H. Moore, a surgeon of the Graduate 
Hospital in Philadelphia, who operated upon him to create pupils in the eyes, says a 
British United Press message from Philadelphia. 

" I was completely fooled," said Mr. Musselman, in an interview. " Besides all 
the things of which I had wrong impressions, there are so many things of which I had 
absolutely no conception, such as the way bricks are set in a wall, the way one colour 
differs from another, and one shade blends into another. It is all wonderful." 

To Aid the Jewish Blind. 

In connection with the International Conference at New York, an American Jewish 
Braille Institute for assisting the cultural and religious needs of the Jewish Blind has been 
organised. The Institute will publish a monthly magazine for free distribution among 
English-speaking Jewish Blind all over the world. The Institute will adopt the inter- 
national Braille code and will supply Hebrew literature in that system, adopting also the 
Moon system for Yiddish for elderly Yiddish-speaking Blind who cannot learn the com- 
plicated Braille. 

In New York there are 1,050 Jewish blind, while all over the world there are 7,500 
to 8,000 Jewish blind, according to Dr. Siegfried Altman, the Director of the Jewish 
Institute for the Blind in Vienna, who attended the Conference. 







HAT is everybody's busi- 
ness," runs an old saying, 
" is nobody's business." 
It is a proverb that must 
often be in the mind of 
the social worker, especi- 
ally when he has to deal 
with those cases of " double defect," where, 
for instance, because a child is both paralysed 
and epileptic no Home for cripples will take 
him on account of his epilepsy, and no Home 
for epileptics on account of his paralysis. The 
child with defective sight is rather in the same 
boat ; he is not blind, and therefore does not 
come within the scope of the organisation for 
blind welfare, but his sight is not normal, and 
he cannot therefore be treated like the fully- 

There are, of course, many degrees of 
short-sightedness, from the person whose 
vision can be so corrected by glasses as to 
become normal, down to the person who is 
so blind as to be unable to read the ordinary 
school-book and is certifiable under the 
Board of Education definition. The child in 
a myope school is generally one whose eyeball 
is too long to permit the proper focussing of 
parallel rays of light on the retina, and the 
walls of whose globes are weak and thin. 
For such children to read the school-books 
in common use is dangerous, and may result 
in blindness. 

It is not, however, usually thought desirable 
to teach these children Braille, as the child 
with any sight almost invariably uses that 
sight to peer at his Braille type unless he is 
closely supervised, and he is generally 
therefore taught to read print. It is usual for 
the " reading book " to be home-made, con- 
sisting of large sheets of unglazed paper, 
printed by means of wooden block letters 
with a half-inch body ; these letters are 
individually pressed on to an inked pad and 
then stamped on to the sheets, which, when 
complete, are pinned on to the wall at a 
proper distance and height from the reader. 
The making of these sheets is generally the 
work of the teacher, sometimes helped by the 
children and is naturally a desperately slow 

For the very tiny child there are books in 
such series as Blackie's " Easy to Read " 



24-point type, and those of us who remember 
our own thrill over " Ann and her Pup " or 
that one-page story beginning " I am in. 
Go on " with its intriguing illustration of a 
small boy in a soap-box on wheels, will 
realise that in the very early stages this is 
sufficient. But to teach a child to read print, 
and then to be able to offer him nothing more 
than an Infant Reader is surely almost worse 
than not to teach him to read at all. Of 
course there are some children whose sight is 
normal who do not choose to read, and 
frankly on leaving school close their books for 
ever, but they are surely in a small minority, 
so long as they have been intelligently 
taught ; and it is almost inevitable that the 
child who has the smallest taste for reading 
will not be deterred out of school hours by 
the fear that reading ordinary print may 
injure his sight, and may even resort to 
reading his " comic " under the table if 
parental authority is sufficiently strong to 
prevent his reading it in full daylight. 

It is the realisation of all this that is 
responsible for the Clear Type Publishing 
Company in America. This Company, 
which is in very close touch with the 350 
Sight Saving Classes in the States, produces 
books on deep cream unglazed paper in 
24-point (a very few in 36-point). They 
include readers for six grades, " Stories of 
King Arthur," " The King of the Golden 
River," " Tales and Ballads from Scottish 
History," " Readings from Walter Scott," 
" Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare," in the 
general literature section ; " The History of 
the American People," " Our Ancestors in 
Europe," " North America," " The Human 
Geography," and " Arithmetical Problems," 
in other sections. 

Some myope classes in England have 
already availed themselves of these books, 
but except in the section dealing with general 
literature and fiction only a very few are 
suitable for the English school-child, and 
they are naturally very expensive, especially 
when the cost of carriage from America is 
involved. Exclusive of postage " Treasure 
Island " costs rather over £2, " Ivanhoe " 
(slightly abridged) about £3, " The King of 
the Golden River " about 7s. 


An extract from a very interesting letter on 
the subject from the President of the Clear 
Type Publishing Company may show how the 
matter of expense was met in America : — 

" The Committee arranged with job 
printers to publish a book, and I arranged 
with the Boards of Education to take a certain 
share of them. We got two or three business 
men to advance the small capital required and 
gradually enlarged our activities. As other 
cities in the United States opened classes they 
joined our group of customers, first making 
definite pledges to buy a certain number of 
copies of books before they were printed and 
later simply promising to do the best they 
could in the way of making purchases during 
the following year. In time we paid back the 
money we borrowed from our financial 
supporters, and worked up a small revolving 
fund which keeps our work going." 

In the myope classes noted in the English 
Board of Education List of Certified Schools 
for 1930 there is accommodation for nearly 
two thousand children. While some of these 
classes are already making use of the Reading 
Books of the Clear Type series, the importing 
of the books is a serious matter, and in any 
case, as we have said, the subject matter is in 
only a limited degree suitable for the English 
reader. Cannot something then be done in 
this country to meet what appears to be a 
real need ? 

In conclusion, it may be noted that apart 
altogether from the school-child, there appears 
to be a need for clear-type books for the 
adult reader, which is being met in the 
United States by a commercial publishing 
firm. The William Bradford Press, 207, 
2:5th Street, New York, are building up a 
Big Type Library for the use of persons who 
find ink type of the ordinary size rather 
trying ; books in type of about the same size 
as 14 point are produced and are sold for 
10 cents a copy ; " Lord Chesterfield to his 
Son," " Six Weeks in the Life of Samuel 
Pepys," " The Ancient Mariner," and Emer- 
son's " Napoleon, the Man of the World," 
are among the titles quoted in a short note 
on the books in the American " Outlook for 
the Blind." 

Evidently there is something to be done, 
and we should welcome the views of our 
readers on how best to do it. To hand the 
key of a library to a child and to forbid him 
to enter in is both foolish and cruel ; surely 
there must be some better way. 


Cheerful Verses. 

We have received " Anecdotes, etc." a little 
volume of verse by W. M. Sherman, a blind 
man. Mr. Sherman, who is eighty-three 
years of age, spent his early life in India, where 
he had many adventures. He has not let his 
blindness embitter his outlook, which is 
consistently cheerful. 

Price List of Blind-Made Goods. 

" Buy from the Blind," the newly issued 
illustrated price list of the Home Industries 
Department of the National Institute for the 
Blind, is very attractively set-out, and covers 
a wide field. Brooms and brushes, soiled 
linen baskets, garden chairs, hosiery, mats 
and rugs, all kinds of children's knitted wear, 
workbaskets and trays are included in its 
pages. In a prefatory note the prospective 
customer is given a short account of the Home 
Workers' Scheme, which gives occupation to 
270 workers in London south of the Thames, 
in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Hampshire, and 
is reminded that the work can only be main- 
tained and extended with the constant help 
of the general public ; if this declines the 
blind worker " must return to an uncertain 
and spasmodic condition " like that which 
existed before the Scheme came into opera- 
tion, when the rural worker struggled in 
isolation, with no scope, no prospects and 
little knowledge. 


Notices of Annual Meetings and important Committee 
Meetings are inserted in The New Beacon as space 
permits. Secretaries are requested to send intimations 
to the Editor not later than the 3rd of the month for 
insertion in the next issue. 
May 15th. Northern Counties Association for the 

Blind — Special Sub-Committee on the Partially 

Blind, also Sub-Committee on the Mentally Defective 

and Sub-Normal Blind. 
May 20th. Executive Committee, Union of Counties 

June 3rd. Northern Counties Association for the Blind 

— Annual Meeting at the Guildhall, Hull, 11.15 a.m. 

and 2.30 p.m. Delegates will be invited to pay a 

visit to the Hull Workshops for the Blind on June 

2nd and June 4th. 
June 4th. 2 p.m. N. LB. General Purposes Committee. 
June 10th. 2.30 p.m. NIB. Education and Research 

June 13th. 2.30 p.m. Annual Meeting, College of 

Teachers, Armitage Hall, 224, Great Portland 

Street, W.l. 
June 19th. 2.30 p.m. N. IB. Finance Committee. 
June 24th 25th. Annual Meeting, Union of Counties 






I SEEM to have noticed in The New 
Beacon more than one article on 
Milton. That is natural. Milton was 
not only blind, but he referred 
constantly to his blindness, sometimes 
in direct terms but more often, I 
think, obliquely and half-consciously. 
For example, it is possible to read the 
description of Hell in " Paradise Lost " with 
the recollection that it was written by a 
blind man — and moreover by one whose 
particular affection of the eyes produced 
curious sensations. Some medical men have 
recently been speculating that Milton's 
blindness was caused by a gradual detach- 
ment of the retina. As far as I am competent 
to judge, there seems good evidence for this. 
The poet himself, in a fairly precise letter, 
describes his internal sensations. He says 
that he experienced a strange luminosity 
within the eye itself, even at night. It has 
occurred to me that he may have been vaguely 
thinking of this when he described Hell as 
" darkness visible." That seems just the 
sensation one has. It is not light of any use 
to one — but rather is it a baffling murky 
light, persisting through the twenty-four 
hours and at times appearing to take on forms 
that resemble shadows of reality. 

Again, it would be advantageous to read 
through " Paradise Lost " to observe what 
imagery the poet uses. How does he describe 
events ? In terms of sight and colour — or in 
terms of movement and feeling and sound ? 
It is my impression that he was at his best 
when employing language less expressive 
of things seen than of things felt or of energy 
put out in some effort. He feels the actions of 
his Satan rather than visualises them. So, at 
any rate, it appears to me. 
" Six paces huge 
He back recoiled ; the seventh on bended knee 
His massy spear upstayed." 
This and many other passages are vibrant 
with muscular energy. They are the language 
of the limbs and not of the eyes. 

There is some probability that Milton was 
always short-sighted ; though not so badly, 
it would seem, as to prevent his being quite a 
master of the broadsword in his youth. I 
think this point rather typical of the man. He 
was not a soldier in the strict sense ; he 
preferred the pen to the sword. But he was 

by temperament an energetic and passionate 
soul, rebellious against unworthy restraint — 
one of the outstanding revolutionaries of his 
Age. One surmises that he mastered the 
use of the broadsword as a kind of protest 
against his own sense of short-sightedness. 
Such an effort is not uncommon. It marks 
the soul's determination to revolt against and 
overcome the very obstacle it feels most as a 

Milton, of course, revolted against many 
obstacles ; he was a rebel against the whole 
established order of things in Church and 
State. To his Royalist opponents he was 
little better than a devil in human shape ; and 
they had no hesitation in attributing his 
blindness to his own sins against Heaven. 
They poured abuse on him. They likened 
him to the blinded Cyclops of Greek legend, a 
hideous monster and cannibal 

But what of Milton himself ? How did he 
accept his blindness ? He was a retired man, 
but at the same time an energetic and passion- 
ate one. The two things can often go together. 
The question was — whether this rebel against 
Kings and Bishops would, when he found the 
tyranny of blindness creeping upon him, 
revolt also against the very order of the 
Universe ? Would he, as Job was tempted to 
do, curse God and die ? We know that he 
did not. What he actually did was to set out 
deliberately " to justify the ways of God to 
man." That is the other alternative for the 
restless and creative mind. Either it rebels or 
else it struggles forward to discover some final 
harmony, some ultimate reasonableness in 
the very nature of things. Such a mind cannot 
remain quiet and reconciled. 

It is interesting that at one period Milton 
played with the idea of using the story of 
Macbeth as the basis for an epic or fresh 
drama. Macbeth, as Shakespeare presents 
him, was an ambitious rebel, a guilty man 
haunted by his guilt. Milton did not use the 
theme. He turned instead to three great 
Biblical figures of pride and disobedience 
brought low — Samson, Adam and Satan him- 
self. It is, to my mind, as though the poet 
were certainly attracted by stories of the 
rebellious heroes ; for in them he could 
express something of the revolt that stirred in 
his own soul. It has even been remarked by 



some critics that the really important figure in 
" Paradise Lost " is Satan ; he is the true 
hero of the Epic. In a sense I believe this to 
be correct. The mind of a great poet is not a 
simple thing ; it contains within it many 
aspects, of some of which he is scarcely 
himself conscious. They only reveal them- 
selves obliquely in his work. Thus the deep 
rebellious passion in Milton could express 
itself in his picture of Satan struggling in the 
darkness, cast out from the light of Heaven, 
just as the poet himself was cast out of the 
light of day. 

But Milton is, of course, not Satan and he 
would have repudiated any suggestion that he 
felt sympathy with the arch-fiend. On the 
contrary, he spent his energies in trying to 
comprehend the designs of Providence and in 
schooling himself to resignation. Not that he 
believes that the blindness has come upon him 
as a punishment for sin. Intellectually and 
consciously he would, I think, have refused 
to sustain such a belief. But after all sin, 
repentence and hell-fire were concepts very 
generally accepted in his epoch. He could 
not escape them. Every man, it was held, 
had sinned and must submit himself to the 
Almighty and pray for reconciliation. It was 
not quite easy for an afflicted man to take the 
attitude of Job and refuse to tolerate the idea 
that his affliction was a punishment for guilt. 
Milton, in fact, though he did not look upon 
his blindness as a visitation from God, was 
nevertheless seriously concerned with the 
problem of human pride and disobedience ; 
and what I am suggesting is that his own 
passionate and rebellious spirit was itself felt 
by him as something that had constantly to be 
schooled and curbed and taught its duty 
towards the great Orderer of the Universe. 

It is indeed precisely at this point that the 
creative energy of Milton was released — the 
point of juncture between the two aspects of 
his own nature, the side that revolted against 
authority and contraint and the side that 
yearned to believe in an ultimate harmony, a 
profound justification for everything that 
might befall him. This after all is one form 
of the eternal struggle in the mind of Man. 
We want to be free of restriction and yet we 
know that our happiness depends on our 
ability to tolerate a certain degree of discipline 
and difficulty. The effort to reconcile these 
two factors is the very texture of life itself. 

Some day no doubt an adequate study will 
be made of Milton from this point of view. 

So far, though much has been written, I have 
not yet discovered a commentator who really 
seems to me to get to the roots of the problem. 
I feel that the whole of the last part of Milton's 
life was an attempt, in one sense, to reconcile 
himself to his blindness ; and that this is 
revealed in his works. Some critics tend to 
sentimentalize over him ; others affect to 
despise his style or his subject or his theology. 
Few look upon him merely as a man among 
men, completely human, sensitive and 
passionate and often foolish. Studied in this 
way, he will be found to reveal to any man 
something of that man's own soul — and 
especially will he be such a revelation to those 
who have to endure the searching handicap 
of blindness. 


We much regret to report the death of : — 

John Crosby Warren, on Wednesday, 
April 29th, at the age of 79 years. Mr. 
Warren had been Hon. Secretary of the Royal 
Midland Institution for the Blind for the 
long period of 46 years. Only those closely 
associated with him knew the depth of his 
love for this Institution, and for the blind 
generally. In recognition of his services to 
the blind he was elected a fellow of the College 
of Teachers some years ago. The high 
esteem in which Mr. W'arren was held was 
reflected in the large gathering at his Funeral 
Service on Saturday, May 2nd, at the High 
Pavement Unitarian Chapel, when over one 
hundred representatives of the Institution 
attended. Mr. Warren's death causes a 
threat gap in work for the blind at Nottingham, 
which it will be very difficult to fill. 

George Dickie, on the scholastic staff of 
the Ulster Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind, Belfast. Mr. Dickie, who was 
about 63 years of age, had been blind from his 
birth, and came from St. Fergus, Peterhead, 
over forty years ago to take up the position of 
teacher he has ever since occupied in the 
Lisburn Road school. He had considerable 
gifts as a' musician, and was a successful 
teacher of music. 

Lucy Holliday, Matron of the Royal 
Victoria School for the Blind, Benwell Dene, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, in her 69th year. She 
had been Matron of the school for the past 
17 years and previously had wide experience 
of a similar nature in the Isle of Man. 





Stiii Interested in " Fat Stock Prices." 

Life had become wearisome to one vigorous 
old man, now blind. His three score years 
and ten have been spent out of doors, vaga- 
bond fashion, one time cattle-dealing in the 
Welsh hills, then hawking greengrocery far 
and near. He now is alone during the whole 
of the day, and tied to the house by reason of 
his infirmity. Still his interests dwell in 
farming and in fat stock prices, of which he 
now hears on his own stool at the fireside ; 
and, moreover, he finds that there are yet 
wider spheres of enjoyment to be had from 
" that there 'arker " than even the values of 
fat cows. — Manchester City News. 
Balancing Disadvantages. 

The blind are possessed of a rare gift to 
balance the disadvantages of their infirmity. 
The things of which they hear, and cannot 
see, are, maybe, more intense in their 
aesthetic appeal for them than for us. 

A friend had been asked to sing at a concert 
for the blind. Anxious to please her unusual 
audience the girl, before her appearance, 
asked the promoters of the concert for their 
opinion on a happy choice of songs. 

The blind themselves were appealed to, and 
they unanimously voted for songs about 
flowers, birds and green fields. One of the 
songs was encored several times. The 
audience could not hear enough of daffodils 
a-blowing and a-growing in a spring breeze. 
Another song that captured their imagination 
was of ships that went sailing across the blue 
seas. — Yorkshire Evening Post. 
Sir Arthur Pearson. 

The tragic blindness of ihe late Sir Arthur 
Pearson, whom she (Mrs. C. N. Williamson) 
describes as " the next greatest blind man to 
Homer and Milton " gives her opportunity 
of paying the warmest of tributes to a lovable 
personality : — " In his way he was as good- 
looking as Sir Alfred Harmsworth and perhaps 
about the same age. Dark, instead of fair, he 
was ; and he had extraordinarily brilliant 
brown eyes ; so brilliant that none could 
dream how they were destined to lose their 
light one day. I knew Sir Arthur for years, and 
always delightfully ; but I hadn't seen him 
for a long time when one afternoon just before 



the War I met him on the steps of the Hotel 
de Paris at Monte Carlo. " Is it twilight 
already ? " he asked. " Or — do I only think 
so ? " Then a startled glance showed me that 
over the brilliance of those brown eyes a slight 
dimness had fallen, like an almost intangible 
mist ; and he told me that he was slowly, yet 
surely, becoming blind." — John O' London's 
Weekly (in a review of " The Inky Way "). 


The term " sports- wear " covers a very 
wide field, including the heaviest of sweaters 
worn for ski-ing and winter amusements, 
through the workmanlike golf outfit of knitted 
tweed yarns, the very fine knitting in pastel 
shades and white for tennis and allied sports, 
to the latest recruit in the knitwear army, the 
beach suit and bathing dress. 

We have indeed travelled far from the days 
when coarse gauge machines were considered 
marvels of ingenuity, and that a blind opera- 
tive could ever manipulate knitting so delicate 
in construction as the machines now in use 
in the workrooms of the London Association 
for the Blind would have been a ludicrous 
impossibility. To-day we are knitting fabrics 
as soft as silk and almost as fine as muslin. 

Now that we have non-stretchable fabrics, 
and perfect fittings, there is no reason why 
knitwear should not become the most pros- 
perous and busiest section of the Blind 
World. But, competition is very acute, and 
the Blind Workshop wishing to sell its 
productions in competition with those of 
normal factories must be prepared to give 
equal value in design, colour and workman- 
ship. Artistry in colour is vital, modernity 
in design essential. 

Establish your fashions, do not follow 
them. A market can always be found for the 
novel, interesting, and the attractive. One 
must ceaselessly watch the trend of fashion, 
which is not a haphazard thing. 

Colour phases come in cycles, and a study 
of this aspect of fashion work is most fascin- 

To be successful, unceasing watch and 
unceasing work are of extreme importance, 
the mind of the designer must be open to new 
impressions, and there must be a striving 
after that individuality of appearance which 
places its hall-mark upon the finished product 
of the united efforts of the imagination of the 
creator and the craftsmanship of the executant. 

c Z7fici7\ / cw 


Published by MP II. [\ f f I rX. Editorial Offices: 
the National |^V |~~< A - % I I I V. 224 Great Port- 
Institute jor I I / \ \ ,\ / X^ /anJ 5/ree/. 
</.* Blind MLS iL^dl V V^__> V_^ JL ^1 London, W.I. 


IN our News columns we give particulars of an American youth who, it is stated, was born 
blind and can now see after 22 years of blindness. He has looked at the world around 
him, and he declares that he has been " completely fooled." This must mean that the 
world he sees is entirely different from the world that has been described to him. We 
can readily understand that all description of colour must fail before colour itself. Who 
can describe the tender flush of dawn on distant hills or the passion of the sun as it sets, 
burning in a stormy sky ? Who can describe the light and shade of the wooing of the 
flowers by busy bee and butterfly, flaunting by in their bravery ? Can words paint the depth 
of meaning in eyes, those windows of the soul ? Perhaps. For even in this case, human skill has 
wrought the change, and human skill may yet reply to the challenge : " How completely fooled ! " 


In the first week in July, the National Baby Week Council holds celebrations to state, to 
demonstrate, to defend and to promote Baby's Rights. The Rights of Man — a much more 
inherently selfish movement — have been loudly proclaimed in every social uprising throughout 
the world's history, and have frequently culminated in the right of the loudest proclaimer to 
tyrannise. But Baby's Rights have had to await proclamation until this century ; and even if, 
as a result, Baby tyrannises, who would not cheerfully submit to the despotism of innocence ? 

If Baby drew up a Petition of Rights, it would be divided into two sections, one headed 
Love, the other headed Knowledge. Love is in the heart's blood, but the laws of physical 
cleanliness, healthy sustenance and mental development can be taught and acquired. 

In the work of such bodies as the National Baby Week Council lies the ability to transform 
a C3 nation into an Ai nation. The prevention of infantile blindness is naturally a part of that 
work, and we recommend all the innumerable people who say that they cannot even think of a 
blind baby without pain to soothe their sensitiveness by supporting Baby's Rights with every 
means at their disposal. Twentv years ago the majority of blind babies were brought up in 
ignorance and squalor ; to-day, thanks to the Sunshine Homes, every baby may be brought up 
in happy and healthy surroundings. The problem of the blind baby is practically solved, but 
there is a greater problem, the problem of preventing the blind baby, and to the solution of that 
problem everv ounce of energy should be devoted. For every baby has the right to see. 


The December, 1930, issue of The New Beacon, drew attention to the apparent necessity 
for some distinguishing mark which would notify a motorist that a pedestrian was blind. Since 
then, the idea of providing the blind with white sticks, as in Paris, has received a considerable 
amount of support, and a few weeks ago white sticks were distributed to the blind in West Ham. 
Subsequently, an announcement of this local distribution was made over the wireless, with the 
result that some people gathered the wrong impression that every blind pedestrian in this country 
would in future carry a white stick. 

This active interest in an important traffic problem is satisfactory, but we think that the 
actual adoption of a white stick, or any other distinguishing mark, by a small section only of 
the blind population is perhaps a little premature. It would be better if various suggestions 
for helping the blind pedestrian and the sighted motorist were collected and submitted for dis- 
cussion to a representative national body. The best possible symbol for the blind pedestrian 
may then be found and, although it would certainly not be favoured by every blind person, it 
would have a chance of being very generally adopted, and a national announcement as to the 
distinguishing symbol could then be made to motorists with propriety and without risk of 
misleading them. To be of any practical value, the symbol of the blind pedestrian must be 
nationally chosen and, as far as possible, nationally adopted. The Editor. 




Report of Home Office Departmental Committee. 


HAVING proceeded to state 
the legal position as it 
applies to charities operated 
under Trust Deeds, Incor- 
porated Associations or 
Institutions acting under 
Royal Charter, the Report 
goes on to discuss in an intimate fashion some 
of the important provisions which have long 
been the subject of animated controversy 
among organisations existing for benevolent 

The Ministry of Health is brought into 
direct contact with a number of groups of 
charitable organisations concerned with its 
own particular work. Of these voluntary 
hospitals form the largest group. In con- 
nection with the recent Government grant 
of £500,000, the Voluntary Hospitals Com- 
mission, which is closely associated with 
the Ministry, had until the grant was 
exhausted some measure of control over 
the voluntary hospitals which applied to 
participate in the grant, but this power was 
only exercised to a limited extent and chiefly 
in the direction of securing uniformity in 
accountancy. The Minister of Health has no 
general power of control over hospital 
charities. The Ministry of Health has made 
capital grants to several voluntary organis- 
ations providing tuberculosis sanatoria, and 
in certain cases has taken a mortgage on the 
premises as security. Maintenance grants are 
made to local authorities who either provide 
sanatoria themselves or contract with volun- 
tary organisations for the treatment of patients 
in approved institutions. 

The Local Government Act of 1929 is 
designed to make radical changes in-so-far as 
rate-aided hospitals are concerned and it is 
generally agreed that the enlarged powers now 
conferred upon County and County Borough 
Authorities should increase the scope and 
usefulness of the great institutions now 
within their control ; indeed, it is quite safe 
to say that one more important step has been 
taken to bring nearer an efficient State 
medical service. 

Proceeding to discuss street collections, the 
Report draws attention to the fact that the 
War of 1914 gave rise to many abuses in 



charity administration and that many serious 
cases of fraud were brought to light during 
the years 191 4/ 16. The then Home Secretary, 
the Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert Samuel, appointed 
a Committee " to consider representations 
which have been made in regard to the 
promotion and management of charitable 
funds for objects connected with the War, 
and to advise whether any measures should 
be taken to secure the better control or 
supervision of such funds in the public 
interest." The Committee found, upon 
investigation, that it was desirable in the 
public interest that some control over street 
collections and public appeals on behalf of 
war charities should be instituted, and their 
recommendations were carried into effect 
generally by the War Charities Act 1916, and 
as regards street collections by Section 5, of 
the Police, Factories, etc. (Miscellaneous 
Provisions) Act, 191 6. This Section of the 
Act provides that a police authority may make 
regulations with respect to the places where, 
and the conditions under which, persons may 
be permitted in any street or public place 
within the area of its jurisdiction to collect 
money or sell articles for the benefit of 
charitable or other purposes. 

Model regulations under the Act have been 
drawn up by the Home Office and regulations 
substantially in this form have been made by 
a large number of police authorities in England 
and Wales, including those of nearly all the 
borough police forces. In rural areas street 
collections are not, as a rule, a profitable 
means of obtaining funds ; they are therefore 
infrequent and the necessity of controlling 
them is not acute. The Model regulations 
provide for a very extensive supervision of 
the collections with a view not only to ensuring 
that they are made only on behalf of reputable 
organisations and conducted without undue 
expense, but to the safeguarding of the actual 
money received up to the time it is handed 
over to the responsible organisers of the 
collection ; and provision is now made for 
the publication of a statement showing the 
allocation in the case of collections made on 
behalf of a general object. 

It is sometimes thought that the War 
Charities Act has ceased to be operative, but 


this is quite a mistake. Its provisions can be 
as rigorously enforced now as during the war 
period. Shortly stated the Act makes it 
unlawful to make any appeal to the public for 
donations or subscriptions in money or kind 
for any war charity unless the charity is 
registered as required by the Act. It does 
not apply to any collection in a place of public 
worship nor to any charity exempted by the 
registration authority on the prescribed 
grounds, namely, that the scope, duration or 
area of collection is so limited that registration 
is considered unnecessary. 

Charities for the blind, as is well known, 
fall into quite a different category, although 
there can be no doubt that Section 3 of the 
Blind Persons Act was modelled on the lines 
of the War Charities Act. 

This Section of the Act applies the pro- 
visions of the War Charities Act to charities 
for the Blind with certain modifications, of 
which the principal are : — 

(a) the limitation of registration authorities 
to County and County Borough Councils 
who are the authorities for the other 
purposes of the Act, thus excluding Urban 
District Councils and the smaller Borough 
Councils ; 

(b) an additional reason for refusal to 
register a charity, namely, that the regis- 
tration authority is satisfied that the objects 
of the proposed charity are adequately 
attained by a charity already registered ; 

(c) provision is made for a higher regis- 
tration fee ; as prescribed by the Act it is 
to be a sum not exceeding two guineas and 
was in fact fixed at one guinea ; 

(d) the substitution of the Minister of 
Health for the Secretary of State for the 
purpose of the approval of Regulations 
made by the Charity Commissioners ; 

(e) power is given to the Charity Commis- 
sioners in relation to a charity for the 
Blind removed from the register to exercise 
the powers conferred on them by Section 6, 
of the War Charities Act in relation to an 
appeal made by a registered charity, that 
is to say, the Commissioners may exercise 
those powers even if no appeal against 
removal is made. 

It is interesting to observe that up to 1926 
the number of War Charities registered was 
11,950 ; the number of charities for the 

blind 252 ; war charities refused registration 
52, and charities for the blind 1. 

Later in the Report our attention is drawn 
to this significant phrase " We were more 
disturbed to find that registration of blind 
charities had not succeeded in reducing the 
costs of collection, but that on the contrary 
they showed a tendency to rise in the case of 
some of the larger organisations." 

Here the Report displays a significant 
weakness. It does not appear to have 
occurred to the Commissioners, most of whom 
so far as can be ascertained, have never 
seriously concerned themselves with more 
than casual efforts to raise funds for voluntary 
societies, that the task becomes more difficult 
as the years glide by. Greater efforts have to 
be made to-day to raise funds than were 
necessary five or six years ago and the net 
results are not nearly so satisfactory. De- 
pression in trade and a hundred and one other 
circumstances contribute to this result and 
it by no means follows that a charity is badly 
administered because the cost of collections 
is registered at a high level. If times are 
difficult, larger sums of money must be 
expended even to secure comparatively 
smaller results. Of course it is possible to 
reach a point when the cost of administration 
becomes so excessive as to render the charity 
useless and although there have been such 
instances on record, it is quite true to say that 
such a position could never be reached by a 
reputable organisation. 

Whilst rejecting a comprehensive system of 
compulsory registration, the Commissioners 
not unmindful of the duties devolving upon 
them, very properly urge that most of the 
abuses which are said to exist in respect of 
certain so-called charities could easily be 
eliminated if the public would exercise 
greater vigilance. This, after all, is the key 
to the situation for those who thrive upon the 
results of such misdemeanours know only too 
well that they can trifle with a credulous and 
indifferent public. It is to be profoundly 
regretted that the Commissioners failed to 
recommend a practical scheme of registration 
and supervision, for it is only by regularising 
the efforts of voluntary associations and 
giving to them some semblance of statutory 
authority that a high standard of adminis- 
trative efficiency will be promoted and sus- 





The Invention of a 

OUR readers will be interested 
to learn that an improved 
I mechanical exerciser is now 
available. It has been 

invented by Mr. D. W. 
Johnston, a totally blind 
masseur, who has evolved 
a design of a most effcient type as a result of 
painstaking experimental work and attention 
to detail. 

Mr. Johnston was trained in the National 
Institute's Massage School in 19 15-16, and 
he has invented a piece of apparatus which is 
very suitable for installation in schools for the 
blind or in private houses, where it would be 
very beneficial for blind people who are 
unable to take easily regular outdoor exercise. ' 
The price is moderate and those interested 
should apply for further particulars to Mrs. 
F. Chaplin Hall, Secretary, Massage School, 
National Institute for the Blind, 224, Great 
Portland Street, W.i. 

The machine is for use when resistive or 
assistive exercises have been prescribed. The 
peculiar merit lies in the facts that its resist- 
ance is constant and yet immediately adjust- 
able as regards strength, incidence and 
direction to suit the varying requirements of 
the patient. After a brief description of the 
design, these essential features will be 
discussed in detail. The machine is neither 
bulky nor expensive, and, as the inventor 
aptly claims, it should be the second piece of 
apparatus to be selected for a new treatment 
room, the only other more essential one being 
a plinth. 


(1) The machine comprises a pair of tubes 
arranged so as to be screwed to a wall. They 
are usually placed at shoulder width. Each 
tube is fitted with three pulleys ; the first, 
which is of a swivel pattern is fixed at the top 
of the tube ; the other two may each be 
moved up or down by a stroke of the hand, 
and yet will remain stationary under the pull 
of the rope which they guide. The adjust- 
ment of the resistance already referred to as 
an essential feature of the machine is secured 
by the various combinations of position and 
inclusion of these pulleys. 

Totally Blind Masseur. 

(2) The tubes guide a pair of weights, each 
of which may be quickly regulated to give the 
resistance required. The weights are actu- 
ated by a pair of ropes which run up the tubes 
over the swivel pulleys. Handles may be 
fixed to the ropes at any point by a hitch. 

(3) A bar, 5 ft. 6 ins. long is mounted, 
horizontally, across the vertical tubes. It 
may be adjusted as regards height and to suit 
the distance at which the vertical tubes have 
been secured. One or more of the moveable 
pulleys may be attached to the horizontal bar. 


(1) The adjustment of direction of pull in 
the vertical plane is arranged for by using 
the rope straight from the top swivel pulley, 
or alternatively by passing it thence round 
either the upper or the lower moveable 

In the horizontal plane adjustment of 
direction of pull occurs through the use of 
the horizontal bar to which one or more of 
the moveable pulleys may be attached. As 
this bar can be moved vertically and fixed at 
any level, a most complete combination of 
adjustments can be effected. It will also be 
noticed that the machine will function 
satisfactorily even when an unusual width 
between the vertical tubes is dictated by 
paucity of wall space for the position of 
furniture ; the tubes may well be attached to 
the woodwork on either side of a door. 

It appears unnecessary to enlarge on the 
detailed use of the machine for exercises for 
arms, legs and other parts of the body. These 
are well known to members of the Society 
having been ably described in Dr. J. B. 
Mennell's " Massage " (London, 1920). In 
this work a variable direction of pull is 
recognised as an essential attribute of a 
resistance exerciser. 

(2) A constant resistance is another point. 
Many of the inexpensive and compact types 
of apparatus which find their way into use 
depend on elastic or springs for their resist- 
ance. This is, of course, fundamentally 
unsuitable for remedial work, and, as such, 
bear no comparison to the weight and pulley 
design to which group the Johnston exerciser 
belongs. For certain classes of work resist- 



ance by hand is essential, but for many 
others that provided by a weight and pulley 
is superior, especially as regards evenness and 
the possibility of fatigue to the operator. 

(3) A third feature, controllable incidence 
of resistance, is one of immense importance. 
The period of complete relaxation between 
movements is recognised as the foundation 
of successful remedial work. It may be 
claimed that this can be obtained in any of 
the well designed types of apparatus on the 
market. In point of fact, however, the adjust- 
ment of the length of rope on which this 
feature depends is so perfect and readily 
obtained in the Johnston machine as to 
constitute a distinct advance in design. It is 
secured by arranging for the rope to pass over 
all three pulleys, and by choosing a distance 
between them, so as to take up the slack of 
the rope and yet allow the weight to descend 
to its lowest limit, when the limb reaches the 

position which it is desirable for it to occupy 
during the period of rest. The direction of 
pull is, of course, determined by the position 
of the pulley from which the rope leads off 
to the patient. The benefit of this rapid 
adjustment is especially felt when exercising 
a patient on a plinth or bed. 

(4) Strength of resistance is varied by 
adding to or reducing either of the 
weights . 

(5) As regards compactness and inexpen- 
siveness little need be added — -although these 
are most essential factors. The ability to 
place the vertical tubes at almost any con- 
venient distance apart is an important point 
as regards the space occupied. The sim- 
plicity and effectiveness of design makes it 
comprehensive as regards uses, and yet 
inexpensive as compared to other and more 
elaborate (although not more efficient) types 
of machine. 


" / "~~^ EEING Europe through Sightless 
L 1 Eyes " (Almeda Adams), pub- 

^^^ lished by the Grafton Press, 

^^^^ New York, 12s. 6d., is a very 
^^k readable collection of letters, 
I W describing the author's year of 

^^. ' travel in Germany, Italy, Switz- 
erland, France and England. Miss Adams, a 
blind woman from Cleveland, Ohio, started 
her travels as chaperone to a girl-friend, who 
was visiting Europe to study singing, but after 
a time she decided to leave her friend to go 
on with her studies and went on alone. 

The English reader is inclined sometimes to 
think that Miss Adams' generous enthusiasms 
over the " lovely people " she seems to have 
met everywhere are almost too ecstatic, and 
one longs for her to have a few wholesome 
dislikes ; but apart from this criticism, which 
is perhaps one that recoils more on the reader 
than on the always-ready-to-be-appreciative 
writer, the letters give a very pleasant picture 
of an adventurous year. And the courage of 
the blind writer, who braved new places all 
alone, often with not much more knowledge 
of strange languages than the rest of us, and 
who was able to write a letter making light 
of four changes of lodging in two days, must 
win the admiration of all her readers. 

It is very difficult for those of us who see 
to understand the quality of the very real 
pleasure Miss Adams evidently felt in the 

presence of what was beautiful ; like Helen 
Keller, she writes as if she saw, and one is left 
wondering if hers is not a case like Miss 
Keller's, where verbal memory and sympathy 
are so intense that there is a danger of the 
writer sometimes becoming " the dupe of 
words " as Professor Villey terms it. One of 
the most interesting passages in the letters 
tells of a visit paid by Miss Adams and her 
friend to Versailles, when they were fortunate 
enough to be present on an evening when the 
fountains were illuminated ; the passage is 
worth quoting in full : — 

" Suddenly, without warning, a miracle 
happened. From under the fountain green 
lights shot up, transforming the columns of 
water into green liquid trees from which 
white blossoming spray branches radiated, as 
if a fairy forest were created by the touch of 
some magic wand. Then, just as suddenly, 
the lights were changed to red, and it was as 
if fire glowed in the heart of each up-springing 
fountain. Again the lights changed from red 
to white, and millions of diamonds sparkled 
every whither. You felt as if you were seeing 
all Marie Antoinette's jewels at once. As the 
light faded they sent up brilliant fireworks 
making a gorgeous finale to the colour 
scheme. One was literally steeped in colour. 
Never before in my life have I felt that I 
really saw colour, but this was so vivid that 
actually it seemed perceptible to other nerves 




than those of the eye. I cannot express what 
this experience meant to me. I seemed that 
night to have been born anew into your 
world of vision. Colour has become to me a 
vivid reality. There are times, it is true, 
when I seem to lose this new colour sense, 
but it always comes back." 

Perhaps this description stands out in the 
book as one of the most vivid, but it is by no 
means alone, and there is hardly a page on 
which we are not tempted to say : — " But 
this woman cannot be blind, or else blindness 
is something very different from what we 
imagined." " The Jungfrau," she writes, " is 
grand, majestic, over-awing, but the Dent- 
du-Midi is strength and tenderness and 
pitying love," or " I watched it the other 
evening as we walked in the park — the 
sunset in an Italian sky — not massed in one 
blaze of colour, but diffused in gorgeous 
ribbons of gold and crimson and amethyst, a 
radiant robe wherein the dying day swathed 
the stately splendour of his going," or yet 
again, " A picture of the Baptism of Jesus by 
Veronese stands out vividly in my conscious- 
ness for the grandeur and beauty of the divine 
face." Those who say that a seeing person 
can never understand the mentality of the 
blind seem to be vindicated in the face of such 
puzzles as this. 

But Miss Adams's letters are by no means 
all given up to aesthetic appreciation of art- 
treasures and natural beauties, and one likes 
them the better for the fact that they are full 
of very human notes on much more homely 
topics, and food is not neglected. " The 
suppers," she writes in Berlin, " are impos- 
sible ; always some fried thing, so hopelessly 
indigestible, that I cannot see why everybody 
does not die of it. Personally, I do not 
attempt it, and so usually go to bed hungry." 
Her account of English ways and cooking, is 
far more flattering :— " At last I have reached 
the land of promise, the land of daily bath 
without extra charge, the land of grape fruit 
for breakfast, and of toast and roast and 
matchless tea ; land of fresh towels and spot- 
less linen, of eager little page-boys ever at 
hand to help ; land where my mother-tongue 
is spoken by my chamber-maid far more 
beautifully than I can hope to speak it my- 
self." One is glad to think that Miss Adams's 
experience of English hotels is so happy, 
even though one has a lurking fear that with 
wider experience of them she might have 
modified her view. 


Mr. Alec Templeton. 

In the current issue of The Musical 
Standard there is a very appreciative notice 
and portrait of Mr. Alec Templeton, the 
young blind pianist, an account of whose 
career was published in our January, 1927, 
issue. Particular attention is drawn to his 
remarkable feats of memory, and to the merit 
of his compositions. His success at various 
Musical Festivals and as " runner-up " in 
the final of the highest grade of the Daily 
Express National Piano Playing Contest, is 

Hiking and Roller-Skating. 

Mr. A. E. Cadwallander and Mr. F. J. 
Law are two blind young men who are 
becoming well known in the Mexborough 
district for remarkable agility and participa- 
tion in recreations not usually followed by 
blind people. Recently they spent a rambling 
holiday together, and set out from Mex- 
borough to Sheffield along the main roads 
through Rotherham and Attercliff, com- 
pleting this section of their walk in just 
under four hours. The next day they 
decided to go to Derbyshire, and the third 
day they set off from Clay Cross with a local 
guide, who escorted them by way of the fields 
to Ashover. That part of the tour necessi- 
tated a guide because they had to cross 
several brooks and avoid some dangerous bog 

On reaching Ashover they climbed the 
well-known local rock, where others climb to 
enjoy the glorious view. Returning to the 
top road, they dispensed with the services of 
their guide, and continued merrily on to 

Finding nothing interesting in the main 
streets of the town, they determined to climb 
" The heights of Abraham," despite the 
warnings of a number of people of whom they 
made inquiry. The route of tortuous twisting 
steps and rock was negotiated safely, how- 

That was the end of their happy holiday. 

A few weeks ago, Mr. Cadwallander and 
Mr. Law, with two friends, gave an exhibition 
of roller-skating at the Mexborough Olympia 



A Blind Grand Knight. 

Mr. Robert Lormer, of West Hartlepool, 
who is blind, was installed as Grand Knight 
of the Grand United Order of Knights of the 
Golden Horn, at the annual Easter Confer- 
ence at Newcastle. The rank is the highest 
the order can offer. 

Blind Girl's University Success. 

Miss Ellen Gurnell, a 21 -year-old student 
at the Royal Normal College for the Blind, 
Upper Norwood, has been awarded an exhi- 
bition at Somerville College, Oxford, where 
she will be the only blind person in residence. 
Miss Burnell, who is a native of Liverpool, 
has studied at Norwood for about five years, 
and after matriculating from there took a 
training course, by which she gained her 
Board of Education Teacher's Certificate. It 
may be, although nothing has been arranged 
so far, that at the end of her university 
career Miss Gurnell will return to the college 
where she was a student. She entered for 
the exhibition because she felt that as a 
teacher of blind children her work would be 
more valuable if she herself had a university 

Other Easter Successes of Royal Normal 
College Pupils. 

Phyllis Humphreys and Gladys Wilcox 
passed the Licentiate Examination of the 
Royal Academy of Music as Pianoforte 

At the London Musical Festival, the 
following awards were made : — 

Pianoforte {Amateur Class) : Margaret 
Brand (First Prize) ; 

Pianoforte (for those under 17) : Ronald 
Finch (Second Prize). 

Blind Girl's Success at Birmingham Musical 

A seventeen-year-old blind Birmingham 
girl, Margaret Roberts, won the open piano 
solo competition for competitors between 
sixteen and eighteen years of age at the 
Birmingham Musical Festival, this month. 
She played with an execution and inspiration 
which entranced the audience. Another 
blind girl, Margaret Parsons, was third, only 
seven marks behind in the same class. 
A Versatile Young Musician. 

Mr. David Buchan, a young blind pianist, 
who is steadily forging ahead as a Concert 
Recitalist, and who, incidentally, was one of 
the first to broadcast from Marconi House in 
1922, is a man of many parts, and in addition 

to his normal musical activities, he has 
recently taken up lecturing on musical and 
kindred subjects, the musical illustrations 
being contributed either by himself at the 
piano, or by the use of gramophone records. 

This opens out a promising new line to a 
man of Mr. Buchan's all-round ability, and 
he has already been successful in his role as 

Mr. Buchan was trained at the Royal 
Normal College, Mr. Percy Waller and Mr. 
Herbert Fryer being his principal instructors 
in pianoforte playing. 

At the age of 16, he was awarded the 
maximum number of marks (100) for piano- 
forte solo playing at the London Musical 
Competition Festival, Mr. Ernest Fowles, 
the eminent pianoforte teacher and adjudi- 
cator, remarking that this was the first 
occasion in which he had ever been able to 
make such an award. 

Mr. Buchan commenced his professional 
career as the solo pianist in Lady Arthur 
Pearson's well-known Concert Party. And 
during one of the tours, owing to the indis- 
position of the official accompanist, he had to 
undertake at a moment's notice, and without 
rehearsal, the accompanist's duties, his only 
knowledge of the works having been gained 
by hearing them performed during the tour. 
This and many other remarkable feats of 
quick memorization and adaptability in cases 
of emergency are to his credit. Lately he has 
made a number of highly successful appear- 
ances as a recitalist in some of the best-known 
concert halls in London. He has a genuine 
gift for composition, and has been commended 
by such musicians as Sir Walford Davies and 
Mr. Stewart Macpherson. Some of his 
pianoforte pieces are on the National Insti- 
tute's Braille Music Catalogue, and are also 
published in inkprint. 

W T e look forward with confidence to the 
career of this gifted and versatile young 

National Council for Ireland. 

As a result of two preliminary gatherings of 
those interested in the blind, the first Com- 
mittee Meeting of the National Council for 
the Welfare of the Blind in Ireland was held 
at the Standard Hotel, Dublin, on April 14th. 
Mr. Denis Barrett has consented to act as 
Chairman, with Miss A. Armitage as Hon. 
Secretary (pro. tern.), and Dr. Quin as Hon. 





Annual Meeting of the Union of Counties 
Associations for the Blind. 

It is proposed to hold an Open Session 
during the Annual Meeting of the Union of 
Counties Associations for the Blind on the 
25th June, 193 1, and to invite the attendance 
of representatives of Local Authorities con- 
cerned with blind welfare and workers for the 
blind who are not members of the Council. 

This meeting will take place at Cloth- 
workers' Hall, Mincing Lane, London, E.C.3, 
on Thursday, 25th June, at 2.30 p.m., and the 
subject will be the World Conference on the 
Blind held last month in New York, on which 
papers will be read by a number of the repre- 
sentatives from Great Britain who attended 
the Conference. 

Applications for invitations, the number of 
which is limited to the accommodation avail- 
able, should be addressed to : — The Secretary, 
Union of Counties Associations for the Blind, 
66, Victoria Street, London, S.W.i ; and 
should be received not later than the end of 

Northern Counties Association for the Blind 
— Quarterly Meeting. 

The Quarterly Meeting of the Northern 
Counties Association for the Blind was held 
at Henshaw's Institution, Old Trafford, 
Manchester, on the 25th March, 193 1, under 
the Chairmanship of Mr. A. Siddall, who 
cordially thanked the Chairman and Board of 
Management of the Institution for their 

Among the subjects discussed were the 
Wireless for the Blind Fund, the question of 
the position of persons becoming blind over 
70 years of age, and the problems of children 
of 16 years of age discharged from schools for 
the blind as " not blind," and the partially 

Councillor Lundy gave some interesting 
information as to the installation and main- 
tenance of wireless sets in the Northern area 
and of the progress of the distribution of sets 
supplied by the British Wireless for the Blind 
Fund in that area. 

On the subject of persons becoming blind 
over 70 years of age Councillor Clydesdale 
proposed the following resolution : — 

" This Conference of Local Authorities 

and Voluntary Agencies interested in the 



Welfare of the Blind is of opinion that when 
blindness is allied to old age the handicap 
is increased, therefore there is no apparent 
reason for any reduction in grants made by 
Local Authorities to necessitous ' unem- 
ployable ' blind persons on the ground of 
old age, and regards such an action as 

During the course of his speech Councillor 
Clydesdale said that an attempt was being 
made to discriminate between different classes 
of blind persons. He thought the best 
arrangement would be to place the blind 
entirely under the Blind Persons Act Com- 
mittee and so remove them from the risk of 
being treated as paupers. The difficulties of 
old people were intensified if blindness is 
added to old age and there was no ethical or 
legal justification for the policy of taking from 
people who became blind over 70 years of age 
a part of the grant now given to the blind ; 
there was nothing in the Local Government 
Act which penalised any blind person on 
account of age. 

The resolution was finally carried unani- 
mously, the word " apparent " being deleted. 
Some discussion took place on the revised 
Constitution of the Association which, with 
certain amendments, was approved and 

Mr. H. V. Holland, Secretary of the St. 
Flelens & District Society for the Blind, read 
a paper on the problem of children of 16 
years of age discharged from schools for the 
blind as " not blind." He referred to the 
difficulties which arose owing to the two 
Government definitions of blindness, the one 
for children up to 16 years of age being " too 
blind to be able to read the ordinary school 
books used by children " and the other for 
persons of 16 years and over " too blind to 
perform work for which eyesight is essential." 
He thought that everyone agreed that a 
universal standard denoting the least visual 
acuity allowable would not be equitable as a 
general definition of blindness from infancy 
to old age, as the eye conditions of children 
were frequently changing in the natural 
course of physical development. Many 
children who come under the official defini- 
tion are sent to schools for the blind where 
they are, in most cases, treated as totally 


blind, learning Braille instead of ordinary 
script, etc. Very often the care and treatment 
thev receive and the lessened strain on the 
eyes, brings a great improvement of vision. 
This is a desirable condition from one point 
of view, but it may prevent a child from being 
certified under the Blind Persons Act for 
industrial purposes. Before leaving the blind 
school the child is examined by the ophthal- 
mic surgeon who is probably governed to a 
certain extent in his decision by the industrial 
definition of blindness, and it is possible that 
through the improvement in sight due to 
attendance at a blind school the young person 
can not be certified under the Blind Persons 

Mr. Holland asked whether it would not be 
in the better interest of a person of 16 who 
had been trained in a blind school, to con- 
tinue to be a blind person and receive the 
benefits of his training. The final decision 
as to whether a school child should continue 
as industrially blind after he had reached the 
age of 1 6 should not be left until the fifteenth 
year of the child's life but throughout his 
school life, or at any rate from 12 years 
onwards, he should be examined annually by 
an ophthalmic surgeon who should be asked 
to give a prognosis for the future, and if there 
was any hope that the child would not even- 
tually become industrially blind, the last few 
years of his school life should be directed to 
fitting him for the sighted world. Or, might 
it not be possible to train the child to take his 
place in the blind workshops as a semi- 
sighted artisan and so do away to some extent 
with the employment of fully sighted persons ? 

In opening the discussion on Mr. Holland's 
paper Councillor Flanagan referred to the 
decrease in the numbers of blind children and 
to the consequent places to be filled in blind 
schools. He felt that Local Authorities 
should take great care before transferring a 
child to a school for the blind. Some pro- 
gressive authorities had set up special schools 
for this type of case in which the teachers 
were not so much concerned with keeping the 
children till the age of 16, but of treating 
them so that they could be sent back to the 
ordinary elementary school at the earliest 
possible moment. Owing to the lack of 
schools of this type blind schools were dealing 
with children who ought not to be in blind 
schools at all. He suggested that the dele- 
gates should try to interest their Authorities 
in the position of children similar to those 

referred to by the speaker. Even in blind 
schools they should get out of the habit of 
thinking that once a child was in a blind 
school he was there for the full period of his 
school life. 

Councillor Hurley, Chairman of the Care 
of the Blind Committee, of the Hull County 
Borough Council addressed the Conference 
on the question of the partially sighted. He 
felt that the time had come when the Ministry 
of Health might be approached with a view to 
relieving the Local Authorities of the respon- 
sibility of dealing with borderline cases, or 
providing a scheme of vocational training for 
the partially blind. There would always be 
a line of demarcation between the blind and 
the sighted, but the way out was to find 
avenues of employment for the absorption of 
the partially blind. This might be accom- 
plished by taking advantage of Section 66 of 
the Public Health Act, 1925, which enables 
the Local Authorities to assist in the preven- 
tion of blindness. 
Conference of Home Teachers. 

On April 22nd, 193 1, at the Milton Hall, 
Manchester, the Northern Counties Associ- 
ation held a Conference of Home Teachers 
which was attended by about 120 Home 
Teachers from the Area covered by the 
Northern and North- Western Counties 

There was an Exhibition consisting of 
Pastime Occupations, kindly sent in by 
Societies from the whole country, also 
apparatus and periodicals provided by the 
National Institute for the Blind. 

Councillor Lundy demonstrated the con- 
struction and use of the Wireless Sets provided 
by the British Wireless for the Blind Fund 
and Messrs. Harrisons the Patent Knitting 
Company gave an Exhibition and Demon- 
stration with four of their latest machines 
and an additional one only completed on the 
morning of the Exhibition. This last machine 
can be attached to other machines in order to 
make the complicated patterns which are 
now fashionable. 

Mr. W. H. Tate, J.P., gave a Paper on 
" Case Work up to date " and Mr. Miles 
Priestley on " Pastime Versus Industrial 

There was also a period left free for the 
discussion of questions raised by members of 
the conference. 

A full Report will be published in due 





To the Editor. 

The Needs of the Deaf-Blind. 

Sir, — I am very glad that your corres- 
pondent, Mrs. E. H. Lee, has voiced the need 
of better provision for the social needs of the 
deaf-blind, which in my view is a crving one. 
That they share, in common with the rest of 
the sightless community, the benefits accruing 
from the Blind Persons' Act, 1920, should 
not be allowed to obscure the indubitable 
fact that their additional disability involves 
needs which are not covered by the ordinary 
activities of the Institutions and County 
Associations for the Blind. Even the clubs 
and social centres which are springing up 
here and there under such auspices do not 
touch the social needs in any degree, since 
the possession of hearing is requisite for the 
enjoyment of what is thereby provided — 
unless special provision is made for the 
deaf-blind visitors, and there's the rub. 
Experience and observation as a worker for 
some years in this region of " dark silence," 
have shown me that there is a call here for a 
great awakening. Special provision is needed 
all round, and that which in the life of the 
ordinary seeing and hearing person is con- 
sidered a " luxury " may from this point of 
view assume the aspect of a necessity of 
existence, just as the " only blind " have a 
wireless fund, as your correspondent points 

As for the deaf-blind in " Institutions," the 
word is used rather euphemistically, seeing 
that the vast majority of deaf-blind people 
not in their own homes are interned in Poor 
Law establishments. Although the sugges- 
tion made might in some degree mitigate the 
evil, I feel that the problem calls for a more 
drastic solution. Why should a homeless and 
friendless deaf-blind person or an " only 
blind " one for the matter of that, as it were 
automatically gravitate to a Poor Law Ward ? 
Have we ever tried to imagine what existence 
under such conditions must be like, with 
usually no occupation, no companionship, 
little or no touch with the world outside, a 
living death ? Small wonder that so many of 
these poor souls are slow of intelligence or 
temperamentally " difficult " or deemed so. 

In this last connection, a final word. There 
are a number of deaf-blind people in mental 



hospitals. Is it possible that some of these 
would not have found their way there had the 
conditions resulting from their terrible two- 
fold handicap been rightly apprehended ? 
I am very far from wishing to impugn either 
the discriminative capacity or the humanity 
of the members of a noble profession, but I 
have spoken of a great awakening, and I 
merely suggest that it may be needed here 
also, as I know it is needed in most other 
matters concerned with those who are deaf 
as well as blind. 

Yours, etc., 

Charles Stuart, 

West Bromwich. 
To the Editor. 

Sir, — I have been for several years a 
voluntary worker amongst the deaf-blind and 
I know that what they need so very much is 
what the blind already have, people to take 
them for walks and to pay them visits regu- 
larly. It is pathetic to find how very grateful 
they are for this, and makes one feel the 
intense privilege of doing anything for them. 
Of course, anyone taking up this work should 
first learn the finger alphabet, as this is the 
only way to communicate with a deaf- blind 
person. Many deaf-blind are highly edu- 
cated, but live in very poor homes where 
people cannot spare the time to talk to them. 
Then, of course, a visitor brings a bright 
light into their shut-up lives. I hope those 
who have some spare time will remember 
these, their afflicted brothers and sisters. 
Yours, etc., 
(Miss) Julia Margaret Strang. 

To the Editor. 

Sir, — I have read with much interest the 
letter in your last issue on the social welfare 
of the deaf-blind. 

As a working member of the National 
Deaf-Blind Helpers' League, I beg to say 
that I fully endorse all that that letter contains. 

It is quite true, as your correspondent 
points out, that, although so much has been 
done of late years, to enhance the social life of 
the hearing blind, little or no effort has as yet 
been made towards compensation to their 
still less fortunate brothers and sisters, for 
their additional heavy handicap of deafness. 

It would hardly seem necessary to point out 
that, since the deaf-blind are debarred from 
all the pleasures and educational advantages 
which are provided for the hearing blind, by 


means of wireless sets, free concerts, lectures, 
dramatic entertainments, and so on, some 
form of equivalent for these benefits is due 
to these doubly afflicted people. Yet it is a 
strange fact, that, up to the present, this 
point has been almost entirely ignored. 

It was with the object of endeavouring to 
remedy this defect, and to bring as much 
happiness and cheer into the lives of the deaf- 
blind, that the National Deaf- Blind Helpers' 
League was founded a little over three years 
ago. There is no space here to go into 
details of the aims and ideals of the league 
All information concerning it may be had 
from the Hon. Sec, Miss Watton, 183, 
Horsley Heath, Tipton, Staffordshire. There 
is, however, one item on our programme 
which I should like to mention, since it has 
been touched on by your correspondent. We 
are strenuously endeavouring to remove all 
deaf-blind persons from Poor-Law Institu- 
tions, and to have them placed in more 
suitable and congenial surroundings. And I 
am glad to say that wherever we have suc- 
ceeded in achieving this it has always been 
with verv happy results. Although our 
numbers are steadily increasing, we are still 
only a small societv, and badly in need of 
material help and moral support. While we 
are sincerely grateful for what help and co- 
operation has been offered to us, from the 
larger and older societies for the blind, we 
should be glad to feel that there existed among 
these a still fuller appreciation of the urgent 
claim of this section of the blind community 
on their sympathies and resources, as well as 
on those of the public at large. We feel that 
the double helplessness of the deaf-blind 
means such a terrible handicap. 
Yours, etc., 

G. B. Hamilton, 

Radio Adoption. 

In the February issue of The New Beacon 
a correspondent sought information in the 
" Radio adoption " of blind people. Follow- 
ing is an extract from a letter received by the 
British Wireless for the Blind Fund : — 

" All wireless sets in need of attention owned 
by the necessitous blind people are reported 
to me [Hon. Sec. of a District Radio Society], 
usually through the medium of the Health 
Department of the Corporation. I then write 
to one of my members who lives nearby and 
he visits the set. Adjustments and minor 

alterations are done on the spot, new parts 
required being referred to me for purchase at 
a privileged rate available for the necessitous 
blind only. Generally speaking we ask the 
blind person to pay half the reduced cost of 
new H.T. batteries (2s. 9d.) and accumu- 
lators (4s. 3d.). Reconstructions, other parts 
and work we supply at our own expense. The 
idea is that financial interest in a wireless set 
is essential for economical working. The 
scheme works well ; cases arise, of course, 
where we forego the usual part charge. We 
have about 35 of these sets under our care, all 
referred to us through the medium of the 
Health Department ; we confine our activities 
to maintenance onlv." 





The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copy. 
ORGAN— s. d. 

10.729 Alderson, A. P. Introduction and 

Passacaglia ... ... ... ... 2 

10.730 Moussorgsky, M. Kieff Processional 

(arr. by A. Eaglefield Hull) 2 

10.731 Stewart, C. Hylton. Five Short and 

Easy Pieces (founded on Hymn Tunes) 2 

10.732 Albeniz, J. Cotillon Valse 2 

10.733 Arnc, T. A. Sonata No. 4 in D minor 2 

10.734 Bach. Sturze zu Boden (Hurl Them 

Down Headlong) (arr. by Walter 
Rummel) 2 

10.735 Glinka, M. Mazourka Russe 2 

10.736 Melartin, Erkki. Impromptu 2 

10.737 Pasquini, B. Toccata on the Cuckoo's 

Note 2 

10.738 Sanderson, W. Caprice Orientale ... 2 

10.739 Spurling, C. M. Buffoon 2 


10.740 Evans, T. Lady of Spain, Song Fox- 

Trot 2 

10.741 Ronell, A. Baby's Birthday Party, 

Song Fox-Trot ... ... ... 2 

10.742 Sherman, A. and Lewis, A. Wedding 

Bells are Ringing for Sally, Song- 
Waltz 2 

10.743 Towers, L. and Ursell, E. Cobble- 

stones, Song Fox-Trot ... ... 2 


10.744 Balfe I Dreamt that I Dwelt in 

Marble Halls, from " The Bohemian 
Girl." D ; D— F 1 2 

10.745 Beethoven. Life is Nothing Without 

Money, Bass Air, from " Fidelio," 

B flat ; B 1 — D 1 2 

10.746 Head, Michael. Sweet Chance, that Led 

My Steps Abroad, D ; A t — D l ... 2 

10.747 Hewett, T. J. Out Where the Big 

Ships Go, C minor ; C — E 1 ... ... 2 

10.748 Homer, Sidney. A Banjo's Song, C ; 

E— F 1 2 



10.749 Johnson, J. C. Trav'lin' All Alone. F; 

C— D 1 

10.750 Liddle, S. Lovely Kind and Kindly 

Loving, D flat ; F— A 1 

10.751 Macmurrough, D. Macushla, A flat ; 

E— G 1 flat 

10.752 Veracini. A Pastoral, from " Rosa- 

linda " (arr. by A. L.1, E. fiat ; 
B x — F l 

10.753 Wekerlin, J. B. Chanson rlu Papillon, 

G minor ; D — G 1 


The prices of the following publications are subject 

to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 

the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 
s. d. 

10,075-10,077 Colomba, by Prosper Merimre. 
In French. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols. 
F.156 5 3 

10,067-10,068 Conversation with an Angel, 
and Other Essays, A, by Hilaire 
Belloc. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Cloth Boards, 2 vols. G.139 8 9 

10,046-10,050 Daughter of Heth, A, by William 
Black. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 5 vols. F.290 5 9 

10,061-10,066 Duchess of Wrexe, The, by 
Hugh Walpole. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpomted, Paper Covers, 6 vols. 
F.357 6 

10,041-10,044 Essays of Joseph Addison, 
Selected by J. R. Green, M.A., 
LL.D. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pomted, Paper Covers, 4 vols. F.226 5 9 

10,052-10,055 Expiation, by the author of 
" Elizabeth and Her German Gar- 
den." Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 4 vols. F.253 6 3 

10.114 Frisky Tales, by Lady Farren. Grjule 

2, Large size, Interpointed, Cloth 
Boards. G.93 9 9 

10,112-10,113 Home, Health and Garden. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 2 vols. F.112 ... 5 9 

10,167 House at Pooh Corner, The, by A. A. 
Milne. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers. F.63 ... 6 3 

10,168-10,169 Jesus of Nazareth, by Chas 
Gore, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D. Grade 2, 
Large size, Interpointed, Paper 
Covers, 2 vols. F.118 6 

10.115 Kreutzer Sonata, The, by Tolstoy. 

Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 

Cloth Boards. G.80 9 6 

9,993-9,999 Main Street, by Sinclair Lewis. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 7 vols. F.412... ... 6 

10,078-10,080 On the Art of Reading, by Sir 
A. T. Ouiller-Couch. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 3 
vols. F.153 5 3 

10,059-10,060 Poems of Thomas Campbell, 
Selected by Lewis Campbell. Grade 
2, Large size, Interpointed, Cloth 
Boards, 2 vols. G.135 8 6 

10,606-10,611 Pupils' Class-Book of Arith- 
metic, The, by E. J. S. Lay. Grade 
2, Intermediate size, Interpointed, 
Stiff Covers, 6 vols. B.357 6 3 

10,162-10,166 Rebel Generation, The, by Jo 
Van Ammers-Kuller. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 
5 vols. F.282 5 9 


per vol. 

10,122-10,124 Roden's Corner, by H. Seton .<;. d. 
Merriman. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols 
F.194 6 6 

10,216-10,221 Sant' Ilario, by F. Marion 
Crawford. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 6 vols. 
F.365 6 

10,072-10,074 Simpkin's Plot, The, by G. A. 
Birmingham. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols. 

F.180 6 

9,808-9,812 Sorrell & Son, by Warwick 
Deeping. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 5 vols. F.318 6 3 
9,990-9,992 Youngest Girl in the Fifth, The, 
by Angela Brazil. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 
3 vols. F.169 5 9 

9.235 Map of Spain and Portugal. Rivers 

and Towns ... ... ... ... 9 

9.236 Map of Spain and Portugal. Rivers 

and Mountains ... ... ... 9 

9.237 Map of Italy. Rivers and Towns ... 9 

9.238 Map of Italy. Rivers and Mountains... 9 

8.251 Guides to Maps of Spain and Portugal. 

Grade 2, Intermediate size, Inter- 
lined, Stiff Covers. B.14 3 

8.252 Guides to Maps of Italy. Grade 2, 

Intermediate size, Interlined, Stiff 
Covers. B.13 3 


The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 
s. d. 
3,059-3,065 The House of Dreams Come True. 

7 vols. (Limited Edition) 12 

3,092 Lesson Book in Giant Moon Type ... 1 




Byron, bv Andre Maurois ... ... ... 7 


Anon. Anglo-Saxon Poetry (Trans, by R. K. 
Gordon) ... 

Ker, W. P. Art of Poetry 

Raleigh, Sir W. (Ed. by) ; Shakespeare' 
England ... 
Trevelyan, G. M. England under Queen Anne 


Trevelyan, G. M. Garibaldi and the Defence of 
the Roman Republic ... ... ... ... 4 

Trevelyan, G. M. Garibaldi and the Thousand 4 
Lawrence, D. H. Movements in European 
History ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 


Dicey, A. V. Conflict of Laws (1928 Ed.) ... 6 


Guerber, H. A. Myths of the Norsemen 

Oxford Book of German Verse ... 

McKeon, R. (Ed. by) ; Selections from Medieval 

Pocock, G. M. (Ed. by) ; Modern Poetry ... 1 

Strindberg, A. Easter and other Plays .. . ... 5 


Stoddard, I- Rising Tide of Colour ... 

Thomson, J. A. What the World is Made of . 



Headlam, A. C. St. Paul and Christianity ••• 2 
Mackintosh, H. R. Christian Apprehension of 

God 2 

Milligan, YV. Resurrection of Our Lord ... 4 

Oesterley, W. O. E. Books of the Apocrypha... 8 




Bennett. Sterndale. Eight Songs :— (110). 
Musing on the roaring ocean. Forget me not. 
Gentle Zephyr. Winter's gone. 
Dawn Gentle Flower. Sing, maiden, sing. 
Maiden mine. Sunset. 
Various Composers. Selected Madrigals. 
1st Soprano Part (111). 
2nd ,, ,, (112). 

1st Alto Part (112a). 
1st Tenor Part (113). 
1st Bass (114) 

Contents : — 
Flora gave me (Wilbye). 
Sweet honeysucking bees (Wilbye). 
The Lady Oriana (Wilbye). 
My bonny lass (Morley). 
I follow, lo. the footing (Morley). 
Lo ! where the flowery Mead (Morley). 
All creatures now are merry (Benet). 
Flow, O my tears (Benet). 
Down in a flowery vale (Festa). 
Die not, fond man (J. Ward). 
Round about her chariot (Gibbons). 
As Vesta was (Weelkes). 

In these delightful pleasant groves (Purcell). 
O sleep, fond fancy (Benet). 
When the twilight's parting flush (Lahee). 
Flora now calleth forth (J. S. Smith). 
Blest pair of Sirens (J. S. Smith). 
Let me careless (F. Linley). 
O snatch me swift (VV. Callcott). 
Walker, Ernest. Trio, female voices. Hark ! Hark ! 
the Lark (Unaccompanied) (162). 
Trio, female voices. Urchins and 
Elves (With accompaniment) (163). 
Allitsen, Frances. Song. There's a land (164). 
Selbv. B. Luard. Song. A widow bird sat mourning (165). 
Dell ; Acqua, Eva. Sons. Villanelle (166). 



Exams, in Rudiments. Harmony and Counterpoint for 

1918. Syllabus A (167). 

Exams, in Rudiments, Harmony and Counterpoint for 

1919. Syllabus A (168). 

Exams, in Rudiments, Harmonv and Counterpoint for 

1920. Syllabus A (169). 

(For January and July each year.) 
1912 (170) : 1913 (171) ; 1914 (172) ; 1915 (173) ; 
1916 (174) ; 1917 (175) ; 1918 (176) ; 1919 (177) ; 
1920 (178) ; 1921 (179) ; 1922 (180). 

(For January and July each year.) 
1912 (181); 1913 (182); 1914 (18.3); 1915 (184); 
1916 (185) ; 1917 (186) ; 1918 (187) ; 1919 (188) ; 
1920 (189) ; 1921 (190) ; 1922 (191). 
Grove, George. Analysis of Schumann's Symphony in 
E flat (192). 

Stainer. Morning Service in B flat (133). 
Tours. Jubilate Deo in F (from Service in F) (134). 
Stanford. Jubilate Deo in B flat (from Service in B 

flat) (135). 
Tours. Benedictus in F (from Service in F) (136). 
Stanford. Benedictus in F (from Service in B flat) (137). 
Woodward. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis, in D (138). 
in Eflat (139). 


Boyce. By the waters of Babylon (140). 

Great and marvellous are Thy works (141). 
Croft. Cry aloud and shout (142). 
Crotch. Lo ' star led chiefs (143). 
Mendelssohn. Trio (female voices) Hear my prayer, O 

Lord (Psalm 102) (144). 
Smart. The Angel Gabriel was sent from God (145). 

PIANO MUSIC (All in " Old style " Braille). 
Raff. Thirty Progressive Studies (one volume) (146). 
Cavatina (147). 
Au clair de la lune (148). 
Babillarde (149). 
Fablain (150). 
Fleurette (151). 
Garcon Meunico (152). 
Manon Rondinette (153). 
Marche Bohemienne, Op. 75 (154). 
Mignonne Valse (155). 
Ranz de Vaches (156). 
Pleureuse (157). 
Tour a cheval (158). 
Scarlatti, Domenico. Sonata in C (159). 
Capriccio (160). 
Pastorale in E minor (161), 
Guilmant — Scherzo Capriccioso in F shaip minci — 
Harmonium Part (74) 
Piano Part (75) 
Marche Triomphale (76) 
Pastorale in A (77) 
Wagner— Marche de Tannhauser (78) 

Bach— French Suites — 
No. 1, in D minor (79) 
No. 2, in C minor (80) 
No. 4, in E flat (81) 
No. 6, in E (82) 
Handel — Suites — 
No. 1. in A (83) 
No. 2, in F (84) 
No. 3, in D minor (85) 
No. 4, in E minor (86) 
No. 5, in E (87) 
No. 6, in F sharp minor (88) 
No. 7, in G minoi (89) 
Rubinstein — Impromptu in G ; Scherzo in A ; Romance 
in F (90) 




" Afghan." Exploits of Asaf Khan 4 

Ashton, Helen. A Lot of Talk 3 

Beaman, E. H. Secret Force and Other Stories 1 

Belloc, H. Missing Masterpiece 3 

*Beresford, J. D. Instrument of Destiny ... 2 

Burdekin, Katherine. The Burning Ring ... 4 

Clarke, Isabel, C. Potter's House 5 

Corelli, Marie. Young Diana 5 

*de la Mare, Walter. Return 3 

*Denman, Ann. Silent Handicap ... ... 3 

Douglas, O. Day of Small Things 4 

Eyton, John. Expectancy ... ... ••• 4 

Feval, P. and M. Lassez. Heir of Buckingham 4 

"France, A. Honey-Bee ... ... ... ... 1 

Freeman, H. W. Down in the Valley 5 

Garstin, Crosbie. China Seas ... ... ... 3 

Jepson, E. Lady Noggs Assists 3 

Kitchin, C. H. B! Death of my Aunt 3 

Lewis, Ethelreda. Mantis 4 

Lockhart, J. G. That Followed After 5 

Macdonald, P. The Noose ... ... ... 4 

Marshall, A. Pippin 5 

Maurois, A. Country of Thirty-six Thousand 

Wishes ... ... ... ••• ••• •■• 1 

I2 7 


Miln, L. J. By Soochow Waters ... ... 5 

Moore, G. The Lake 4 

Oppenheim, E. P. Jennerton and Co. ... ... 3 

Pemberton, Max. Great White Army ... ... 4 

Phillpotts, Eden. The Torch and Other Tales 4 

Porter, Eleanor. Pollyanna ... ... ... 3 

Priestley, J. B. Angel Pavement ... ... 9 

Riley, W. Doctor Dick 4 

*Rowley, J. de la M. Passage in Park Lane ... 4 

Rntter, Owen. Lucky Star ... ... ... 4 

"Sapper." Tiny Carteret ... ... ... 4 

Sidgwick, Mrs. A. Masquerade... ... ... 4 

Sidgwick, Mrs. A. Purple Jar ... ... ... 4 

Stacpoole, H. de V. Gates of the Morning ... 3 

Wallace, Edgar. Sanders ... ... ... 3 

Walpole, H. Wintersmoon ... ... ... 8 

Walsh, Maurice. Small Dark Man ... ... 4 

Walsh, Maurice. While Rivers Run ... ... 5 

Wingate, Mrs. A. Jen ... ... 5 

Young, F. Brett. Portrait of Clare 14 

Young, F, E. Mills. Penny Rose ... ... 4 


Armour, Margaret (Translated by). Fall of the 

Nibelungs ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Bazett, L. M. Some Thoughts on Mediumship 1 
Caesar, Julius (Trans. H. J. Edwards) Gallic 

War ; Books I- VIII (E. W. Austin Memorial) 6 
Carr-Saunders, A. M. Eugenics (E. W. Austin 

Memorial) ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Eucken, R. (Trans. W. Tudor Jones). Truth of 

Religion (E. W. Austin Memorial) ... ... 9 

Graham, Stephen. Peter the Great (E. W. 

Austin Memorial) 5 

Grahame, Stewart. Where Socialism Failed ... 4 
Hagberg, K. (Trans. Elizabeth Sprigge and C. 

Napier). Kings, Churchills and Statesmen : 

A Foreigner's View (E. W. Austin Memorial) 3 
Kennedy, Rev. G. A. Studdert. Warrior, the 

Woman and the Christ ... ... ... 4 

Ludwig, E. (Trans. E. and C. Paul). Lincoln 9 
Ludwig, E. (Trans. E. and C. Paul). On Mediter- 
ranean Shores ... ... ... 4 

Martindale, Rev. C. C. and Rev. G. Bamfield. 

At Mass and Benediction ... ... ... 1 

Misciattelli, P. Savonarola ... ... ... 3 

Morton, H. V. In Search of Scotland 5 

Nevill, R. Romantic London ... ... ... 3 

Parker, Eric. English Wild Life (English 

Heritage Series) ... ... 3 

Schiller, F. G. S. Tantalus, or The Future of 

Man 1 

Scott, I. Cyril. Influence of Music on History 

and Morals ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Shaw, G. B. Caesar and Cleopatra : A Play ... 2 
Smith, G. Elliot. Human History (E. W. 

Austin Memorial) ... 9 

Underbill, Evelyn. Prayer with Life as Prayer 1 

Craik, Mrs. Little Lame Prince and His Travel- 
ling Cloak 2 

Hann, Mrs. Osborn. Peg's Patrol ... ... 2 

Lane, Margaret S. Betty's Friend ... ... 1 

Shillito, E. Lamplighters in Strange Lands : 

Bible Stories Retold for Children 1 

Wilmot-Buxton, E. Tales from the Eddas ... 2 

Cradock, Mrs. H. C. Josephine, John and the 

Puppy 1 

Douglas, O. Ann and Her Mother ... ... 4 

Oxenham, J. Cedar Box ... ... ... 1 

Wallace, Edgar. Ghost of Down Hill 1 


Hamilton, J. A. MS. in a Red Box 3 

♦Produced by the National Institute for the Blind. 

MOON. Vols. 

Kennedy, R. K, Madame Luxuron ... ... 3 

Miller, J. R. Things to Live for (Volume 2) ... 1 

Pemberton, Max. Hundred Days ... ... 5 


New rubber geometry mats are now obtainable from 
the National Institute for the Blind, 224, Gt. Portland 
Street, W.l. Price 1/6 each. These are special rubber 
mats designed for drawing geometrical or other figures 
with the raised lines uppermost. To use the mat, 
place ordinary writing paper, or medium thickness 
Braille paper, on the mat and then, with the aid of 
either a spur wheel and ruler or compass, draw the 
required lines. A fairly heavy pressure is required 
A raised line will then appear on the top surface, thus 
obviating the necessity of reversing the paper to feel 
what has been drawn. 


The next Examination for Gardner's Trust Scholar- 
ships of the annual value of £40, tenable at the Royal 
Normal College for the Blind, Upper Norwood, S.E.19, 
will be held on Saturday, 4th July and Monday, 0th 
July. Candidates must have reached the age of 
sixteen on or before the date of the Examination, must 
have resided in England and Wales for the last five 
years and be intending to remain so resident. Appli- 
cation should be made to the Principal on or before 
Saturday, 20th June, and the forms properly filled in 
and completed, returned to the College on or before 
Saturday, 27th June, or the Candidate's name will not 
be placed on the list. 




The next examination for the Diploma will be held 
on 1st July, 1931. Forms of application can be obtained 
from the Hon. Registrar of the College, 224-6-8, Great 
Portland Street, London, W.l, and must be returned 
not later than 15th June, 1931. 


The next Craft Instructors Examination will be 
held on 13th, 14th and 15th October, 1931, at the 
School for the Blind, Swiss Cottage, London, N.W.3. 
Forms of application can be obtained from the Hon. 
Registrar of the College, 224-6-8, Great Portland Street, 
London, W.l, and must be returned not later than 
12th September, 1931. 

Copies of previous examination papers can be 
obtained from the Hon. Registrar. 


WOMAN to take charge of department. Apply stating 
age, experience and salary required to the Secretary, 
Institution for the Blind, Roundhay Road, Leeds. 

Swedenborg, " His message has travelled like light." 
Swedenborg's " Heavenly Doctrine " and " God the 
Creator," in Braille, 2/6 each volume. Order from 
Swedenborg Society (Inc.), 20, Hart Street, London, 

WANTED for North of England, HOME TEACHER 

for the Blind, must hold Home Teachers Certificate. 
Apply giving age, experience, and when certificate was 
obtained, to " Alpha," c/o New Beacon, 224, Great 
Portland Street, London, W.L 

Printed by Smiths' Printing Company (London & St. Albans), Ltd., 2224, Fetter Lane, London, E.C.4. 

c DfwZNcw 





Vol. XV.— No. 174. JUNE 15th, 1931. Price 3d. 


Entered as Second Class Matter, March 15. 1929. at the Post Office at Boston, Man., under the Act of March 3, 1879 [Sec. 397, P.L. and R.) 


Member of the Executive Committee of the National Baby Week Council. 

THE National Baby Week Council is holding, during the first week in July, its 
15th Celebration. Since its inauguration in 1917, when the continued and 
heavy death toll of our expeditionary forces created the necessity for a supreme 
effort on behalf of the Mothers and Children of the Nation, the activities of 
this National Body have been far-reaching in their efforts, and most satisfactory 
in their results. In the yearly propaganda, public attention has been directed 
to all aspects of child welfare, and it was during the first two years of the 
National Baby Week Council's existence, 1917-1918, that the National Institute for the Blind 
inaugurated its scheme of Sunshine Homes for Blind Babies. 

Unfortunately all blind children cannot be admitted to these homes, and it will not be 
amiss at this particular season of the year to remind readers of the special treatment that sightless 
little ones require. 

When considering the care of the blind child — and by care there is included a trilogy of 
physical, mental and spiritual development — it should be remembered that there are two great 
divisions evident at the earliest stages — i.e. the normal and ordinarily developed child whose 
only disability is blindness, and the sub-normal child, who in addition to lack of sight, has 
further disadvantages of deficiencies in mind and health. 

' To further and support great efforts of all child welfare movements, is to ameliorate the 
conditions of all children, blind and sighted alike, who have the misfortune to belong to the 
former class ; so let us consider the general outlook for the children. A general line of thought 
can be traced to correlate the sightless child with its more favoured kin. 

The normal blind child differs very little physically from the ordinary child. The infant 
and the toddler receive similar treatment in diet, exercise, clothing and hygiene. Causes for 
defective muscularj>rowth or for faulty digestion may be traced to identical origins, so that one 
may enunciate a few principles for the general health of the normal blind toddler. 

The word "fresh" might be quite a good slogan for the necessities of all such children, 


fresh air, fresh food, fresh clothing and fresh 
surroundings. The food should be of the 
simplest and most wholesome kind, given at 
regular intervals and daily at the same hour. 
The diet should include fresh milk and fresh 
vegetables and fruit. Clothing should be of 
the simplest, and again, always fresh and clean. 
It should never be forgotten that the early 
training of the blind child is to fit him for 
later life, when his handicap is going to place 
him at a disadvantage in the economic market, 
and in the strain for personal support. It is 
necessary, therefore, to build up the body 
with this in view, and the finest physique is 
the one where the nervous system is under 
control and the organs all functioning in a 
normal and effective manner. Therefore, 
regular habits of cleanliness, feeding, clothing, 
recreation and sleep cannot be commenced 
too soon, nor too persistently impressed upon 
the voung and receptive mind. 

Simple as these principles for health are, 
there is always the one great difference for 
which allowance has to be made. With the 
lighted, the old adage, " example is better 
than precept," may still hold good, for the 
child is an imitator from the time that the 
sight becomes the first sense in constant use. 
In the case of the blind, this adage might be 
inverted, and " precept be better than 
example," for it is not through sight that 
imitation is made, but through sound. It is 
the voice that means so much to the sightless 
baby, and not the smile of the mother ; here 
then is the true beginning of the real education 
of the child. 

By all means attend with assiduity to the 
health and cleanliness of the blind child ; but 
at the same time do not forget that his mental 
and spiritual care and welfare are. from the 
earliest years equally as importantly And to 
this end the senses of sound and 'touch must 
be trained and guided as cautiously and as 
tenderly, as the sight of an artist is trained in 
the discrimination of colou^ 

It is easy to talk on the negative side of this 
question, but the most successful work is the 
constructive. Let us for a moment compare 
the blind and the sighted child. The latter 
begins to notice when only a few months old, 
and his eyes may be seen following the move- 
ments of his mother as she goes about her 
duties. In the case of the blind child, it is the 
sound that he follows, and, if carefully 
watched, it will be found that his attention is 


I 3 

directed to household sound and outside 
noises. Therefore, if the sightless baby is to 
be as forward mentally as his sighted brother, 
he must be induced to follow sound, as his 
brother follows light. Mother must talk, and 
that in not too high a voice, music must be 
used as often as possible with the human 
voice, and as the baby becomes a toddler, the 
simplest sounds must be reiterated and 
continued with simple explanations as often 
as possible. 

Equally necessary are the first lessons in 
touch. This will begin with the mother's 
finger, and the clothing ; then extend to toys 
and articles of furniture, and as the adven- 
turous spirit of the blind child is roused, the 
ever-watchful eye of the mother will be there 
to guard against danger or jeopardv. 

The lack of sight encourages the absence of 
fear in a blind child, but should there be any 
misadventure or accident, then fear may be 
awakened and it mav be many vears before 
the first thrill of terror is forgotten, and the 
child is able to overcome the sensations of fear 
that accrued from the mischance. 

So it must be seen that it is all-important 
that the use of sound and touch be jointly 
used, and that in this union the great binder 
is love. Tenderness and sympathv, love and 
compassion, will cherish the mentality of the 
blind child, even as the sun and rain make the 
blossoms come forth from the ground — and 
in the adult understanding lies the promise of 
the infantile growth and beauty of character. 

From the training of the mental qualities 
of the blind baby, it is only a step to its 
spiritual side. It is a debatable question 
whether the lack of vision does not go far to 
make the blind man a more responsive entity 
to the emotional, and, therefore, to the 
religious tendency of his nature. 
I, But it is true that with limited vision, or no 
vision, the blind are deprived of the beauty of 
colour, although they rejoice in not seeing the 
sordidness and gloom of the unattractive and 
defiled. Once more then, the blind turn to 
the world of sound and the written word, and, 
therein, they can get the beauty which is as 
true in its conception to them as any landscape 
to a great picture. The mind creates its own 
beauty and in its realm of spirit is generated 
the emotions which have produced the 

' mystic and the aesthetic " of old. \ 

It is not the aim of the early training to 


make the child shy or retiring. This would and it all comes back to the primary thoughts 

bring about introspection and seclusion, given to the first few years of mental, physical 

which, again, in its turn, makes for either a and spiritual training. 

weakened or aggressive spirit ; rather train so To those who have the care and training of 

that the child may be confident and individual. blind children there is no higher and wiser 

After all, in this world of competition, the guide than the words of the Good Shepherd : 

blind child with the spiritless nature, is " Come unto me " and " Inasmuch as ye 

doubly handicapped against life's bufferings — ■ did it . . .". 


The Duchess of York to Present Prizes at Swiss Cottage. 

II.R.H. the Duchess of York has consented to present the prizes to the blind pupils 
and craftsmen of the School for the Blind, Swiss Cottage, on the occasion of the annual 
prize distribution at the Guildhall on June 29th. 

Large Mat-Making Contract Secured by Henshaw's Institution. 

Henshaw's Institution for the Blind has been successful in securing a contract for 
4,000 mats, which will provide a year's employment for all the mat-makers engaged at 
the Old Trafford Workshops. The contract was secured in competition with other 
large firms. 

New Social Centre for Blind in Staffordshire. 

A new centre for the blind of Newcastle and district, under the auspices of the 
Staffordshire Association for the Welfare of the Blind, was officially opened last month 
by Mr. A. Lathe, of Wolverhampton, Chairman of the Association. The Secretary 
observed that the first purpose of the new centre was to give happiness to blind people. 
Meetings and outings would be organised and assistance towards the purchase of wireless 
sets had been promised. Another project was the promotion of a bulb-growing 

No Extension of Financial Provision for Training in Northern Ireland. 

In the Ulster House of Commons last month, Mr. M'Aleer asked the Prime Minister 
whether it was the intention of the Government to repeal the Blind Persons Act (1920) 
and give a special grant-in-aid to that deserving afflicted class so as to relieve the county 
councils of the duty now imposed upon them, and thereby make the establishment of a 
training centre for the blind a Government undertaking. 

The Minister of Home Affairs said he had been asked by the Prime Minister to 
answer the question, and to state that it was regretted that the Government could not 
extend the financial provision already accorded in regard to the training of blind persons 
under the Act referred to in the question. 

The Blind Visit the Salisbury Museum. 

On June 2nd, about 20 blind persons, accompanied by Miss G. F. Waters (Hon. 
Secretary of the Wilts. County Association for the Care of the Blind), visited the Salisbury 
Museum for a demonstration by the Controller of the Museum, Mr. Frank Stevens, 
who received the party in the Museum Lecture Theatre. 

He began by giving his hearers some account of the Glacial Age, and the large 
animals, now extinct, which existed at that time. Teeth of the Woolly Rhinoceros and 
the Woolly Mammoth, were handed to each of the audience, to feel the weight and size. 
These were followed by flint implements, with sharp cutting edges, and smooth portions 
which could be grasped bv the hand. The audience soon found out how to " grip " 
them. Then came the pottery of the Ancient Britons, some of which had been polished 




with a bone, and even the bone itself which had been used for this purpose. A Roman 
" mortarium " for grinding food to a pulp was also submitted, and handled with great 
intelligence. The demonstration concluded with a tinder box, complete with flint and 
steel, and finally a rushlight holder and candlestick combined. A very enjoyable hour 
was spent, and the party hopes to repeat the visit at some future date, and explore still 
further the treasures of the Salisbury Museum. 

Blind Rover Scouts at Birmingham. 

The Birmingham Royal Institution for the Blind has provided Birmingham with 
its first batch of Rover Scouts. 

Troups of Scouts and Cubs have been in existence for some time at the Institution 
in Carpenter Road, Edgbaston, but last month seven boys were initiated as Rovers by 
Mr. E. H. Thompson, Assistant Rover Commissioner for Birmingham. 

Some of the seven Rovers are sightless, but all are looking forward to spending a 
week-end in camp at Himley Park with the Edgbaston Rovers in the near future. 

Blind Woman's " Thankoffering " to Bradford Institution. 

Fifty shares of £1 each in a mill company have been bequeathed to the Royal 
Institution for the Blind. Bradford, by Maria Cryer " as a thankoffering for the 
attention shown to her after she lost her eyesight." 

The Bradford Blind Persons Act Committee have stated to the executors that 
the bequest will be allocated for the provision and maintenance of a social institute 
for blind persons, or for some other suitable blind welfare purpose. 

Commander Southby, M.P., Presses Cheapening of Postal Rates on Braille Paper. 

In the Committee stage of the Post Office and Telegraph (Money) Bill, Commander 
Southby asked whether " it would be possible in the improvement of the postal service 
for a certain amount of money voted now to be used in cheapening the postage on Braille 
paper for the blind." The question was, however, considered by the Chairman to be 
out of order. 

Esperanto Examination in Braille. 

Miss Edith Rogers, of Pendleton, a blind member of the Salford Esperanto group, 
last month sat for the examination of the Royal Society of Arts in Esperanto (elementary) 
at Salford. Miss Rogers's paper was in Braille, and she wrote her answers on the Braille 
frame. This is the first time Esperanto has been included in the syllabus of the Royal 
Society of Arts. 

Twenty-Five Years' Service with the Barclay Workshops. 

Mrs. Hattersley Ward, Superintendent of the Barclay Workshops for Blind Women, 
was presented with an arm chair on the 15th May, as a mark of appreciation on her 
completion of twenty-five years' valuable service as Superintendent of the Workshops. 
The presentation was made by the Viscountess Chelmsford, on behalf of the Committee, 
of which she is Chairman. 

Amalgamation Negotiations of Two London Workshops Discontinued. 

The Incorporated Association for Promoting the General Welfare of the Blind, 
Tottenham Court Road, has issued a statement announcing that the negotiations for 
the amalgamation of the Incorporated Association with the London Society for 
Teaching and Training the Blind, Swiss Cottage, have been discontinued. 

Reappointment of Advisory Committee on the Welfare of the Blind. 

In view of the continued developments in the work among the blind owing to the 
operation of the Blind Persons Act, 1920, and the Local Government Act, 1929, and 
the new problems constantly arising in connexion with this service, the Minister of 




Health has reappointed the advisory Committee on the Welfare of the Blind for a further 
period of office. The Committee has been constituted so as to afford representation 
to the local authorities concerned with the working of the Blind Persons Act, 1920, and 
to voluntary associations for the blind, as well as to organised blind workers. The 
following have been appointed members of the Committee :— Lord Blanesburgh (chair- 
man), Mr. P. M. Evans (vice-chairman), Councillor W. Asbury, Mrs. Montagu Brown, 
Mr. E. W. Cemlvn-Jones, Alderman Mrs. Chambers, Councillor J. Clvdesdale, Mrs. I. 
Cowley, Dr. A. Eichholz, Mr. J. Graham, Mr. D. Hardaker, Dr. S. J. C. Golden, Mr. T. 
"Holt, Miss L. King, Councillor E. H. Lee, Mr. W. F. Marchant, Dr. J. Middleton Martin, 
Mr. G. F. Mowatt, Mr. F. T. Owen, Mr. Ben Purse, Dr. J. M. Ritchie and Mr. \Y. I 1 . 

The Committee will advise the Minister on matters relating to the care and super- 
vision of the blind, including any question that may be specially referred to them by the 
Minister. Mr. F. M. Chapman of the Ministry of Health, will act as secretary. 

Municipalisation of Bradford Royal Institution Formally Completed. 

Last month the municipalisation of the Bradford Royal Institution for the Blind 
was formally completed. 

In the presence of the Minister of Health (Mr. Arthur Greenwood), Mr. A. C. Day, 
on behalf of the Institution, handed to the Lord Mayor (Alderman Alfred Pickles) the 
keys and documents. 

Mr. Day said the day brought him no regrets and no fears. Although voluntaryism, 
from the standpoint of finance, had decreased, it had increased from the standpoint of 
service. There was still an opportunity for private wealth, if it wished to help them to 
establish a Social Institute for the Blind. 

Mr. J. W. Flanagan received the documents from the Lord Mayor on behalf of the 
Blind Persons Act Committee, of which he is chairman. 

Mr. Greenwood said : " Now, what has been the willing responsibility of individuals 
who were interested, becomes what ought to be the proudly-borne burden of the whole 

Remarking that it was a good thing that in recent years the number of young blind 
had decreased in Bradford, he said : " But I am not satisfied yet that we have, through 
our care of the newly-born, through our infant welfare and medical service, done 
everything that we ought to do to ensure that blindness shall be prevented where it can 
be prevented. 

" If there is one form of disgraceful social waste that hurts me more than another, it 
is to see preventable suffering, and preventable blindness is a crime of which we ought 
not to be guilty." 

Care of the blind was now brought into the real field of the social services of the city. 
From that he believed good would come, and it might be that closer association with the 
public health service would enable us to understand more than we did to-day the problems 
of blindness. 

Mr. Greenwood added that while there was now a security which, in the appeal to 
voluntary subscriptions, one never enjoyed, there was a possible danger of gaining 
something in security but losing something in sympathy. 

" I am a very good municipaliser myself, and I believe our municipal authorities are 
very effective pieces of administrative machinery. But in dealing with persons you need 
more than the machine. You do need the human touch, and I hope that all the voluntary 
service which has been so willingly given in the interests of the blind in the past will be 
at the service of the local authority now, and I hope that the local authority will welcome 
that service." 

Mr. Frederick Priestman, who for 38 years was chairman of the Institution, and is 
now in his 95th year, also spoke. 






Summing-up of Discussions. 

the International Conference on Work for the Blind, held at New York in 
April, discussions took place on the important subjects of Technical Aids 
and Provisions, Social Services, Employment, and Education. We give 
below the summing-up of each discussion, made by the rapporteur appointed 
for each subject. 


Rapporteur : A. C. ELLIS, 
Superintendent, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky, 

The discussion of the general topic of 
technical aids and provisions falls into four 
main divisions as follows : 

i. The nature, purpose and value of 
museums for the blind ; 

2. Appliances, apparatus and special 
devices for the use of the blind ; 

3 . Processes, methods and machinery used 
in the production of embossed litera- 
ture ; and 

4. The circulating library and its problem 
of collecting and distributing embossed 

Museums for the blind may be classified 
into two groups ; first, is the large group or 
collection of object-teaching materials to be 
used in the instruction of blind children. This 
type of museum is being replaced by the 
practice of permitting the blind children to 
examine real and live objects of everyday life 
in their natural environments. Aside from 
collections of object-teaching materials, we 
have a second type of collection which is of a 
purely historical nature. Such collections 
contain pictures of the blind, appliances, 
apparatus, embossed books, articles made by 
and for the blind, and such books and articles 
as may have been written by or about the 
blind. This type of museum should be 
complete enough to enable the investigator to 
study the progress of efforts in behalf of the 
blind in all countries over a period of many 
years. Such collections should present, at 
once, the results of past efforts and past 
experiences in this field. Happily, serious 
students are making these collections the 
subject of extensive educational research, and 
much literature of a scientific nature is being 
produced as a result of these investigations. 

At the World Conference on Work for the 
Blind were exhibited many appliances for the 


J 34 

use of the blind. The fact was most obvious 
that many useful appliances known and 
widely used in one country were almost 
totally unknown and unused in other countries. 
Here again is manifest the need for a greater 
dissemination of useful information relative 
to such appliances as might be of a wider 
usefulness if made known to all the blind 
everywhere. A central, international agency 
could very properly collect, improve, manu- 
facture, advertise and distribute such appli- 
ances to the great advantage of the blind. 

The question of printing Braille literature 
is one of vital interest to all who work for the 
blind. The past twenty years have witnessed 
a marked improvement in the quality and a 
corresponding increase -in quantity of em- 
bossed literature. The perfection of speedy 
and accurate plate-making machines ; the 
adaptation of high speed, automatic feed 
power presses ; the introduction of modern 
bindery methods and machinery ; generous 
grants of money to promote printing and the 
general acceptance of interpoint printing have 
all contributed to more and cheaper literature. 
However, we must record the fact that Braille 
books are still so bulky as to constitute a grave 
problem as to storage and distribution. The 
small editions required result in relatively high 
prices. With all of the improvements in 
printing we must admit that it is still impos- 
sible to give to the blind individual libraries ; 
indeed, it is impossible to even provide in 
circulating libraries all of the books in Braille 
that the blind should like to read. It seems 
that we must continue to do research in an 
attempt to find new and better methods of 
conveying to the blind the material of the 
printed page. With the recent developments 
in sound recording and sound reproduction 
by mechanical means it is to be hoped that 


the best in all literature can be recorded on a 
steel tape and reproduced in sound for the 
blind, thereby relieving them of the tedious 
necessity of reading by touch. Many enthu- 
siasts are ready to hope that such a sound- 
recording and reproducing device may prove 
a solution to the problem of conveying 
literature to the blind. It is argued that such 
a process will be more satisfactory, less 
expensive and less bulky. 

In other quarters, we find highly intelligent 
scientific investigators busily engaged in 
perfecting an electrical device which auto- 
matically transcribes in code from the 
printed page to an embossed page. This 
device, it is hoped, will transcribe any printed 
page accurately and rapidly, enabling the 
blind, thereby, to read at once from any 
inkprint book ! To those of us who are 
engaged in producing embossed literature by 
present methods, these before-mentioned 
devices seem, at first, just a bit fanciful. 
However, after witnessing demonstrations of 
these devices, one, however sceptical, must 
admit that it is not improbable that we are 
soon to witness entirely new methods of 
approach to literature for the blind which will 
enable them to interpret the printed page with 
ease, facility, pleasure and at a cost so low as 
to make possible individual collections of 
books or sound-reproducing apparatus, as the 
case may be. 

Passing now to the question of circulating 
libraries, we approach the subject which 
provoked a great deal of discussion and led 
to the expression of widely divergent opinions. 
As a general principle, it seems that the 
establishment and maintenance of such 
libraries depend largely upon two factors ; the 
number of blind readers and their peculiar 
literary tastes ; and the amount of money 
available for printing. With these two factors 
determined, a question of policy arises : 
Shall we publish many titles and fewer copies 
of each ; or shall we select fewer and, pre- 
sumably, more select titles and provide more 
copies ? The production of many titles in 
smaller editions makes for a greater production 
cost, as this policy precludes the possibility 
of large scale production. 

It is evident that many nations have pro- 
duced large catalogues of embossed literature. 
The time has come when a Braille reader need 
not be confined to the limitations of the 
Braille literature of his own country, or even 

of his own language. Circulating libraries are 
receiving an ever increasing number of re- 
quests for books in foreign languages. Each 
nation is developing a catalogue of its publi- 
cations and it is time that an international 
clearing house should take over the function 
of collecting the various national catalogues 
and dissemination of information as to where 
books in any language or on any subject may 
be obtained. 

There is also need in each country for 
special circulating libraries built around 
special subjects. In the United States, for 
instance, one large circulating library might 
collect and advertise foreign books ; another 
might build up a large catalogue of music ; 
another could become pre-eminent in science 
and mathematics ; while still another might 
direct its attention to the circulation of 
religious literature, and so on, until all special 
subjects are exhausted. This practice would 
eliminate costly duplication of titles in the 
several libraries, develop large collections on 
a given subject and greatly improve the 
service to Braille readers. 

The interchange of books and plates 
between peoples speaking the same language 
is seriously proposed ! It is urged that such 
a practice will prevent duplications and 
result in an increased number of titles 
available to readers ; but when we consider 
the different standards of printing in the 
various countries we are impressed with the 
fact that, in order to have any considerable 
interchange of books, we must have a certain 
uniformity of standards as to quality and cost. 
For instance, in one country the quality of the 
dot is of first consideration and the grade of 
paper and type of binding are matters of 
secondary importance. In another country 
only expensive papers and attractive bindings 
are used. Therefore, the price per volume of 
books will vary so greatly between countries as 
to make impracticable any interchange of 
books ; for, obviously, no country would give 
two volumes for one in an exchange. Not 
until books are produced according to uni- 
form standards as to : type, materials, size 
and quality of print may we expect a free and 
satisfactory exchange of books between nations 
speaking a common language. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that all of 
the discussions on the subject of this report 
pointed conclusively to the need for inter- 
national co-operation. A central bureau, 
acting under the auspices of an international 




organization could render invaluable service 
by serving as a clearing house. This bureau 
could : 

i. Maintain a complete catalogue of the 
materials in all of the historical 
museums for the blind and publish 
bibliographies to aid students who are 
doing research in this field. 

2. Collect, improve, advertise and dis- 

tribute appliances and devices for the 

3 . Collect and publish information relative 
to standards of embossing, printing and 
binding Braille books. 

4. Maintain an international catalogue of 
Braille publications showing where any 
publication may be obtained. 

These considerations alone would justify 
an international bureau. 


Rapporteur : W. McG. EAGAR, 

Secretary-General of the National Institute for the Blind, London, England. 

The subject which I have been asked to 
report on, Social Services, falls, as things have 
turned out, into three parts : The first part of 
the subject matter relates to those practical 
matters of social action which are concerned 
with the prevention of blindness and with 
saving sight ; the second part deals with the 
theory and practice of home teaching and 
home visiting ; and the third rises to the 
more abstract sphere wherein are discussed 
the big political questions — What is the 
attitude of the state to the blind, and what is 
the attitude of the blind to the State ? All 
these must be dealt with in the time at my 

On the first, the practical question of 
preventing blindness and saving sight, we had 
two papers from Mrs. Hathaway and Dr. 
Merida Nicolich which, I venture to say, are 
contributions of permanent value to this 
subject. I need do no more than express our 
appreciation, first, of the papers themselves, 
and secondly, of the obviously efficient and 
energetic work being done in this country by 
the National Society for the Prevention of 
Blindness under Mr. Carris and his Associate 
Director, Mrs. Hathaway. 

The interest of the blind in the Prevention 
of Blindness was pithily expressed by Capt. 
Baker in the discussion which followed the 
papers : " We are a select class," he said, 
" and we are not anxious to see our numbers 
added to." 

The logical result, or the logical sequence, 
of this remark and of the general tenor of our 
discussion is that we have arranged that the 
new International Council for the Blind shall 
co-operate at every possible point with the 
International Association for the Prevention 
of Blindness which is already housed in Paris. 



On the next division of my subject matter, 
the theory and practice of home teaching and 
home visiting, we had a paper from Miss 
Merivale who, with a human touch and a 
literary ability which we all admired, drew a 
picture of a comprehensive and practical 
scheme in working. 

The impression — I hope my American 
friends will forgive me — the impression that 
I think we all have obtained during our talk 
and our many discussions with others engaged 
in similar work in this country is that in 
England, that country of which Miss Merivale 
wrote, we are some years ahead of America in 
this matter of home teaching and home 
visiting. I hope I shall not be put on the spot 
for saying that. By way of extenuation of 
what might be regarded as a boast, I would add 
that our problem in England is much easier. 
That was brought home to us vividly when 
we went to that great State of Pennsylvania, 
and were told that it was nearly equal to 
England and Wales in area and that the blind 
population of that area — about one-eighth, I 
think, of the blind population of England and 
Wales — had to be served by seven home 
teachers. We have, if I remember rightly, 
some 450 teachers for a similar area. 

It is obvious, and it is one of the things 
which kept coming to our minds during the 
course of this Conference, that the problem 
of dealing with the blind in their own homes 
is much harder in countries where the popu- 
lation is sparse and scattered, and much 
easier where you can get the blind population 
closely concentrated in such an area as can be 
covered by a single person or a group of 

How to cover vast territories and sparsely 
populated countries is not for us to say. But 


we may properly emphasise that there is a 
technique of home visiting and home teaching, 
a quite distinct technique, and that skill in 
home visiting and home teaching is funda- 
mental to all work in the welfare of the blind. 
You must not — we must not — draw our 
blind away from their homes more than is 
strictly necessary. We must, if possible, 
bring up our blind children in an atmosphere 
where they get the advantages and the benefits 
of family life, and, perhaps, make the sacrifices 
that family life entails, because the school of 
life is the school both of opportunity and of 
sacrifice. Home visiting and home teaching, 
therefore, are fundamental ; there is a 
technique of home visiting and home teaching 
which, perhaps, we have developed more 
fully in England than elsewhere. It seems 
essential that you should be able to call on 
home teachers and home visitors who are 
qualified for their work. 

That is all I have time to say on the second 
part of the subject. Let us come to the third 
part, the relation of the Blind and the State. 

On that I do not think any of us will say 
that we have reached a final decision. There 
is a real controversy, there is a real difference, 
in political theory between Capt. Fraser, on 
the one hand, and Monsieur Guinot, on the 
other. And involved in the general theory is 
the practical question of Pensions, on which 
we heard an admirably categorical and 
logical paper from Dr. Gaebler-Knibbe. 

The discussion on Pensions was, in my 
judgment, the best discussion that we have 
had during the Conference. It reached and 
maintained a high level ; but, as is typical of 
so many discussions in this baffling world 
of ours, there was confusion all the way 
through because the term which was being 
argued was ill-defined. We found at the 
round table that some people interpreted 
pensions as being something which came late 
in life, and others interpreted it as meaning 
any sort of allowance whatever made by the 
State to no-longer-employable, employable, or 
unemployable blind persons. But one 
definite conclusion was reached : that no one 
wants pensions which destroy the incentive 
to work. Pensions of that kind lead to 
pauperization and to the bankruptcy of 
constructive work for the blind. 

What everyone wants is that the State should 
recognize that the handicap of blindness can 
be compensated for without in any way 
bringing the persons compensated within the 

scope of the Poor Law of the country 

On the theoretical question involved, M. 
Guinot made it very clear that, in his opinion, 
something other than " philanthropy " is 
needed. (If anybody is puzzled by the word 
" typhlophile " used by M. Guinot, I 
suggest that there is no translation of it except 
" philanthropy for the blind " ; it is a purely 
French coinage.) He is quite clear that 
something other than philanthropy is needed ; 
but he left most of us in doubt as to whether 
that something can be obtained by the means 
which he advocates. 

To save time, I would use to M. Guinot an 
unabashed argumentum ad hominem. M. 
Guinot referred, dangerously, to the history 
of blind work in England. He said that the 
Blind Persons Act of 1920 was gained by a 
procession of blind persons led from the 
provinces to London. In point of fact, this 
procession was only an episode in a long 
story, too long to relate here and now, but the 
leader of that procession was Mr. Ben Purse, 
who is known to many of you and who is the 
highly trusted head of a department in the 
National Institute for the Blind in London. 
Now, in Mr. Ben Purse's own mind, as his 
knowledge has deepened and his experience 
has widened, there has gone on a very consid- 
erable change, and I should be very much 
surprised if the opinions of M. Guinot do not 
go through a similar change before many 
years have passed. 

Now, M. Guinot demands for the blind 
" economic security," and at first we rather 
wondered what that meant. When he came 
to define it we found, in fact, that he was 
asking for the French blind a programme 
practically indistinguishable from the 
programme provided by the Blind Persons 
Act in Great Britain. 

If " economic security," however, means 
pensions from childhood, we have received a 
very definite warning from Mr. Hedger of 
Australia that a pension given from childhood 
may have the effect of depriving the youngster 
of the incentive to work, and so may destroy 
his life, mentally and morally, from the 

We reach the conclusion that philanthropy 
is required ; but that philanthropy is not 
enough. The state should underpin the whole 
fabric of blind welfare by financial and 
administrative aid. That is actually the gist 
of the Blind Persons Act in England, and in 




effect is the programme set out by M. Guinot 
in his paper. 

I must now briefly refer to the underlying 
political theory. M. Guinot rose in the 
discussion and said, quite frankly, that he 
disagreed entirely with Capt. Fraser's political 
theory. It is perhaps natural that a country- 
man of Rousseau should have a particularly 
strong idea of natural rights, but I want to 
remind M. Guinot that the whole doctrine 
of natural rights is part of the doctrine of the 
social contract, and that the exaction of rights 
for the individual depends upon the perform- 
ance of duties by the individual to the 
community of which he is a part. If the first 
duty of the state is to enable the blind person 
to contribute to its economic, intellectual and 
moral well-being, it is also the first duty of the 
blind person to make his contribution. This 
doctrine affects our attitude towards the 
public who, after all, constitute the State. We 
have to teach the public that the blind are 
more than a social emotion. We have to 
beware of provoking the public into estimating 
the weight of the blind as a political force. 

In M. Guinot's arguments there is a 
wholesome astringency ; but there is also 
latent in them, I venture to think, a very great 
danger to the future of blind work. The 
welfare of the blind, as Dr. Strehl said 
admirably in the discussion, " demands the 
co-operation of the state, philanthropy and 
the blind themselves." That is the tripod on 
which work for the blind must rest, and if any 
one of these legs is taken away we must 
labour to make good the defect. 

In some countries it is not a question of 

taking away a leg ; it is a question of con- 
structing a leg. And that is the task which 
obviously lies before some countries in Latin- 
America, and others where the state has not 
yet recognised its responsibilities in the matter 
Without the state, philanthropy, working for 
and with the blind, is weak. Without the 
blind as an organised and articulate force, 
philanthropy, supplanted by the state, falls 
short in understanding and lacks moral 
authority. Without philanthropy, the blind 
can expect and, in the long run, will obtain 
only a bare recognition and an assistance 
which must be undiscerning and undis- 
criminating, and, therefore, to a large extent 

I wish I had time to refer more fully to 
Capt. Fraser's paper. Apart from the 
unceremonious treatment which he gave to 
the doctrine of natural rights, he gave us a 
valuable and interesting summary of the Blind 
Persons Act of 1920, which I venture to 
mention again because my friend Prof. Villey 
and others tell me that they would like to see 
that Act transferred bodily to their own 
statute books. 

After all, Ladies and Gentlemen, legislation 
is the practical expression of the relationship 
of blind persons to the .community. M. 
Guinot's programme is, in effect, the English 
Blind Persons Act of 1920. Capt. Fraser's 
principles permit him to admire that Act 
without reservations. And so we come to 
this comforting conclusion at the end of our 
day's work : that, even if we are pulled apart 
in our theories, when we come down to 
practical action we agree. 


Rapporteur: Miss M. M. R. GARAWAY 
College of Teachers of the Blind, England. 
Introduction : 

I think that the feelings that are uppermost 
in the minds of all of us who have had the 
unique pleasure of the trip that is just ended 
are those of gratitude for all the extraordinary 
kindness which has been showered upon us, 
for the thoughtful consideration which has 
foreseen and supplied every want even before 
we were conscious of it ourselves, the readi- 
ness to show us all and everything we could 
desire and to answer the stream of questions 
with which we have sometimes, I fear, nearly 
overwhelmed those who were in charge of the 
different sections of the work. 

The result has been that we have acquired 
a wealth of information, all of which takes 
far more time to assimilate than we have been 
able to give. We have continually had the 
feeling that we have touched but the fringe of 
the matter in hand and that we should be 
amply repaid and be able to speak with far 
more assurance had we been able to devote to 
it ten times the amount of time which has 
been at our disposal. 

I think we have all been filled with admir- 
ation, and, I fear, sometimes with envy of the 
beautiful education buildings and equipment 




that you have time after time shown us. We 
all recognise that fine buildings do not of 
necessity mean fine work, but they certainly 
make it more easy to accomplish and enable 
you to put a finish which it is otherwise 
difficult to obtain. The spaciousness and 
beautiful settings of your residential schools 
has appealed to us all ; so, too, does the 
charming tone which appears to prevail on 
all sides and the easy movement and good 
carriage of the pupils due to the excellent 
physical training which they receive ; while 
the domestic science training for which such 
adequate provision is made seems to us well 
above the average. 

Out of the Tour of Visitation and the 
Conference that preceded it arise several 
questions and points of discussion that have 
been debated by most of us during our 
journeyings : 

i. Social organization in residential 
schools for the blind ; 

2. The education of the blind in the public 
schools for the seeing ; 

3. The education of the deaf-blind ; 

4. The training of teachers of the blind ; 

5. Vocational training. 

1 . Social Organisation in Residential Schools 
for the Blind : 

I am not for the moment dealing with 
the education of blind children in classes 
attached to the public schools for the seeing, 
but comparing clay schools for the blind 
with residential schools for the same class of 

Opinion appears to be unanimous that 
nothing can replace in the life of the child the 
influences and benefits of a good home, but 
since it is also generally agreed that circum- 
stances often make residential schools a 
necessity, or at least a desirability, the question 
rather is how best to diminish the attendant 

The reply universally given is — as much 
freedom and as many outside influences as 
possible. Suggestions for outer contacts are 
numerous : such as, Scouts and Guides or 
Camp Fire meetings, particularly when the 
Scouts or Guides are officered other than by 
officials of the school ; the attending of 
churches and church functions, with their 
resulting friendships ; the encouragement of 
intercourse with the children from schools for 
the seeing ; the fostering of competitive games 

with other schools, especially such games as 
those in which the blind can excel and find 
themselves at no disadvantage, such as chess, 
rowing, swimming, etc. ; the formation of 
school orchestras which perform outside of 
the school and bring their members into close 
touch with other people ; the allowing the 
pupils to go out alone or in pairs, one who 
has partial sight taking one who is quite 
blind, and going for walks in the neighbour- 
hood of the schools. 

It was also frequently stressed that rules and 
regulations within the schools should be 
reduced to a minimum. There should be 
the fewest possible number of negations. 
Individuality and the spirit of adventure 
should be encouraged and not unduly 
repressed. Risks must be taken and are 
preferable to safeguards if the price of the 
latter is serious loss of new experience. 
Another factor is the value of as much self- 
government as possible and the absolute need 
of the formative influence of responsibility 
with the sense of independence. 

On the credit side of the residential schools 
must be put the fact that the life is frequently 
much healthier than the home life of the 
children could be. Better food, more sleep 
and exercise than a blind child gets in his 
home, a firmer discipline and plenty of 
occupation out of school hours all tend to 
make a stronger and healthier development 
in the critical years of life than is possible in 
a poor home, which is the type of home from 
which so many blind children come. 
2 . Education of the Blind in the Public Schools 
for the Seeing : 

No work has been examined with greater 
interest than the education of the blind child 
in the public schools for the seeing ; and the 
enthusiasm for this system of education of 
those who have adopted it is remarkable. 

To some of us who examine it for the first 
time it appears to react extremely favourably 
in some cases. For able and self-reliant 
children better results are possibly obtained 
through these means than could be obtained 
by any other course of training. Such pupils 
leave school with more normal reactions than 
you will find in children educated in a special 
school ; but, for children who are less 
generously endowed naturally, it seems to us 
that the residential school will probably offer 
better possibilities, such children being less 
able to rise above their handicap and to hold 
their place among their seeing companions. 




We find that some educators strongly 
recommend that the early education of the 
child should be provided by the residential 
school, and that when the foundations of his 
education have been firmly laid and he has 
made his medium — Braille — entirely his own, 
and provided he is suited to the other type of 
instruction, his later education should be 
carried on with the seeing in the public school. 
This course of action seems to us to have 
much to recommend it, and we are inclined 
to think it might provide the best results. 

Obviously, the home conditions of the 
child need very careful consideration, and the 
success of the public school education must 
depend very largely upon the success in 
handling the home situation. In cases where 
the conditions are bad, and the parents not 
responsive to advice and guidance, it is pretty 
sure that the opportunities and advantages of 
the residential school will outweigh those 
offered by the public school, the good food, 
ordered life, careful training and free exercise 
given by the former being the most important 
3 . The education of the deaf -blind : 

The deaf-blind can be divided into three 
classes : 

(a) Those born without either sense ; 

(b) Those born deaf and later becoming 
blind ; and 

(c) Those born blind and later becoming 

It is the first class with which it is most 
difficult to deal. In the second and third 
classes a mode of approach already exists and 
does not need to be made with infinite patience 
and care ; the necessary new knowledge can 
be added to what is already there. 

It appears to be generally agreed that the 
best teaching for that most difficult class, 
those deprived from birth of both senses, is 
to be found either in a special school for such 
cases, or failing that, first in a residential 
school for the deaf followed by training in a 
similar school for the blind. In the school for 
the deaf the special instruction in speech and 
the use of the manual alphabet can be most 
easily obtained. The child should be taught 
not only to speak, but to read speech by 
touch from the lips and even from the chest 
and back of the neck. When that most 
difficult work of speech training has been 
accomplished and avenues opened up, training 
in a school for the blind can follow ; the 
further work of mind training can be at- 


tempted and through Braille he can be intro- 
duced to the world of books. 

All training must be practical, and as many 
simple domestic duties as possible introduced, 
so that the doubly handicapped child can take 
his place in the family life to the fullest extent 
of which he is capable. Service may become 
for him a means of expressing his personality. 

The education of a deaf-blind child is 
necessarily expensive. Ideally, and if funds at 
all permit it, he should have not only a special 
teacher who should not himself be handi- 
capped, but also a special companion as 
attendant who will walk and play with him 
and generally interest him in his surroundings. 
These conditions, however, are beyond the 
reach of many educators of the" deaf-blind who 
nevertheless, are able to do excellent work. 

In many countries schools for the deaf- 
blind exist. Frequently, also, these are 
homes in which the deaf-blind continue to 
live, work and, to some extent, earn their 
livings, following such occupations as they are 
able. The number of children being educated 
at any one time is small and apparently 
ranges from one to six. 
4. Training of Teachers of the Blind : 

There is no question as to the desirability 
of training teachers of the blind. In Germany 
and Italy, for instance, training is done 
systematically. There and in England all 
teachers of the blind must first be fully 
qualified as teachers of the seeing. They are 
also required to pass a special examination as 
teachers of the blind, although England has 
no organised course of training except for 
blind teachers at the Royal Normal College. 

In America, there is a comprehensive 
course in connection with Harvard University 
and Perkins Institution and Massachusetts 
School for the Blind. It covers a period of 
six months. Lectures are given on all subjects 
connected with the work. There are also 
appropriate demonstrations and a fully pre- 
scribed course of reading. This course can 
be followed by a second, also of six months' 
duration. Then the students are assigned to 
classes for practical work and have definite 
teaching practice under supervision. Not 
only this, but they live in the Institution and 
thus gain valuable experience of all kinds. 

There are also training courses for home 
teachers, as, for instance, at the Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Instruction of the Blind in 
Philadelphia. Here a two year course is 
provided. The first year it is carried on at 


he school itself and covers such subjects as 
he Moon system, handicrafts, deaf manual 
ind the history of the education of the blind. 
rhe second year the course is carried on in 
connection with the Philadelphia Social 
Welfare Centre, and casework, racial differ- 
ences, hygiene, etc., are studied. 

In England all home teachers are obliged to 
3ass a qualifying examination, but again 
:here is no organised course of training. 
;. Vocational Training : 

Another vexed question is the amount of 
vocational training to be introduced before 
:he age of sixteen when, in many countries, 
compulsory elementary education ceases. 
When a student remains at school until 
eighteen or twenty the question becomes even 
nore urgent. It is felt by many that for those 
: or whom an academic course is going to be 
xit of the question, a course with a vocational 

bias should be introduced well before the 
school-leaving age is reached ; that it is a 
mistake to educate the child to even a 
moderately high standard and then to turn 
him out to sink or swim as the case may be ; 
and that fairly early in his career his probable 
life work should be considered and his 
education and training shaped so as best to 
fit him for his future, whatever it may be. 
Such a considered course makes the work of 
placement much easier and when complete 
industrial training is undertaken a sacrifice of 
much valuable time is avoided. 

In determining the nature of the vocational 
training to be pursued, due consideration 
must be given to the pupils' preferences, 
aptitude and the type of work most profitable 
in the district in which they will eventually 
live ; and again, whether they will be 
employed in a workshop or as home workers. 


Rapporteurs : S. C. SWIFT, Librarian, Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Toronto, 
Canada ; UMAjfl AKIBA, President, Tokyo School for the Blind, Tokyo, Japan. 

We have understood our duty as your 
rapporteurs to be the crystallization of opinion 
imong the delegates to the World Conference 
?n Work for the Blind in the sphere of 
employment, and with this understanding we 
liave prepared the present report. 

Placement : 

Among the papers presented to the Con- 
ference on April 15th perhaps none aroused 
more interest and excited more discussion 
than that on Placement. 

Opinion in America appeared to be almost 
a unit in favour of the idea of placement as 
jet forth in that paper, while some European 
delegates were also enthusiastic. Others, 
however, were doubtful of the practicability 
of voluntary placement on a large scale in the 
Old World, either because of lack of prece- 
dents, or because of the existence of prejudice 
against the blind outside those occupations 
which have come to be considered as the 
peculiar sphere of the sightless ; or because of 
the great amount of educative propaganda 
required to induce a favourable attitude on 
the part of employers ; or, finally, because of 
varying views as to the duty of the state 
towards the blind. It was felt that individual- 
istic countries could not readily assimilate a 
scheme of obligatory placement, notwith- 
standing the undoubted fact that placements 

under this latter system would be many times 
in excess of those under the voluntary method 
in use in America, and, to some extent, 
elsewhere. It was quite generally agreed, 
however, that placement as opposed to 
employment in the sheltered workshop offered 
greater opportunity of developing a completely 
normal life because of the absence of financial 
consideration made to the employee on 
account of his handicap. The blind man or 
woman thus situated finds himself in direct 
and more or less unassisted competition with 
the sighted and knows that success depends 
upon himself alone. 

In placement work, either voluntary or 
obligatory, the placement officers must be men 
of especial ability and force of character, 
while the individuals placed must be, if we 
may use the expression, hand picked. The 
confidence of the employer must be secured 
and held, and no failures can be permitted to 
check it. This confidence can be more 
quickly gained if the blind can be admitted to 
the benefits of workmen's compensation 
legislation. Such a desideratum has been 
reached in the Province of Ontario, Canada, 
and it is confidently expected that in that 
section still greater numbers of placements will 
be made in general industry than heretofore, 
once the present economic depression has 

I 4 I 


But there is one class of placements which, 
though dependent for its returns on the state 
of general trade, is not influenced by legal 
restrictions ; we are referring to what in 
America are known as stand concessions. The 
great success of this form of placement 
recommends it strongly to the attention of 
the friends of the blind and to the blind 
themselves. It was considered that every 
successful placement of any kind whatever in 
occupations formerly thought to belong 
exclusively to the domain of sight is, at the 
same time, a genuine investment and educa- 
tive force and enlightened social service. 

Special Shop : 

But it was acknowledged that placement does 
not offer a solution of the whole problem of 
the blind ; there will always remain a large 
number (possibly the majority) of the employ- 
able blind who will have to be treated in' a 
different way. This way seems to be the 
special or sheltered shop. With regard to this 
factor of the problem, opinions as to its 
present efficiency and ultimate fate were 
almost as numerous as the constellations of 
heaven and as far apart as the Pole Star and 
the Southern Cross. Your rapporteurs were 
assured, for instance, that the special shop was 
a complete failure and should be abolished, 
its place being taken by a combination of 
some form of placement, relief and state 
allowance ; while, on the other hand, it was 
asserted that the blind could there be em- 
ployed with perfect success and on a strictly 
commercial basis. The most freely expressed 
view, however, was that the sheltered shop as 
at present constituted filled an important 
place in the economic life of the blind and 
should, therefore, be maintained at as high a 
level of efficiency as possible. The defects 
of the system are that shops are too numerous, 
employing too few workers in each individual 
case, and thus cutting down the size and 
variety of orders which can be handled, and 
greatly increasing the overhead cost by an 
undue multiplication of plant and adminis- 
trative charges. That this duplication of 
effort is more or less inevitably due to the 
desire of workers to live as closely as possible 
to family and friends in familiar and loved 
surroundings was recognised. Not only does 
the small shop, generally speaking, not pay 
its way, making augmentation of wages a 
necessity, but it tends to restrict activity to a 
few stereotyped lines, and the ability to meet 



the demands of the changing market is 
limited. Could fewer and more centralized 
shops be established, drawing their workers 
from larger areas, it was contended that much 
larger orders could be solicited and executed, 
that a greater number of lines could be 
handled, that ruts would be more easily 
avoided, that more energetic and efficient 
management could be engaged, that the 
workers would receive higher actual pay, and 
that the cost of administration would be 
notably reduced in comparison with the 
present wasteful duplication of executives. 

Home Workers : 

The problem of the home worker, always a 
doubtful and difficult one to solve even 
partially, was considered best handled by 
having these workers, not as independent 
craftsmen free to pick and choose the articles 
they should make and the manner of then- 
disposal, but as what would perhaps be 
termed out workers. Thus, they would receive 
orders from a central organisation which they 
would execute according to specifications and 
which they would deliver at an agreed date 
and for an agreed price, acceptance depending 
upon the excellence of manufacture. These 
home workers would, of course, receive their 
raw materials at cost from the organisation 
giving the orders. But the condition of such 
workers is at best a precarious one. Producing 
for the most part, articles without the aid of 
machinery, depending for orders upon the 
state of an ever-changing popular demand and 
upon the effectiveness and standing of the 
central organisation, there are comparatively 
few w r ho can fully earn their livelihood. The 
statement of Mr. Retsler of Sweden, that 
machinery and mass production would soon 
pronounce the sentence of extinction upon the 
home worker, while, perhaps, not to be ranked 
as inspired prophecy would, none the less, 
appear to contain a large element of probability. 
Music : 

Prof. Villey's contention that music as a 
profession for the blind was no longer as 
attractive as formerly, owing to the radio, the 
gramophone and the talking picture, etc., and 
that great care should be taken to limit this 
career to those with special gifts who should 
be assisted in securing positions when ready 
to begin the first business of earning their 
bread — this contention finds almost unani- 
mous support. During the Tour of Visitation 
a striking proof of the truth of Prof. Villey's 


position was encountered. A really brilliant 
musician, whom many among the American 
delegates had often heard over the radio when 
he was playing on circuit with one of the 
largest moving picture syndicates, was found 
operating a concession stand in a municipal 
building. The " talkies " had thrown him 
out of work, deprived him of an income of 
between $5-6,000 a year and reduced him to 
the necessity of selling cigars, candies, soft 
drinks and chewing gum. If a man who is a 
real artist, a composer of no mean ability and 
who has sat at the controls of some of the best 
organs of North America, if such a man 
cannot withstand the onslaught of mechanical 
music, what hope is there for the man with 
less noble gifts and more imperfect training ? 

Piano tuners are also sorely stricken by the 
closing of many piano factories and the 
scrapping of thousands of privately owned 
pianos, all because of the radio and the 
Positions of Trust : 

The position of the blind in the various 
divisions of their own industrial sphere was 
expressed unanimously by the blind delegates 
thus : Wherever a suitably qualified blind 
executive can be found, he should be ap- 
pointed. With this view we believe the 

sighted delegates heartily concurred. As our 
work becomes better organised and more 
blind men and women are trained to responsi- 
bility and direction, it is inevitable that more 
and more positions of importance will be 
filled by them. On the other hand, it is 
recognised that the cause of the blind can 
prosper only in proportion as it secures the 
co-operation of the sighted, which will be ever 
more generous and enthusiastic as the real 
capabilities of the blind become better 
understood . But the question of the aid of the 
sighted is not confined to executive positions ; 
it is also found in the employment division of 
shop work. An added percentage of sighted 
labour is acknowledged to be not only possible 
but necessary if our smaller shops, in partic- 
ular, are to become in a measure commer- 
cialised in the true sense of the term. 
Conclusion : 

The Conference has proved an inspiration 
to all, and it is confidently affirmed that 
progress in the solution of our economic 
problems will be everywhere accelerated by 
the information obtained and the ideas 
generated during the past three weeks. All 
those in attendance at this Congress are 
looking forward to the assembling of the next, 
which it is hoped will not be too long delayed. 




IS Royal Highness the Prince 
of W'ales, President of the 
British " Wireless for the 
Blind " Fund, broadcast 
an appeal for the Fund on 
May 27th, when he was 
the guest at a dinner given 
by the Clothworkers' Company, at Cloth- 
workers' Hall, Mincing Lane, London, E.C. 

The Master of the Company, Dr. Arthur 
Bousfield, welcoming the Prince of Wales, was 
able to tell him that donations amounting to 
£2,155 had already been received in response 
to this special appeal. 

The Prince of Wales, whose speech was 
broadcast from B.B.C. stations and also 
relayed to America, said he was proud to be 
there as president of a fund which, since its 
institution only about a year and a half ago, 
had raised sufficient money to provide no less 
than 13,000 specially designed sets for the 
blind in this country. 

Without the help of the B.B.C. the success 
of the fund would have been impossible. 
Many of the officials had given hours of their 
spare time working for it. The B.B.C. was 
always ready to do all in its power to help a 
good cause, and we owed them a debt of real 

The Prince paid a tribute to the lion, 
treasurer, Mr. Reginald McKenna, and also to 
" my friend Mr. Churchill, who has been 
instrumental in raising the bulk of the money." 
Mr. Churchill's two moving wireless appeals, 
he said, resulted in donations of about 
£17,000, and the cause of the blind could 
hardly have been more eloquently pleaded. 
The King had presented to the fund the 
royalties from the record of his Naval 
Conference speech, amounting to £400. 

" This appeal has touched the hearts of the 
British public," continued the Prince. " It 
has induced countless people to subscribe 
according to their means, but to achieve its 




full object the fund still needs a sum of 
.£15,000. I like to think that we have listening 
to-night the majority of the 13,000 blind 
people who have received sets from the fund 
during the last twelve months. I want you all 
to visualise those 13,000 blind listeners. And 
then, when the picture is clear in your mind's 
eye, think of the 7,000 blind who are still 
without sets. 

" Mr. Churchill in his last appeal looked 
forward to the day when the proud boast 
might be made by Englishmen : ' All blind 
persons have their wireless sets ; it is one of 
the customs of the country.' He said that 
most thoughtful men and women of every 
party and of no party were perplexed and 
anxious nowadays and all would like to do 
something if they only knew what to help. 

" Well, as he said, here is something for all, 
a comparatively small thing perhaps, but a 
cause about which there can be no shadow of 
a doubt — to see that in this country at least 
the blind are less unhappy than anywhere else 
in the whole world. Surely we all wish to give 
ourselves and Mr. Churchill on the next 
anniversary of his appeal the satisfaction of 
knowing that by then there is not a single 
blind person in the country without the 
inestimable benefits of wireless. I earnestly 
appeal to all who can afford to help, in however 
small a way, to send their contributions to the 
fund. I can assure you that it will be money 
well spent and I am confident that my appeal 
will not be in vain." 

The Lord Mayor, thanking the Prince, said 
that the Fund had established a lasting link 
of friendship between listeners with sight and 
listeners without sight. 

Captain Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C., the 
Chairman of the Fund, expressed the gratitude 
of the blind listeners to the Prince for his 
interest in the fund and for the inestimable 
pleasure they derived from their wireless sets. 
Had it not been for the Prince's presidency 
of the fund he doubted whether they would 
have had those sets. 

" I do not know," Sir Beachcroft said, " if 
you have realised what wireless means to the 
blind ; they have a new happiness, a new light 
and illumination." He stressed the value to 
the people " who only exist in darkness " of 
being put in touch with the happenings of the 
world. " For them," he said, " it is an 
alteration from black despair into a life in 
which they can take a share." 



Captain Ian Fraser, Vice-Chairman of the 
Fund, returned thanks to the Clothworkers' 
Company and to Mr. Winston Churchill, 
" not because he is a clothmaker, that is one 
of the few trades, professions, occupations, 
arts, crafts, and adventures to which he has 
not been called, but because a great part of the 
financial results obtained have been due to 
Mr. Churchill's appeals." 

In the history of the Clothworkers' Com- 
pany, going back 500 years, said Captain 
Fraser, benevolence had always been one of its 
objects and blind people had always been 
foremost in its thoughts. Their generosity to 
the blind and their influence in the blind 
world had greatly increased during the last 
decade, and the reorganisation in the world of 
the blind was due in no small measure to the 
efforts of the Company's Clerk, Dr. Evans. 

Mr. Churchill said, " This plan to make 
sure that every blind person in our island has 
a wireless set is, I think, upon the whole the 
most water-tight and from every point of view 
the most harmonious that could be devised. 
Here is an immense area of sorrow and 
deprivation, and a brand new method of 
alleviating that sorrow and deprivation for a 
sum of money that, even in these hard times, 
must be considered incomparably small for 
the results to be achieved. In regard to 
material things, such as the world's markets, 
the world's trade, it may be argued that what 
one man gets is to the detriment of another. 
But in the sphere of imagination where fancy 
roams and thought reigns there is no clashing 
of interests. 

" When we think of all these blind people, 
seven thousand of them, still waiting for the 
sets, and of the enormous difference the 
possession of wireless is going to make to their 
lives, when we think of this great depressed 
area, and when we think of our honoured 
guest the Prince of Wales, that brilliant, vivid 
personality upon whom the hopes of this 
country are so largely centred, coming to the 
aid of pitiable misfortune, we feel it is a great 
privilege to be here to-night and to take part 
in a great work." 

Mr. Churchill announced that the sub- 
scriptions received at the dinner amounted 
to £1,553. The total result of the Prince's 
appeal, including the donations received 
from listeners to date, amounts to nearly 

c ZfficZ\cw 

Published by Mr II /\ f § 1 PV Editorial Offices: 

the National w\. 1^ /"A I 1 I ^ 224 Grea ' Por >- 

Institute for 1 I / W i\ /|XJ land Street, 

the Blind U JL^J V\ >^^_S 1 ^ London, W.\. 


DROPPING his pen without obvious reluctance, the Editor this month commands 
a delegate fresh from New York to answer questions which everyone is putting 
to him and his fellow travellers. 
" Did we have a good time ? Yes, Sir ! Look at us — thin with overwork, 
but mightily stimulated. Iced water by the gallon and ice cream by the 
hogshead counteracted the too, too generous hospitality of our hosts. We 
discussed a hundred problems in 37 languages, not only in the Conference 
Hall, but in corridors and elevators, in the smoking-rooms of sleeping cars, in road-coaches, 
drug stores, taxis and automobiles. The people of Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburg, Cleve- 
land and Boston, to say nothing of New Yorkers themselves, overwhelmed us with public and 
private kindness. If we did have to listen to many speeches we inflicted more upon our hosts. 
We heard good stories ; we told a few. We rubber-necked with eyes and ears. We told anxious 
and persistent inquirers just what we thought of America — after 24 hours' experience of New 
York ! And we wound up the proceedings with a polyglot, many-coursed banquet (washed 
down, of course, with iced water), given by William Nelson Cromwell, of the American Braille 
Press, and M. C. Migel, of the American Foundation for the Blind, where we pledged ourselves 
to international co-operation in the cause which had brought us together. Yes, Sir, we had 
a good time ! 

"And was the Conference a success ? We think so. It lacked one thing, it is true, the presence 
of many stalwarts in the cause of the blind, who could not make the journey. But everyone 
in the Blind World should profit by the contacts made, the understanding gained, and the friend- 
ships formed. We learnt a lot by finding out how the other fellow does his job, and what his 
job is, and from seeing our problems and our methods reflected for a moment in his mind. 
Many of the Conference papers were contributions of permanent value ; the formal discussions 
were of use primarily as starting points of discussion outside the Conference hall. The visits 
to American schools, workshops, printing concerns, libraries and centres of social work were 
an admirable antidote to the complacency which so easily, and so fatally, besets us all. The 
gathering together of workers for the blind from so many countries obviously struck the imagin- 
ation of Americans and should give considerable impetus to the development of the work for 
the American blind. . . Envious ? No ; but what splendid equipment the generosity of 
Americans has provided ! We have lots to learn and, by American standards, much still to get 
for our English blind in the way of spaciousness, sufficiency of facilities and sheer amenity of 

" Most particularly, there is the result of having formed a permanent organ by which the 
World of the Blind may really act as a World Force. Nationalism, though always an incentive, 
is none the less an obstacle to effective work in many directions. We were learning to think 
internationally during the Conference, and the tour, when we travelled and fed together in an 
incessant hubbub of many languages, fused us by the end of the month into a homogeneous 
bodyfrom which a permanent World Council for the Blind naturally and properly resulted. 

" The next number of The New Beacon will, I hope, contain full details of the organisation 
and the programme of this body. It has vitally important work to do and, thanks to the gener- 
osity of Mr. Cromwell and Mr. Migel, it should be able to do it. An Executive Committee 
was appointed. An office has to be found in Paris. The right director has to be appointed. 
Those who are responsible for its direction will have no easy task, but the World Council starts 
its work with a mandate to carry into effect the recommendations of the World Conference. 
On this occasion there were no ' Resolutions of the Conference.' There were instructions to 
an executive body. That, I venture to think, is a result worth achieving, quite apart from the 
other results which are to be expected as a matter of course from any gathering together of 
men and women whose lives are being devoted to a great task, and which were most certainly 
achieved this year in America." The Editor. 






N May 18th, the new Sun- 
shine Home for Blind 
Babies at East Grinstead, 
Sussex, was officially 
opened by the Lady 
Adelaide Colville. 

The function was pre- 
sided over by Captain Sir Beachcroft Towse, 
V.C., Chairman of the National Institute for 
the Blind, supported by the Vice-Chairman of 
the Institute, Dr. P. M. Evans. 

The Dedication ceremony was conducted 
by the Rev. Canon C. E. Bolam, Hon. Chief 
Chaplain of the Institute. 

Sir Beachcroft Towse warmly welcomed 
the many guests present and trusted that they 
would be interested in the new Sunshine 
Home. He was not asking for money, but 
that they should take an interest in the work 
the National Institute were endeavouring to 
carry out. Some people admired babies, 
others regarded them as a nuisance, but he felt 
that the babies in that Home would not prove 
a nuisance to anybody. That Home was to 
cater for all the blind babies in the south of 
England, and the Institute had set itself out 
to look after them with sense and wisdom. In 

"Oxford v. Cambridge" at East Grinstead. 

every respect they could see it was a home and 
not an institution. He paid a great tribute to 
the staff to whom, he said, the work was a 
labour of love. They had not a minute off 
duty, for their eyes had to be ever watching 
those little feet, which would soon come to 
grief if left alone. Lady Adelaide Colville was 
too well known to them to need introduction, 
as was her ever- ready help to aid good causes. 
Lady Adelaide, in a very charming speech, 
declared " Sunshine Home," East Grinstead, 
open. She was deeply sensible, she said, of 
the honour Sir Beachcroft had afforded her in 
asking that she should open that wonderful 
new Home. Joy was the gift of God, and 
they could all help to radiate happiness, and 
that was what that Home was for. In the real 
meaning of the word it was a Sunshine Home 
and she had pleasure in declaring it open. 

On the proposition of Dr. Evans, a warm 
vote of thanks was accorded Lady Adelaide 

Admiral Sir Stanley Colville proposed a 
sincere vote of thanks to Sir Beachcroft Towse, 
who, he said, was a gallant and splendid man. 
He had had the privilege of being his friend 
of many years standing. Sir Beachcroft was 
a man who said he was not going to be blind 
and he never had been ; he 
could see further than most 

The Chairman thanked Sir 
Stanley Colville. He offered 
also their grateful thanks to 
Mr. Waters (Messrs. H. & E. 
Waters, Forest Row), who had 
already proved such a great 
friend to the Home, and to the 
Croydon Girl Guides for their 

There was a charming little 
ceremony at the close, when two 
of the blind children presented 
Lady Adelaide with a beautiful 
bouquet of flowers and a large 
red carnation to the Chairman 
and Sir Stanley Colville. 

The East Grinstead Observer, 
in reporting the ceremony, 
said : " Sunshine babies have 
come to East Grinstead and 



OS, Jfe, 


the town is proud to have them, for they 
are the happiest, jolliest, and most lovable of 
all babies. Those whose good fortune it 
was to attend the opening ceremony were 
charmed with all they saw. 

" The National Institute could scarcely 
have chosen a more delightful residence, 
amidst such glorious Sussex scenery. Large, 
well-kept lawns, surrounded by delightful 
flower beds, overlooking the Ashdown Forest, 
form the playground for these little blind 
babies. When our representative arrived he 
found a number as happy and bonny as 
sandboys, playing together under the watchful 
eye of the nurses. The interior of the house 
presents a remarkable picture. The numerous 
rooms are a blaze of colour and there is every 
modern improvement ; class rooms, play 
rooms, dormitories, bath room, a surgery ; in 
fact, everything. The children have a 
menagerie that contains every animal modelled 
in rubber to scale." 


To the Editor. 

A Dictionary in Braille. 

Sir, — Your article in The New Beacon for 
May 15th, questioning the advisability of 
publishing a complete dictionary in Braille, 
prompts me to state that although theoretically 
it seems an excellent thing to have, yet its use, 
when published, must necessarily be restricted 
to those with leisure. It cannot be used to 
advantage by students preparing for examin- 
ations, or in preparing assignments for study. 
In my own teaching experience I have 
watched sightless High School and other 
pupils struggling with Braille dictionaries for 
Latin translation, French translation, and 
work necessitating the use of a dictionary in 
English. The task was most tiresome, 
awkward and clumsy, and soon wore out the 
patience of the student, who found, that 
instead of doing the work he wanted to do, he 
had to spend the better part of his time and 
energy in juggling with Braille volumes too 
large and cumbrous for easy handling. Study 
under such conditions possesses more than 
its ordinary terrors and despairs. Invariably 
I have noticed that on the slightest chance the 
Braille dictionary is dispensed with, and the 
services of a friend with sight enlisted, who 
can look up words, and give the information 

required in a tenth of the time. So, too often, 
the costly Braille dictionary is consigned to 
the upper shelves of the Library, only to be 
taken down on rare occasions. 

A really useful spelling book would indeed 
be a boon. For use in Schools, I would 
recommend that the " Guide " Word Books 
I — IV, published by Davis and Moughton, 
Ltd., Birmingham, be brailled. Each could 
easily be published within the compass of one 
small volume. This, in addition to a book 
with words listed alphabetically. 

" Practical English," " Advanced English," 
and " Groundwork in French " are all 
worthy of being put into Braille. I think, 
however, there is a greater need for a course 
in English for elementary schools, and I would 
recommend " Cambridge Lessons in English," 
Books I — III by George Sampson, and 
published by the Cambridge University 
Press. English is a subject which tends to be 
neglected in our schools, and I think that the 
reason may partly be due to the absence of 
any books in Braille giving a continuous 

Yours, etc., 

R. C. Phillips. 
Royal Victoria School for the Blind, 

Ben well Dene, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

To the Editor. 

The Deaf-Blind Need Braille Magazines. 

Sir, — I am very interested to read the 
correspondence concerning the needs of the 
deaf-blind. For some time I have been 
interested to help where I could, but I do 
find in so many cases that few deaf-blind 
people have the pleasure of getting the 
Braille magazines. 

Many cannot afford them and many have 
no relations to give them, so they are deprived 
of this pleasure. 

A few months back people were requested 
to send their Braille magazines, when finished 
with, to the Public Library in each town so 
that others could read them, but so far no one 
has done so in this town. 

I often wonder if the time will come when 
the Public Libraries will supply the Braille 
magazines for all. 

I hope some of your readers can assist in 
this matter. 

Yours, etc., 

Sussex. B. B. 


J 47 





URING the past few years 
there has been a consider- 
able amount of discussion 
as to the rightful place to be 
assumed by special work- 
shops in the scheme of 
welfare work on behalf of 
the blind. 

However critical we may seem to be about 
the real economic utility of these organisations, 
of one thing we may at least be assured, viz., 
that they have come to stay and must, there- 
fore, be regarded as an integral part of any 
scheme for social amelioration. 

The establishment and development of 
these workshops represents the first tangible 
effort to encourage economic independence 
among the blind and this movement continues 
still to be the most definite, the most vital, and 
at the same time, the most successful ap- 
roach to the ideal form of self-reliance and 
independence that has been witnessed during 
the past 130 years. 

The ever-changing conditions in industrial 
life have fastened a heavy load of responsi- 
ability on workshop managers ; but on the 
whole, they have responded to the ever-varying 
requirements with a facility that is quite 
remarkable. We are sometimes disposed 
thoughtlessly to criticise these undertakings 
because of the heavy administrative charges 
that are incurred by comparison with the 
return made in the form of economic earnings: 
but it is difficult to see how such circumstances 
can be avoided unless and until the occupa- 
tions or processes practised can be placed on 
a much higher level than is at present 
possible. We must all co-operate in an 
effort to reduce the purely human element to 
a minimum whilst requiring the maximum of 
efficiency in production from the machine. 

When we are thinking of workshop organ- 
isation, there is a disposition to overlook a 
very important consideration to which this 
development has given rise, viz. the basic idea 
that the energies of persons so handicapped 
have successfully been rendered serviceable 
to the community from very unpromising 
material. All our so-called placement work 
has only been made possible because of the 
experience we have gained from the funda- 



mental principles which have been operated 
by those associated with the management and 
control of special workshops. It was neces- 
sary to demonstrate that the blind could work 
and these undertakings supplied a complete 
answer to the unbelieving and the incredulous, 
and that answer was furnished long before we 
began to apply ourselves and the experiences 
we had gained to other spheres of industrial 
and commercial enterprise. Thus workshop 
employment is not necessarily in conflict with 
efforts to place blind operatives in other 
spheres of labour ; the one is complementary 
to the other. It is not a correct attitude to 
infer, as sometimes appears to be the case, 
that the workshop movement is somehow 
opposed to other developments in industrial 
welfare work. In point of fact, we are much 
more indebted to the rise and growth of these 
organisations than we are at all times prepared 
to admit. It is perhaps worth remembering, 
therefore, when we are disposed to contrast 
conditions unfavourably, that there is after all 
a real affinity between these various activities 
and that the one is conditioned very largely 
by the existence of the other. 

It is our purpose in these articles to speak 
of recent workshop developments, particu- 
larly as they are concerned with economic 
results and general wage payments : and for 
our present purpose we have selected the 
conditions existing at the Workshops for the 
Blind, Hull, for special consideration. 

The Hull and East Riding Institute for the 
Blind, though not one of the oldest organis- 
ations has always been regarded as one of the 
most progressive corporations. It was 
established in 1863 and has continued, from 
its inception, to discharge many obligations 
which were not ordinarily accepted by other 
institutions, societies, and agencies for the 

Within recent years, the management has 
been in the hands of an exceedingly competent 
number of business men who have given much 
time and labour to the service of the organis- 
ation with the result that its trading affairs 
have . been placed on a very satisfactory 

Since July, 1930, the working week for men 
has been 42-J- hours and that for women 37I ; 


this means a five day week, and it is satis- 
actory to record the fact that the past year 
mows that there has been practically no 
diminution in the output. This more than 
justifies the experiment : but it is interesting 
llso to note that there has been a vast improve- 
ment in the quality of the work executed. 
This is due, the manager believes, to the 
abolition of the piece work basis of employ- 
ment. When one looks back on the attitude 
issumed by workshop managers in this 
:onnection, it is very illuminating to find that 
the younger men who are now in control have 
ost much of the veneration which was 
formerly manifested towards this system. 
Many of them are disposed to try out other 
methods of remuneration with a view to 
discovering a system of employment that will 
De more equitable in its incidence and remove 
some of the most glaring objections to a piece 
ivork system. It will be necessary to deal 
with some of these experiments during the 
:ourse of these articles, but for the time being 
it will be interesting to look rather more 
:losely into the arrangements made by the 
Hull authority. 

During the years 1928/29 the wages paid to 
blind employees amounted to the sum of 
£3,489 ; 1929/30 the wage bill was £3,645 ; 
and in 1930/31 the sum earned was £3,468. 
It should be remembered that during the past 
year there was a change in the policy of the 
Management of the Institution and ten blind 
married women ceased to be employed by the 
organisation. In point of fact, therefore, 
there has been a considerable increase under 
the new system of wage payments in the 
earnings of the blind worker and that is all to 
the good and justifies the change in policy and 
system which has been effected. 

A prominent official commenting on the 
present situation says : " There was a time 
when we received numerous complaints 
regarding the quality of some of our goods 
but it is a very rare occurrence now to receive 
a complaint. Our workers are far more 
contented and a contented workman will 
produce much better work than one who has 
a grievance. There is not the slightest doubt 
that the standard of workmanship has 
improved considerably since the piece work 
system was abolished." 

Let us look for a moment at the new method 
of remuneration in order to satisfy ourselves 
that it does eliminate most of the objections to 

a pure piece work system whilst retaining 
those important elements which induce 
workers to exercise initiative and capacity. 
The system of wage payments is a graded one 
and may be described as that of the " Variable 
minimum," e.g. Grade I, provides a minimum 
wage of £2 per week for men and £1 12s. for 
women ; Grade II, secures £2 4s. for men 
and £1 14s. for women ; Grade III, pays 
£2 8s. for men and £1 16s. for women ; 
Grade IV, yields £2 12s. for men and £1 18s. 
for women. It is interesting also to observe 
that at certified intervals a re-grading of the 
workers will take place with a view to 
improving their economic earnings so that 
there is every incentive provided by such a 
system to encourage good quality of workman- 
ship and output. 

Before leaving this subject it is useful to 
observe the conditions made applicable to 
apprentices ; they are paid on an hourly rate 
of yd., and in addition, according to conduct 
and progress, they receive grants from the 
institution varying from 2s. 6d., to tos. per 

A general survey, therefore, of the labour 
conditions existing at the Hull Institution 
shows it to be one of the most progressive 
organisations in the country and there is 
every reason to believe that the policy 
entered upon by the Board of Management a 
year ago is likely to prove an unqualified 

National Council for Maternity and Child 

The Report of the National Council for 
Maternity and Child Welfare for 1930 gives 
an interesting account of the widespread 
activities of its thirteen constituent bodies, 
each of which is striving to safeguard the 
interests of mother and child. Two Societies 
which have recently been affiliated to the 
National Council are the Child Guidance 
Council and the Save the Children Fund. 
The Save the Children Fund forms a 
specially valuable link with work in other 
countries ; its aim " to raise the standards of 
child-care throughout the world is a very 
far-reaching one. The Child Guidance 
Council specialises in the sane and sympa- 
thetic treatment of the " difficult child " and 
has been actively engaged in developing its 
work during the year in London and the 
provinces, with the result that several new 
clinics have been opened. 





The Blind Musicians' Friend. 

By P. T. MAY HEW. 

MR. Edward Watson, Secretary 
of the Music Department 
of the National Institute 
for the Blind, suddenly 
passed away in his sleep in 
i the early morning of May 
^27th. He was at business 
the previous day, and appeared in the best 
of health. All to whom he spoke that day will 
remember his cheery words, and his most 
familiar friends will recall that he had often 
expressed a wish that he might be permitted 
to work right on to the end. 

He was buried at Battersea Cemetery, 
Morden, Surrey, on Saturday, May 30th. 
Besides the family, there were present 
representatives of the National Institute for 
the Blind : Mr. F. I. Stainsby, Assistant 
Secretary- General ; Mr. H. Andrews, Works 
Manager ; Mr. P. T. Mayhew, Superinten- 
dent of Music Transcription. 

First Braille Music Tutor. 
Thirty years ago, in my student days, I can 
recall the name of Edward Watson, sounding 
as familiar in connection with Braille Music 
then as it sounds to-day. Although I did not 
then know it, his first Tutor on Braille Music, 
entitled " Braille Musical Notation," had just 
been published by the British and Foreign 
Blind Association. Previously, the B.F.B.A. 
had issued three Keys to Braille Music. The 
first in 1 87 1 , of which little is now known ; the 
second in 1889 (the findings of the Cologne 
Conference, which had taken place the year 
before) ; and the third in 1896, a Revised 
Edition of the same. What was it then that 
made the Tutor so outstanding ? The 
Author had struck the happy idea of setting 
out the Braille Music Symbols and Rules for 
their use in a series of graduated lessons, 
which appealed to the teacher and interested 
the pupil. 

Mr. Watson's enthusiasm carried him still 
further, for in the following year, 1902, he 
negotiated with Messrs. Novello and Co., for 
the reproduction of his Work in letterpress, 
with black-dot Braille Music Examples. The 
cost of this publication he met entirely out 
of his own pocket. His Tutor soon gained for 
him wide-spread approval, and firmly estab- 
lished his name in the World of the Blind. 

Commercial or Musical Profession ? 
Mr. Watson was born at Liverpool in the 
year 1869. As a boy he had a strong inclin- 
ation and ability for a musical career, but his 
father wished him to enter the commercial 
world, and such was his sense of duty, that he 
actually remained in an accountants' office 
until the age of one-and-twenty. At the end 
of that time, he informed his father that his 
mind was bent on music, and from then 
onward he threw his whole heart and soul 
into the music profession. 

Character of the Man. 
During the seven years in the office, he had 
devoted all his spare time to music. Rising 
early, he would study or practice the piano, or 
dummy organ, and twice or three times a 
week would have an hour's lesson before 
arriving at business by nine o'clock. Closing 
time at the office was seven, and this gave the 
young music enthusiast three or four hours 
for his beloved music. Throughout his whole 
life, he seems to have had an over-abundance 
of energy ; and, I believe, nobody can claim 
to have ever seen him sitting still. 

After giving up his business prospects, he 
soon experienced the ups-and-downs of the 
music profession. ' He was successful in 
studying for his Associateship at the Royal 
College of Organists, and later entered for his 
Fellowship, but an accident to his foot on the 
morning of the Examination, which laid him 
up for some time, made it impossible for him 
to perform on the pedals, although he actually 
presented himself at the College for the 

Organ Appointments. 
He successfully held three very good organ 
appointments, at West Derby Parish Church, 
at Plardman Street Church for the Blind, 
which was connected with the School for the 
Blind, where he was also Music master for 
six years, and at Holy Trinity, Tulse Hill, 
London. This last appointment he relin- 
quished about eighteen months ago. 

His Work for Blind Composers . 
In 1922 he was appointed as Head of the 
Music Department at the National Institute 
for the Blind, having previously been working 
part-time in collecting and editing the 
National Institute's Edition of the Works of 


J 5° 


British Blind Composers. Of this work he 
was always most enthusiastic and proud. All 
the composers of the edition owe him a deep 
debt of gratitude for the real interest he 
continually took on behalf of their composi- 
tions. As one by one the pieces paid for 
themselves, and the composers began to 
receive royalties, he was delighted, and, I am 
sure, far more excited than the composers 

His position at the Institute gave him many 
opportunities of using his pen, with which he 
was specially gifted, and the sketches of many 
of our blind composers have been read with 
much interest by the readers of this journal. 
Second Braille Music Tutor. 

The publication of the 1922 Revised Key 
to Braille Music stirred him to further efforts, 
and the next four years he was engaged in 
bringing his Tutor into line with the Revised 
Key. He followed the same plan in this, his 
second Tutor, as he had done in his former 
Manual, always bearing in mind the relation- 
ship of pupil and teacher. This work also 
was issued both in Braille and letterpress. 
Teacher and Composer. 

As a teacher of children, he showed much 
originality. Many of his former pupils at the 
Liverpool School for the Blind still remember 
the simple tunes, composed by him, to which 
they marched out of class, singing the 
description of the Braille Music Symbols they 
had learned during the lesson. 
His Compositions. 

He was a composer of no mean ability, 
writing many delightful children's songs, such 
as " Hot Cross Buns," " The Owl and the 
Pussy-Cat, " and " I Love Little Pussy." A 
number of pieces for the harmonium are 
amongst his well-known compositions. 
Particular reference must be made to two very 
fine elaborate Anthems, " Lift up your Heads, 
O ye Gates " (founded upon the Eighth 
Gregorian Tone), and " Sing We Merrily unto 
God our Strength," written by him about 
twenty-two years ago. Both secured first 
prizes, and the composer had the gratification 
of having the former selected in 1910 by the 
Liverpool Church Choir Association for 
performance, with full orchestra, in St. 
George's Hall, Liverpool. This was an 
honour of which any composer might be 
justly proud. 
Delegate and Secretary to Paris Conference. 

In 1929 I shared with him the great 
privilege of representing Great Britain at the 

Paris Conference. Here his skill with the pen 
placed him, by the common consent of the 
delegates, in the position of Secretary to the 
Congress, a task which he ably performed. 

During our fortnight's stay in Paris I 
learned more of the man in that short time 
than had before been possible. His kindness, 
ever evident, had no limits. When not in 
session at the Conference, he devoted the 
whole of his time unreservedly to me, and 
except for a few hours of one of the Sundays, 
when I insisted upon him spending them with 
his relations (who had come over from 
Brussels to see him), he was always at my 
side, anticipating my every wish. As a guide 
and companion, he was all that could be 
wished for, expressing his thoughts of anything 
he saw of interest in a most unpretentious 
way, which is very acceptable to a blind man. 

His affection for his children, and the 
devotion and admiration for his wife, I had 
the privilege quietly to observe, by the proud 
way in which he always spoke of them, in the 
course of our many little chats together. They 
have lost in him a loving husband and father. 

Every blind musician throughout the 
Empire will sympathise with them and will 
ever have cause to remember, with gratitude, 
the name of Edward Watson, and to be 
thankful for the inspiration which prompted 
him to master the intricacies of Braille Music 
and to set them forth in his Tutor in so clear 
and interesting a manner. 

First Prize for Piano Playing. 

Elsie Roberts, of Greenfield Terrace, Menai 
Bridge, who is blind, won first prize for piano 
playing (between the ages of 16 and 18), at 
the Midland Musical Festival. 

Choir of Fifty Blind Boys and Girls Broad- 
cast from Bristol. 

Bristol Royal School for the Blind, West- 
bury-on-Trym, last month, broadcast from 
the West Regional Station the first wireless 
concert ever given by a blind choir. 

A programme which included choruses, 
part songs and " Hear my Prayer," by 
Mendelssohn, was given by a choir of 50 boys 
and girls, aged from 10 to 20, nearly all of 
whom were totally blind. They had been 
trained by Mr. A. H. James, the director of 
music at the school. A blind girl, Phyllis 
Townsend, played an organ solo, and another 
organ solo was given by May Clark, a 15-years- 
old pupil. 



THE Annual Meeting of the 
North Western Counties 


North Western Counties Association for the Blind. 

was being given to the blind in other countries 
and to quote what was being done elsewhere 
as an argument in favour of their own case. 

By the use of Esperanto much time was 
saved by eliminating the language difficulty, 
and particulars of any new apparatus could be 
obtained, no matter in what country it was 
first invented. Esperanto for the Blind 
removed the restriction which existed for 
people depending solely on their native 
language ; it enabled the blind to know and 
understand other peoples in the world and 
could be applied for the advancement of 
culture. Esperanto was not only a language, 
it was a brotherhood based on language, its 
main principle being " understanding one 

Mr. C. F. Holt, the local representative at 
Liverpool of the National Ophthalmic Treat- 
ment Board, gave an address arranged for the 
benefit of areas which it is hoped will follow 
Chester's lead in the matter of services under 
the Board. 

Mr. Holt began by giving a short history of 
the method of grinding and making glasses 
and spoke of the growth of the work of the 
sight-testing opticians who, on the whole, had 
been extraordinarily conscientious and reli- 
able, but by the very nature of their training 
could not go far enough. He did not wish to 
say anything derogatory because until the end 
of the war the sight-testing optician was doing 
work which he only could do, but after the 
war some people began to realise that there 
was money to be made in this kind of work 
and there sprang up, especially in big towns, 
people who called themselves opticians who 
attracted the public with their advertisements 
for cheap glasses and sight-testing. The 
really good sight-testing opticians then began 
to agitate for State recognition. In 1922 a 
Departmental Committee on the causes and 
prevention of blindness stated emphatically in 
their report that they considered that the 
examination of eyes should be carried out by 
qualified medical men and should not be done 
by sight-testing opticians without medical 
knowledge. The sight-testing optician was 
a good and very useful member of society, 
but he should not go outside that sphere and 
touch medicine. Apart from refraction of the 

was held in the Cathedral 
Parlour, Chester (by kind 
permission of the Dean) on 
the 29th April, 1931. The 
Chairman (Mr. William Bateman, J.P., Stock- 
port) presided over an audience numbering 
about 45, including the Vice- Chairman (Mr. 
Arthur Davies), the Hon. Treasurer (Mrs. 
Charles Macfie), Councillors E. Ashton, 
J. W. Marriott, J. C. Dalton, and Mrs. 
Penfold (Chester City Council), Alderman 
Charlesworth (Wallasey), Miss Cracknall 
(Union of Counties Associations for the 
Blind), Members of the Committee, Home 
Teachers from the area and others interested 
in the work of the Association. 

The Secretary and Hon. Treasurer pre- 
sented the Annual Report and Balance Sheet, 
both of which were approved and adopted. 
The Officers and Committee were appointed 
for the ensuing year and also representatives 
on the Executive Committee of the Union of 
Counties Associations for the Blind, the 
Executive Committee of the National Institute 
for the Blind, and Delegates to attend the 
Meetings of the Union of Counties Associations. 

After the business of the Meeting was 
concluded a Conference was held at which 
two interesting subjects were dealt with : — 
" Esperanto for the Blind " and " The 
National Ophthalmic Treatment Board." 
The principal speakers were the Rev. W. J. 
Carter, M.A. of Nantwich and Mr. C. F. 
Holt of Liverpool, respectively. 

The Rev. W. J. Carter, who has been blind 
from birth, gave a very interesting address on 
Esperanto for the Blind. He said that he 
began the study of Esperanto for fun when he 
was a boy. Pie referred to the International 
Congress between blind Esperantists at 
Oxford, which he attended and at which a 
wide range of subjects was discussed such as 
legislation, business, the supply of materials, 
the use of dogs as guides, etc. 

Through the knowledge of Esperanto the 
blind would be able, before approaching their 
own Government and asking for special 
treatment, to find out what special treatment 



eye, there was often disease which needed 
treatment by an oculist and as an instance Mr. 
Holt said that out of 2,000 cases at the 
London Optical College, 63 per cent, were 
suffering from refraction and also needed 
treatment by an oculist. 

With reference to the National Ophthalmic 
Treatment Board he said that after evidence 
had been given by the British Medical 
Association to a Committee investigating the 
whole subject, it became increasingly evident 
to the medical profession that something 
should be done. The medical profession was 
the keeper of the national health and it was 
not right that it should merely look after the 
health of the wealthy people and neglect the 
health of those who could not afford to pay 
the necessary fees. Up to that time, unless 
the sight-testing optician had attended to the 
eyes of the people there was no one else to do 
so. Now an agreement has been reached 
under which, by a panel system, the medical 
profession had agreed to make a considerable 
concession in fees for examination and 
treatment of state-insured persons and all 
those whose income did not exceed £2^0. 

Following Mr. Holt's address there was 
some discussion on the National Ophthalmic 
Treatment Board and Mr. Holt promised 
greater services in North Wales in the 
future. Dispensing opticians came into the 
scheme and acted as a clearing house. 

Miss L. O. Burges explained the working 
of the Cheshire County Council's scheme for 
people requiring treatment and glasses, and 
both Mr. Carter and Mr. Holt received a 
hearty vote of thanks. 

South Eastern and London Counties 
Association for the Blind. 

A Sale of Pastime Work made by the 
Unemployable Blind was held on May 19th 
at Streatham, in aid of the Metropolitan 
Society for the Blind. The Sale was opened 
by Lady Rowley in the unavoidable absence of 
Mrs. A. Douglas Robinson. The proceeds 
amounted to approximately £40. Over 200 
articles were sold and many orders taken. 
The Society hopes to hold similar Sales in 
other parts of the County of London. 

East Sussex Association for the Blind. 

The Annual Report of the Association tells 
of an increase in work and of changes in staff 
and in office premises and other arrange- 
ments. Increased help has been given to the 

blind by the East Sussex County Council. Its 
relief both to blind persons and their depen- 
dents is now given through the Association. 
A special effort to raise funds is to be a 
Sussex Fair at Hove on October 21st and 
22nd. The Report embodies a report by the 
Hove and Portslade Committee of the 
Association, which relieves the Association of 
much work in the most densely populated 
part of the County. Copies can be obtained 
from the Secretary at Old Bank House, High 
Street, Lewes. (New address.) 

Hampshire Association for the Care of the 

The Association publishes its Annual 
Report in a new form this year. Part I 
explains the origin and work of the Associa- 
tion, and Part II reviews the work of the year. 
The whole publication is a live record of the 
Association's activities and is likely to stimu- 
late interest and help among Hampshire 
people for the Hampshire blind. Copies can 
be obtained from the Secretary at 82, High 
Street, Winchester. 

Eastern Counties Association for the Blind. 

The Annual Meeting will be held at the 
County Hall, Cambridge, on Friday, June 
19th, 1 93 1. Amongst the subjects for 
discussion will be : 

The Incomes of necessitous and unemploy- 
able blind persons ; British Wireless for the 
Blind Fund ; Memorandum from the 
National Institute for the Blind ; The 
Prevention of Blindness and a Home for 
mentally retarded blind children. 

We are informed by the Organising 
Secretary of the Association that the Tudor 
Pageant Play " To Kill the Queen," by 
Lionel R. McColvin, will be presented by the 
Ipswich Blind Society from June 17th to 20th, 
at Upper Arboretum, Ipswich. Over 350 
performers will take part, and the production 
will be opened on June 17th by Sir John 

Northern Counties Association for the Blind. 

On Wednesday, June 3rd, 193 1 , the 
Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting of the Northern 
Counties Association for the Blind took place 
at the Guildhall, Hull, under the Chairman- 
ship of Mr. A. Siddall, of Rochdale. Alder- 
man R. W. Wheeldon, Sheriff of Hull, 
welcomed the delegates. 




Arising out of the Minutes of the Twenty- 
fourth Annual Meeting, Dr. E. H. Scholefield, 
M.A., D.P.H., explained the present position 
with regard to Wireless for the Blind. By 
arrangement with the British Wireless for the 
Blind Fund, the Manchester Station Wireless 
for the Blind Fund was being re-constituted 
as the North Regional Wireless for the Blind 
Committee, an independent body of a regional 
nature, which proposed to undertake instal- 
lation and maintenance, in the six Northern 
Counties, of the sets supplied by the British 
Wireless for the Blind Fund. The Northern 
Counties Association was invited to send three 
representatives to this North Regional Com- 
mittee, which, with the assistance of the 
British Broadcasting Corporation, would 
shortly appeal for funds on the North 
Regional Wave-length. 

The Annual Report for the year ended 
March 31st, 1931, was adopted. Arising out 
of the Report the appointment of representa- 
tives to the Executive Council of the National 
Institute for the Blind was considered. 
Opposition was raised to the rule which 
debarred paid officials and also to insistence on 
the paramountcy of the voluntary system. 
After a good deal of discussion it was decided 
to appoint two representatives. The attention 
of the delegates was called to the fact that the 
new Advisory Committee would have 
increased representation from the Association; 
Councillor Asbury, Alderman Chambers, 
Councillor Clydesdale, Dr. Graham, Mr. 
Tate, and the Secretary, Mrs. Cowley, having 
been appointed to serve on that Committee. 

The total number of cases on the register 
had again increased to a gross total of 18,956, 
but there was now a slackening in the rate of 
increase. The Secretary read a summary of 
the statistics for the last four years which 
showed that a total of 9,885 cases of blindness 
had been discovered and registered. Allowing 
for deaths, transfers, etc., there was a total net 
increase of 4,628 during that period, probably 
due to better ascertainment rather than to a 
real increase in blindness. 423 cases had been 
removed through decertification. There was 
very little movement of cases from or into the 
area of the six Northern Counties, only 190 
cases having removed out of the area and 121 
cases into the area in four years. 

The result of the ballot for the election of 
the new Executive Committee was declared 
as follows : - 



Mr. A. Siddall, Rochdale Society for the Blind. 

Captain F. H. Robinson, Barrow Society for the 

Mr. S. E. Stevens, Liverpool School for the Blind. 

Mr. J. H. Mines, Liverpool School for the Blind. 

Councillor J. W. Flanagan, Bradford County 
Borough Council. 

Mr. W. Whitehead, National Library for the 
Blind, Northern Branch. 

Miss A. M. Hewer, National Library for the 
Blind, Northern Branch. 

Dr. C. Franks, D.P.H., J. P., Durham County 

Councillor J. A. Clydesdale, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne County Borough Council. 

Miss I. M. Heywood, O.B.E., Manchester & 
Salford Blind Aid Society. 

Rev. C. F. Hardy, M.A., Yorkshire School for 
the Blind. 

Councillor G. Oliver, J. P., Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne County Borough Council. 

At a meeting of the new Executive Com- 
mittee the following persons were co-opted, the 
fifth place being left open for the time being : - 

Alderman Kathleen Chambers, Bradford County 

Borough Council. 
Dr. E. H. Scholefield, M.A., D.P.H., Lancashire 

County Council. 
Mr. W. H. Tate, J. P., Bradford. 
Councillor W. E. Yorke, Sheffield County 

Borough Council. 

Councillor Flanagan conveyed to the 
Association an invitation from the Lord 
Mayor of Bradford, Alderman A. Pickles, and 
from the Bradford Corporation, to hold the 
next Quarterly Meeting in that City. 

The Sheriff of Hull presided at the After- 
noon Meeting, when Mr. S. W. Starling, 
Secretary and Superintendent of the Birming- 
ham Royal Institution for the Blind, gave a 
paper on " Workshops for the Blind in 
England and America," and Dr. G. G. Wray, 
Ch.B., D.P.H., Assistant Medical Officer of 
Health, Lancashire County Council, spoke on 
" A Suggested Classification of Blindness." 
These papers will be printed in the Annual 
Report, which will shortly be circulated. 

Blind Actors in Three Plays, 

A successful dramatic entertainment was 
given last month, by male students of the 
Royal Normal College for the Blind, Upper 
Norwood. Three short plays were presented. 
The plays were " Joan the Maid," by Hermon 
Ould, " The Poetasters of Ispahan," by 
Clifford Bax, and " Shivering Shocks," by 
Clemence Dane. 

An organ recital was given by J. Robinson, 
A.R.C.O., and piano solos by Keith Burrows. 



The Value of Guide Dogs for the Blind. 

The following impression of Guide Dogs 
for the Blind comes from a lady, who during 
a visit to Berlin, came across the dogs by 
accident, and is of interest as an unsolicited 
testimonial as to the value of the dogs from 
someone entirely unconnected with the blind 
or with dogs. 

" On a recent visit to Berlin I was im- 
mensely impressed by the touching sagacity 
and understanding of the Alsatian attendant 
upon his blind master. Due to the war, the 
large number of blinded soldiers are con- 
spicuous everywhere. By the side of each, 
patiently watching and alert, was his Alsatian 
caretaker. Being an ardent dog lover, again 
2nd again my observation was attracted by 
their devoted attention, and to see the dog 
guiding his afflicted master through the traffic 
was to me a wonderful revelation of what a 
dumb animal can do for the sightless human. 
The dogs wear a special harness marked with 
the Red Cross. I was told that they had all 
been trained for this purpose — the protection 
and help of the blind. To-day I learn that 
this training for the " Seeing Eye " as it has 
been called has now commenced in England 
and a start has been made with four of the 
Alsatian breed. It is a splendid idea which 
deserves every possible support and assistance. 
Having witnessed a demonstration bv Mrs. 
Bond and her dog Eona, I feel sure it cannot 
fail to succeed." 





The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is (id. per copy. 

IC, 789 Cooke, Benjamin. Introduction and 

Fugue in C minor (edited bv John E. 


10,700 Frescobaldi. Prelude and Fugue in G 

minor (arr. by Bossi) 
10,791 Galuppi. Adagio and Allegro Spiritoso 

(from a Clavier Sonata) (arr. by 

Frederick Bridge) 
Lemare. Gavotte Moderne 



10,793 Beethoven. 
Op. 106 

Sonata No. 29 in B flat, 













]H, MIS 


10, ski 
lo, Ml 



Mungo-Park, M. A Posy of Pieces (21 
Progressive Pieces for Beginners ... 

Rimsky-Korsakov. The Flight of the 
Bunible-Bee (arr. bv T. Strimer) ... 

Sinding. Jov, Op. 127, No. 3 

Whitehead, Percy (arr. by). Old Mast- 
ers (12 Early English Pieces) 

Whittaker, W. G. In the Style of a 

Lown, B. and Chauncey, G. You're 
the one 1 care for, Song Fox-Trot... 

Myers, S. Parade of the Minutes, 
Characteristic Song Fox-Trot 

Nicholls, H. In Old Vienna, Song Fox- 

Simons, M. The Peanut Vendor (from 
Charles B. Cochran's 1931 Revue), 
Song Fox-Trot 

Bach. Come, Sweetest Death, A 

minor ; \ — E 1 
Bennett, T. C. Sterndale. Our Old 

Village, D ; A,— D 1 

Elgar. In the Dawn, E flat; E— G 1 ... 
Gibbs, Armstrong. The Scarecrow, 

B minor ; A, — F l 
Grace, Harvey. pioneers ! (Unison 

Song) ... ' 

Gretry. The Prophet of Spring, D 

minor, C sharp — F 1 ... 
Greville, Ursula. Goosey, Goosey Gan- 
der, D flat ; F— A 1 

Rachmaninoff. To the Children, F ; 

E— F 1 

Tschaikowskv. To the Forest, F ; 

C— F 1 ..." 

VVingrove, C. That's L's ! (Tenor and 



The prices of the following publications are subject 

to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 

the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 
s. d. 

10,293-10,299 Barchester Towers, by Anthony 
Trollope. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed. Paper Covers, 7 vols. F 440 6 3 

10,364-10,365 Camp of the Otters, The, by 
Mark Harborough. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 2 
vols. F. 122 6 

10,111 Children Far Away, by Ernest Young, 
B.Sc. Grade 1, Intermediate size, 
Interlined, Paper Covers. F. 56 ... 5 9 

10,414-10, 41S Children's Hour, The, arranged 
by Arthur Mee. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 5 vols. 
F. 254 5 3 

10,377-1 0,37s Countries of the Mind, by J. 
Middleton Murry. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 2 
vols. F. 125 6 3 

10,291-10,292 Drake (from " Selected Poems") 
by Alfred Noyes. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 2 vols. 
F 96 5 

10,222-10,224 Eminent Victorians, by Lytton 
Strachev. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed! Cloth Boards, 3 vols. G. 231 9 3 

10,170 Golden Budget of Nursery Rhymes, 
The, Grade 1, Intermediate size, 
Interlined, Paper Covers. F. 46 ... 4 9 




per vol. 

10,110 Homes Far Away, by Ernest Young, s. d. 
B.Sc. drade 2, Intermediate size. 
Interlined, Paper Covers. F. 48 ... 5 

10,116-10,121 Iron Woman, The, by Margaret 
Deland. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers. 6 vols. F. 346 5 9 

10,202-10,211 It is never too late to mend, by 
Charles Reade, D.C.L. Grade 2, 
Large size, Interpointed, Paper 
Covers, 10 vols. F. 580 6 

10,285-10,288 Joseph and his Brethren, by H. 
W. Freeman. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed. Cloth Boards, 4 vols. 
G 27ii 8 6 

10,172 Perfect Zoo. The, by Eleanor Farjeon. 
Grade 1, Intermediate size. Inter- 
lined, Paper Covers. F. 50... ... 5 

10,212-10,215 Red Rust, by Cornelia Cannon 
Grade 2, Large size. Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 4 vols. F. 219 ... 5 6 

10,158-10,161 Richard Yea and Nay. by 
Maurice Hewlett. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 4 
vols. F. 234 5 9 

10,272-10,273 Sea Whispers, by W. W. Jacobs. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 2 vols. F. 104 ... 5 3 

10,366-10,367 Seven Little Australians.''' by 
Ethel Turner. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers. 2 vols 

F. 104 5 3 

10,225-10,228 Silhouettes, by Edmund Gosse. 

Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed. 
Paper Covers, 4 vols. F. 219 ... 5 6 

10,274 Tir Y. Dyneddon, by E. Tegla Da vies 
Grade 1, Large size. Interpointed 
Cloth Boards G 71 8 9 

10,237-10,240 Trilby, by George du Mauner. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 4 vols. F. 244 ... 6 

10,229 Why I believe in Personal Immortality, 
by Sir Oliver Lodge. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed. Cloth Boards 

G. 92 9 9 

10,289-10,290 Wild Animals I Have Known, 

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Marchant, A. C. More Unprepared Latin ... 2 

Plato. Pha;do 2 


Bowley, A. L. Some Economic Consequences 
of the Great War ... ... ... ... 2 


Robertson, J. Grant. Modern Universities ... 1 

Steiner, Rudolf. Three Educational Lectures... I 

Gibson and Weldon. Probate and Divorce 

(1927 Ed.) 7 


Shears, F. S. Froissart, Chronicler and Poet ... 3 


A venal, G. D. Frangais de mon Temps... ... 5 

Corneille. Horace ... ... ... ... 1 


Chaucer. Prologue and Nun's Priest's Tale (Ed. 
bv A. J. Wyatt) 3 

Shaw, G. B. The Apple Cart 2 


Marriott. J. A R. Empire Settlement 2 


McDougall, W. Modern Materialism ... ... 4 


Campbell, J. R. Life of Christ 1 

The Lambeth Conference of 1930 ... ... 3 



" Barrington, E." The Laughing Queen ... 5 

Broster, D. K. The Dark Mile ... ~ ... ... 5 

Broster. D. K. and G. W. Taylor. Vision 
Splendid ... ... ... ... .... ... 7 

Christie, Agatha. Secret Adversarv ... ... 4 

Cullum, R. Riddle of Three-Way Creek ... 5 
Eden, Hon. E. Semi-Detached House ... 3 

Jepson, E. Peter Intervenes ... ... ... 3' 

*Lever, C. Harry Lorrequer ... ... ... 7 

Lund, T. Weston of the Royal North-West 
Mounted Police ... ... ... ... ... 4 

*Masterman, W. S 2LO 3 

Van Dine, S. S. Scarab Murder Case ... ... 4 

*Berridge House Recipe Book Published by the 
National Society's Depository, Great Peter 
Street, Westminster ... ... ... ... 2 

Christian Doctrine of God ... ... ... 1 

*Davies, W. H. Autobiography of a Super- 
Tramp ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

f Elliott, Rev. W. H. Plain Man Looks at Life... 1 
f Green, Rev. Peter. Our Heavenly Father ... 2 
Hare, K. Our Cockney Ancesters ... ... 4 

Hearnshaw. F. J. C. '' Ifs " of History... ... 2 

Hodson, G. Angelic Hosts ... ... ... 1 

Jinarajadasa, C. Gods in Chains ... ... 4 

Keller, Helen. Midstream ... ... ... 4 

Malcolm, Sir Ian. Lord Balfour ... ... 1 

Tomlinson, H. M. Gifts of Fortune with some 
Hints for those about to Travel ... ... 3 


MacDonald, George. The Light Princess, and 
Other Fairy Stories ... ... ... ... 2 

Twenty-Six Adventure Stories from the " Boy's 

Own Paper " ... ... ... 4 


Dawson, C When Father Christmas was Late 3 

Lagerlof. Selma (Trans. S. Howard). Maarbacka 3 

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre ... ... ... 12 

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Author of "Public Speaking for Business Men." 

FOR blind people the Art of Public Speaking provides a means of creating self- 
confidence and that sense of power which gives the nobler sort of pride. 
The temptation to fall into excessive introspection, which so strongly afflicts 
the blind, is overcome by this means of giving outward expression to the inner 
thought. And thoughts which seem reasonable until they are expressed in 
logical form, are submitted to a healthy discipline. 
Incidentally the cause of the blind can best be advocated by the blind. 
From some points of view the blind have advantages in learning Public Speaking. They 
have little temptation to rely upon the written manuscript which is such a bane to most 
people. They are also accustomed to rely upon their own thoughts rather than on external aids. 
The disadvantage, on the other hand, is that they are not so well able to establish that 
magnetic attraction between audience and speaker which comes from the meeting of eye with 
eye. In my book I have called this " ocular rapport." And yet it may be that that wonderful 
sensitiveness to people around them, so noticeable in the blind, may help blind people to sense 
the feeling of the audience in ways the ordinary speaker knows nothing about. 
The following are practical suggestions : 

(1) Use of the Voice. 

The ordinary speaker judges the pitch of his voice by the size of the hall and the effect 
upon people in the back row. Both to speak too low and too loud are irritating faults. The 
blind speaker should be trained to use the right pitch of voice according to information 
elicited from the organisers of the Meeting. 

(2) Gestures. 

Ordinary speakers use gestures which are directed towards people whom they can see. 
For this reason blind people should be sparing of gesture relying rather upon the expressiveness 
of the voice. Thus a great actor can deliver a powerful speech from Shakespeare without 
moving his body and yet give the audience a wonderful impression of force and movement. 

(3) Notes. 

It would be better for blind people not to use notes at all. For even if they use only 
a lew notes yet the unusual movement of their fingers might distract the attention of the 


audience. This means that they must 
simplify the " architecture " of their speech, 
dividing into definite sections with easily 
remembered headings. The section on The 
Architecture of Speech and the Preparation of 
a Speech needs study in this connection. 
Thus, supposing a speech has to be made on 
the subject of teaching craftsmanship to the 
blind, the following headings could be 
memorised : 

First Notes. 
(i) Psychological. 

The blind are not in the dark — they work 
by another kind of light. When they are 
taught appropriate methods they give evidence 
of a new kind of ability. 

(2) Historical. 

The change from the attitude of abandoning 
the blind to charity to the training of the blind 
for citizenship. 

(3) Social. 

It is proved that God has given compensa- 
tions to the blind — how cruel it is to ignore 
this and to add the burden of dependence 
upon charity to that of loss of sight. 

(4) Economic. 

By training the blind the community gain 
in three ways (a) by saving money spent upon 
charity ; (b) by creating producers of wealth ; 
(c) by creating useful citizens. 
Second Notes. 
Introduction. Blindness another kind of light. 
Past. Charity versus citizenship. 

Present. Cruel to add loss of rights to 

loss of sight. 
Future. (1) Save Charity. 

(2) Create wealth. 

(3) Create citizens. 

This is only given as an illustration. 
Obviously it is inadequate. But it shows the 
advantage of having very simple divisions. 
These can be easily memorised. The 
rhyming method is also useful — Thus : 

(1) The inner Light. 

(2) The Charity blight. 

(3) Right and sight. 

(4) From weakness to might. 

There is a humorous story of a negro 
preacher who gave the following heads to a 
sermon on the Prodigal Son. Dogs — Hogs — 
Togs. It was certainly effective. 

On all other points the blind speaker may 
follow the teaching of my book. 

Finally, I record my sense of gratitude that 
any written words of mine should prove 
useful to the multitude of those who are 



utterly thrown back upon the illumination of 
the Inner Light, and I trust that the mastery 
of the Art of Public Speaking will give to the 
blind an increased sense of mastery over 
adverse circumstance and indeed transmute a 
seeming disability into a power for good. 


The National Uniform Type Committee 
has approved the new edition of " The Braille 
System for Reading and Writing " which can 
now be obtained from the National Institute 
for the Blind. It includes the rules for 
Grade I and Grade II, formerly published 
separately, and the inkprint edition is priced 
at 3d. net. A Braille edition is in prepara- 
tion, while revised editions of the other 
Braille instructional books issued by the 
Institute will be published in due course. 

In the new edition the wording has been 
slightly altered and some of the rules amplified 
with the object of greater clarity. 

Changes have been made in two rules — 
Grade I, Rule 5 ; Grade II, Rule 9. 

Grade /, Rule 5. 

In accordance with the strongly expressed 
preference of finger-readers, it has been 
decided that the double poetry-line sign is not 
to be used between verses, but each verse is to 
begin in cell 3 of a new line. The single 
poetry-line sign is to be used after the last 
line of a verse because it indicates that 
another line of poetry follows ; but for the 
same reason it may never be used at the end 
of a poem or quoted passage. 

The double poetry-line sign will in future 
only be used when peotry occurs between 
passages of prose. The poetry is introduced 
by a double poetry-line sign followed by one 
space so that the reader may have a clear 
indication of the change from prose to verse. 
Inverted commas are to be used in Braille if 
used in print. 

Grade II, Rule 9. 

The words " /o," " into " and " by " 
should be contracted before the numeral, 
capital and letter signs, but not before any 
other Braille composition or punctuation sign. 

These alterations must, of course, take a 
little time to come into general use, but all 
Braille transcribers will be asked to follow the 
new rules in any transcription they may in 
future undertake. 



Blind Woman's Last Gift to Science. 

Miss Florence Buchanan, D.Sc, whose death was reported in The New Beacon 
two months ago, has, in her will, directed that her eyes should be removed as soon as 
possible after death and preserved with a view to their examination. She left £250 for 
this examination and publication of its results and she also left her own account of the 
state of her eyes compiled from observations since 1922. 

Dr. W. T. Collier, of Oxford, has stated that her wish has been carried out. The 
work is being undertaken, but it will not be completed for two or three years. 

Inspection of Massage School by the Minister of Pensions. 

On the nth June, the Right Hon. F. O. Roberts, Minister of Pensions, paid a visit 
to the Massage School of the National Institute for the Blind. He was received by 
Dr. P. M. Evans, Vice-Chairman of the National Institute, Canon Bolam, Mr. A. J. W. 
Kitchin, Mr. H. M. Whitfield, B.A., Chairman of the Association of Certificated 
Blind Masseurs, and Mr. W. McG. Eagar, Secretary-General, National Institute. 

Practical demonstrations in Massage and Medical Electricity were arranged ; lectures 
were also taking place in Anatomy and Medical Electricity. 

The Home Secretary at Henshaw's Institution for the Blind. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Clynes paid a visit last month to Henshaw's Institution for the 
Blind and were presented by Councillor J. Mathewson Watson, the chairman, with a 
cane chair and a woollen pullover made in the institution's workshops. 

" Mr. and Mrs. Clynes," says the Manchester Guardian, "like others who have 
inspected the institution before them, were amazed at the thorough system of training 
established there and at the exquisite craftsmanship it results in. It would appear 
almost incredible that a totally blind man, required by the sense of touch alone to bind 
into neat little bundles the bristles of a brush, dip the ends into a cauldron of boiling tar, 
and finally fix them into the brush's head should turn out as good and finished an article 
as anyone could require. Yet brush-making is only one of the less intricate processes 
that are taught at Henshaw's." 

College of Teachers Annual Meeting. 

The annual meeting of the College of Teachers of the Blind was held on Saturday, 
June 13th, at the National Institute for the Blind. The Chair during the earlier part of 
the meeting was taken by Miss Falconer, the retiring Chairman, who read the Annual 
Report for 1930/31, and was later succeeded in the Chair by the new Chairman, Dr. 
Ritchie. Dr. Ritchie paid a warm tribute to the work done by Miss Falconer during 
her year of office, and to her untiring interest in the welfare of the blind. 

Dr. Ritchie in his address from the Chair spoke of the inquiry into the education 
of the blind that had recently been set on foot by the College of Teachers in co-operation 
with the National Institute for the Blind, and characterised it as an experiment full of 
interest and importance to all educationists. 

At Dr. Ritchie's invitation, an address was then given by Mr. Rau, of the School 
for the Deaf and Blind, Mysore, who aroused the interest and sympathy of his audience 
in the great problem of the welfare of the blind in India, and specially stressed the 
importance of prevention and education. 

It had been hoped that members of the College who had taken part in the Inter- 
national Conference at New York would have been present at the meeting, and would 
be able to relate their experiences, but unfortunately Miss Garaway, who had hoped to 
attend, was ill ; she had, however, kindly prepared a paper on the subject which was 
read to the meeting. Fortunately Mr. Brown, Headmaster of Worcester College, was 
able to be present, and he gave a stimulating and lively account of his experiences which 
greatly interested those who heard it. 



Blind Men's Interest in the Football Cup. 

Eighteen blind men from the Birmingham Royal Institute for the Blind participated 
in a unique ceremony at West Bromwich Town Hall recently when they handled the 
F.A. Cup won by West Bromwich Albion in April. The ceremony, which was private, 
was arranged by the Mayor of West Bromwich in response to a request from two blind 
supporters of the Albion. 

Annual Conference of Scottish National Federation for the Blind. 

A civic welcome was extended last month by Lord Provost Johnston and the Magis- 
trates of Dundee to the delegates attending the annual conference of the Scottish National 
Federation for the Welfare of the Blind. 

In welcoming the delegates, the Lord Provost said that they were glad to know that 
there were compensations to blind persons. It was an accepted fact that the mind's 
eye of a blind person was highly developed. He wished to acknowledge the high sense 
of citizenship displayed by many members of the Federation in Dundee. He knew 
that they took an interest in public affairs, both local and national, and that they did 
their share for the common weal. 

Mr. James Balfour, Aberdeen, the president, said, in reply, that the Federation was 
a strictly Scottish body. He thought the facilities which were now available for blind 
people in this country were in advance of any legislation in any country in the world. 
In this respect he thought they were in advance of their English friends even. There 
were roughly 9,000 blind people in Scotland, of whom approximately two-thirds were 
over 50 years of age. He hoped the municipal administrators would seriously consider 
doing something for the people who were untrainable and over 50. 

Mr. T. N. Bell, president of the Royal Dundee Institution for the Blind, and Sir 
Wm. Henderson, C.B., president of the Dundee and Lochee Mission to the Outdoor 
Blind, associated themselves with the Lord Provost's welcome. 

Annual Speech Day at Worcester College. 

Viscount Cobham presided at the Annual Speech Day at Worcester College for 
the Blind last month. He spoke of the financial difficulties of the year and said that 
the school was not facing a problem so grave as those confronting some of the great 
midland hospitals over whose meetings he had to preside. The Governors thought 
they would not make their budget balance at the end of the financial year, but the deficit 
would be only a small one. The Governors were steadily making progress in building 
up an endowment fund. 

Mr. G. C. Brown, Headmaster, said that sooner or later the College was finding 
jobs for its boys, but it was a hand-to-mouth sort of business, and there was no real 
machinery for placing boys in careers. Eight boys left the College last year, and one 
went straight into a commercial occupation. Originally the College was a purely philan- 
thropic effort, but the experiment had proved entirely successful. There was room 
for the blind in the world of commerce. Every boy was not suited to one of the polite 
professions ; some of them wanted to make money, and there was no reason why they 
should not have a chance to do so. One boy took up farming, as he had considerable 
means, and so was able to bear the expense of earning his living that way. Three boys 
were doing well as masseurs. 

Canon A. J. Carlyle, of Worcester Cathedral, gave away the prizes. Speaking of the 
blind boys from the school whom he had met at the University, he said he noticed in 
them a singular desire to learn what there was to be learnt. " By some curious streak 
of genius," he added, " you make your boys like other people, and I think nothing 
impressed us more at Oxford than this quality of your school. You give your boys the 
feeling that what other men can do, they can do ; what other men's lives mean, their 
lives mean ; whatever an honest and capable man can set about doing, they can set 
about doing." 




Blind Hermit Leaves £100,000 to Charity. 

Mr. Morris Lyon, the blind silversmith hermit of Holborn, who for the last six 
years lived above his shuttered and closed shop, attended by two faithful old servants, 
has left £100,000, most of which is ultimately destined for charitable purposes. A large 
portion of his fortune is to be devoted to the building and maintenance of a convalescent 
home to be known as the Morris and Samuel Lyon Home, and to be situated within 
a radius of 30 miles from the Mansion House. Thousands of pounds have been 
bequeathed to various hospitals for immediate use. 

Extension of Edinburgh Royal Blind Asylum Opened. 

A new administrative building, which will provide extended facilities for the training 
of the blind at the Royal Blind Asylum and School in Gillespie Crescent, Edinburgh, 
was opened last month, by the Countess of Haddington. The new block was erected 
at a cost of £4,500, and contains a show-room and offices. 

Lady Haddington made a strong plea on behalf of the blind, and Lord Provost 
Sir Thomas B. Whitson, who presided, expressed the hope that more orders for goods 
would be placed so that more blind people could be engaged in the work. 

The Rev. Dr. Thomas Burns, chairman of directors of the Asylum, said that the 
number of blind persons training had increased from twenty-nine in 1926 to ninety at 
the present time. 

Professor James MacKinnon, on behalf of the institute, presented Lady Haddington 
with an eiderdown quilt, a sample of the institute's work and Harriet, Lady Findlay, 
handed to her a beautiful silver rose bowl, the gift of the builders. 
Sir Landon Ronald's Appeal for Edward Watson Memorial. 

Sir Landon Ronald, Principal of the Guildhall School of Music, has addressed a 
letter to the Press, asking for subscriptions towards a Memorial to the late Edward Watson, 
Secretary of the Music Department of the National Institute, whose death was reported 
last month. The Memorial is to take the form of a Showcase, to be established in the 
Institute's Museum of Blindiana, and to contain pieces of musical apparatus for the blind. 
In his letter, Sir Landon Ronald says : " Mr. Watson was by nature so modest and 
unassuming that only those who were intimately connected with him in his work can 
estimate the true value and extent of his achievement. He, more than any other man, 
brought into clouded lives the light that music so surely gives, and to blind musicians 
and music students he was an irreplaceable and devoted friend and servant. The results 
of his labours form in themselves an endurable record of a life of pure, unselfish service." 

Subscriptions of 2s. 6d., 5s., or more, should be sent to the Sec. General, National 
Institute for the Blind, 224, Great Portland Street, W.i, and marked " Edward Watson 
Memorial Fund." 
The Duchess of York Presents Prizes to Swiss Cottage Pupils. 

The Duchess of York distributed the prizes at Guildhall last month, to the pupils 
of the School for the Blind, Swiss Cottage. The Lord Mayor attended in state, accom- 
panied by the Sheriffs. 

The Lord Mayor said the society was founded 93 years ago, and although its head- 
quarters had for nearly 90 years been in Hampstead its connexion with the City had 
been close. In 1918 the number of blind persons for whom it cared was 80, and to-day 
it was 607. 

Dr. J. M. Ritchie (the Principal) said the work of the society was made up of three 
sections — elementary education, professional or industrial training, and employment. 
Good progress had been made during the year, but their financial position was urgent. 
If their work was not to come to an end at the expiration of their lease they must have 
the wholehearted support of the charitable public. 

The Duchess of Y'ork, after giving the prizes, shook hands with each blind boy and 
girl, and offered them words of encouragement. Seniors and juniors smiled with delight, 
and two of their number presented bouquets of flowers to the Duchess and also to the 
Lady Mayoress. 




Official Opening— Description of Exhibits. 

CN Wednesday, June 24th, at 
^ 12 noon, the Rt. Hon. Lord 
\ Blanesburgh, P.C., C.B.E., 
II officially opened the 
jgjr Museum of Blindiana in 
f the Armitage Hall of the 
National Institute for the 
Blind, 224, Great Portland Street, W. 

Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C., Chairman of 
the National Institute, welcomed Lord 
Blanesburgh who, he said, required no 
introduction as he was well-known throughout 
the Blind World. 

Mr. Henry J. Wagg, Chairman of the 
Museum Committee, stated that the Museum 
was the first of its kind in this country. As an 
engineer, he had noticed that inventing was 
often easier than convincing others that your 
invention was something better than they had 
already got, and there was little doubt that 
many inventions were lost through sheer want 
of persistence on the part of the inventor or 
lack of opportunity to get his invention 
adopted. " An inventor," added Mr. Wagg, 
" needed the patience of Job, the persuasive 
power of a K.C., and the perseverance of a 
steam roller." 

" Louis Braille, a blind man," continued 
Mr. Wagg, " invented his well-known system 
of reading and writing in 1829, but it was left 
to another blind man, Thomas Rhodes 
Armitage, the founder of the National 
Institute, to persuade the teachers of the 
blind throughout this country that the Braille 
system surpassed any other system. W T ell 
over fifty years was wasted before Braille 
became the recognised system in Great 
Britain, and in most other civilised countries. 
" Notable British inventors in the past were 
Nicholas Saunderson, the well-known blind 
professor at Cambridge University, who 
invented the arithmetic board ; G. A. Hughes, 
of Manchester, the inventor of the earliest 
typewriter that was designed for the blind to 
communicate with the seeing ; and Henry 
Stainsby, for many years Secretary-General 
of the National Institute, joint inventor of the 
Stainsby- Wayne Writer and Stainsby- Wayne 
Shorthand Machine, etc." 

Mr. Wagg pointed out that the chief use of 
the Museum was not for sight-seeing, but to 
enable would-be inventors to see what had 
been done in the past and not go over the 



same ground again. A well-known saying 
amongst engineers was " Success is built up 
on the scrap heap." In the cases would be 
seen " scrap heaps " on which past successes 
had been built and on which he hoped future 
successes would be built. 

Mr. W T agg concluded by expressing a debt 
of gratitude to Heads of Institutions for the 
Blind in many parts of the world for gifts or 
the loan of apparatus ; to the Institute's 
Secretary- General, Mr. W. McG. Eagar, for 
instigating the Museum and Exhibition ; and 
to Mr. Edward Pyke, the Institute's Chief 
Technical Officer, for all the trouble that he 
had taken in making the necessary arrange- 

Lord Blanesburgh said that he regarded it 
as a very high privilege and a very great 
honour to be permitted to take any part in the 
opening of the Museum. As a member of the 
governing body of a sister Institution — the 
National Library for the Blind — and as 
having been associated for a year or two now 
with the Advisory Committee appointed by 
the Minister of Health to consider matters 
with reference to the welfare of the blind, it 
had been his great privilege to become 
interested in a great work. One could not be 
associated with it without being struck by the 
amazing cheerfulness of the blind, and by the 
aptitude with which they are able to utilise all 
that cruld be done for their benefit. Some- 
times this wonderful cheerfulness made him 
feel that in their darkened world they had 
access to a source of happiness of which 
sighted people are quite unconscious ; and he 
hoped that in that way they found some 
compensation for their affliction. He trusted 
that the Museum would be an incentive to the 
imagination lacking in so many of us, and 
believed that in the years to come it would 
provide an opportunity to assist the blind 
more and more. In this belief he declared 
the Museum open. 

Dr. Ernest Whitfield, in proposing a vote of 
thanks to Lord Blanesburgh, said that he was 
there not only on behalf of the National 
Institute, but also as a spokesman of that 
larger body which stood behind the Institute, 
and for which it existed. The blind of this 
country as a corporate body seldom had the 
opportunity of expressing their appreciation 
to those who so generously gave of their best 


for their benefit. Every recognition was due 
to those numerous men and women who so 
generously set aside part of their incomes in 
the interests of the blind, but in his opinion, 
of even'greater importance, was the giving of 
personal 'service for their welfare. Lord 
Blanesburgh had given his time and devoted 
his vast experience and his keen intellect to 
the working out of the many complicated 
problems which beset the blind, and he took 
that opportunity of expressing the thanks of 
the world of the blind to Lord Blanesburgh 
on that account. 

Dr. P. M. Evans, Vice-Chairman of the 
Institute, seconded the vote of thanks. 

A speech by Captain Ian Fraser, C.B.E., 
who was unable to be present, was " broad- 
cast " by means of a new invention, the 
Blattnerphone. The delivery of this speech, 
recorded on wire, was heard with great 
interest. Later, Canon C. E. Bolam spoke 
into the machine and his speech was broad- 
cast a few minutes afterwards. The Blattner- 
phone seems to offer great possibilities for 
" sound " books and the inventor, Mr. 
L. Blattner, who was present, announced 
that he was presenting a machine to the 

The Armitage Hall was crowded at the 
opening of the Museum, and many people 
visited the Museum during the following 

All the exhibits should 
be of practical value to in- 
ventors, and many of them 
possess considerable histor- 
ical interest. They are well 
arranged in sections, so 
that an investigator can 
trace almost at a glance 
the development of the 
highly finished models of 
to-day from the cruder 
models of the past. The 
early models perhaps stim- 
ulate the imagination most, 
for in the elementary rough 
work we can see the hands' 
first unskilful efforts to in- 
terpret the ideas in the 
mind of the inventor. 
Behind the uneven rows 
of raised dots on sheets of 
dingy paper pasted together 
lies the thought from which 

millions of Braille books, each executed with 
mechanical precision, have sprung. 

The appliances for writing Braille with a 
style by hand include all shapes and sizes of 
boards for transcribing books, writing corres- 
pondence, postcards, and " pocket " notes. 
There are many frames for writing ordinary 
script, one with shaped openings to guide the 
pencil ; one with springs allowing for loops ; 
another on the Venetian blind principle. 

There is a good show of Braille Writing and 
Shorthand Writing Machines — these machines 
succeeding the style as the typewriter has 
succeeded the pen. Various models of the 
Stainsby- Wayne writers are on view, but the 
latest " upward " writing model has not yet 
been completed. Several " upward " writers 
are shown, however, notably the Hall, from 
America, the Constancon, of Swiss make — 
both somewhat similar to ordinary type- 
writers in appearance ; the Picht, from 
Germany, the model shown having been 
specially designed for a man with only one 
arm ; and the Jauny, invented in France only 
last year. 

An exhibit of great historical interest is the 
Hughes Typograph of 1851. This is the 
second oldest typewriting model in existence, 
the first being in America. The keyboard is 
embossed, and later the machine developed 
into the typewriter of to-day. How many 

The Museum of Blindiana in the Armitage Hall, National Institute. 



millions of typing fingers must ache to tap 
the keys of this venerable relic ! 

The showcase of games exhibits adaptions, 
practically all still in use, of playing cards, 
special card games ; draughts, chess, and other 
board games ; dominoes ; jig-saw puzzles, etc. 
Of special interest is a French board for 
making and solving crossword puzzles. 

The special tools for blind handicraftsmen 
— shoe-makers, basket-makers, knitters, etc. 
— are accompanied by Braille thermometers, 
galvanometers, watches, and other adaptations 
of appliances needed every day both in 
domestic and in professional life. 

The Museum contains an interesting gallery 
of maps — either raised contour maps and 
globes or outline maps where the divisions of 
a country, rivers, railway lines, agricultural 
and industrial areas and so forth, are shown by 
embossed dotted lines or lined and dotted 
surfaces. The most elaborate of all these maps 
is one from Poland, of the city of Lwow, in 
which every street, tram line, railway line, 
and all other features of a most involved town 
are embossed to scale so clearly and effectively 
that it is almost certain that many a blind 
visitor to the^ Museum now knows the way 

The Barbier Alphabet — the Basis of Braille. 

about Lwow better than the way about 
London. Other outstanding maps are a star 
map and a map of eclipses appropriately 
produced by the Moon Society, and the 
pamphlet, issued by the National Institute, 
showing page by page the Underground 
Railways of London. 

Some of the mathematical apparatus seems 
as complicated to the unmathcmatical as 
mathematics itself. The Pythagorean Theo- 
rem, for example, appears to shroud itself in 
yet deeper mystery behind the big box of 
wooden triangles of every conceivable size and 
shape. But the uninitiated can find relief in the 
Dolanski mathematical apparatus, by which 
sums in the first four rules can be worked out 
by embossed figures placed beside or under- 
neath each other, and added or subtracted as 
the case may be. There are boards for 
making geometrical designs either with pins 
like tintacks, or with strips of pliable wire for 
curves, angles, and plans of all kinds, and a 
geometrical mat which, used as a pad, enables 
a pencil line to " rise " on the surface of a 
sheet of paper. Included in this section is 
Dr. Casson's Panagram, an apparatus designed 
to enable the blind to read with various 
shaped blocks. Its impracticability and 
complicated character have rendered it of 
little use, and it is a typical example of 
execution exceeding invention. But as a 
wonderful bit of patient workmanship it is well 
worth study. 

Perhaps the most interesting section of the 
Museum is that illustrating the evolution of 
embossed type. Notices forbid one to touch 
the exhibits, but it is almost impossible to 
refrain from passing the fingers over the many 
specimens of type just to feel the raised 
characters which, fifty or hundred years ago, 
must have kindled such beacons of hope in 
the minds of the blind. Each word as it 
became " visible " to the brain must have 
seemed as though it were a sign-post through 
a dense forest, showing the way from the 
shade to the open spaces. And it is illumin- 
ating to try to spell out a message on the 
string alphabet used by the Indian tribes of 
Mexico in the early part of the 17th century, 
where each letter is a different and compli- 
cated knot, and then to listen to a Braille 
reader, reading aloud with the utmost facility 
the day's wireless programmes from the 
Braille Radio Times. One of the oldest 
exhibits in this section is a copy of a treatise, 




written in large script, on 
the education of the blind. 
It is by M. Haiiy and was 
dedicated in 1786, three 
years before the French 
Revolution, to Louis XVI. 

Many embossed forms of 
Roman type are shown, 
some, such as Dr. Howe's 
system (1836), closely fol- 
lowing a very beautiful 
style of print. The example 
of Guillie's system is in 
Giant size, and in John 
Alston's system there is a 
specimen of the Book of 
Isaiah in small embossed 
Roman. Gall's system of 
angular type (1834) strikes 
one as unnecessarily com- 
plicated. A very fine ex- 
ample, " Sunlight in the 
Clouds," is given of the 
Worcester System. To 
run the fingers over this 
" Moral and Religious Tale " and glide 
them immediately on to the Braille characters 
of the latest Edgar Wallace " thriller " 
provides a thrill in itself — as though one were 
playing leap-frog over Time. 

One single antique sheet of paper provides 
a thrill of a different kind. That sheet of 
paper is over a hundred years old and on it is 
embossed the Barbier alphabet, Paris, 1823, a 
system based on 12 dots. This system was the 
basis of the system of Louis Braille who cut 
down the twelve dots to six. Close to this 
exhibit is a volume of the first work published 
in Braille type — by L'Institution Royale des 
Jeunes Aveugles — the third volume of" Precis 
de l'Histoire de France." In those days, of 
course, the paper was embossed on one side 
only, but in order to imitate the form of an 
ordinary book, the embossed sheets were 
pasted together back to back and bound. 

This " History of France " is the beginning 
of a new era in the" History of the Blind," and 
the achievements of that era can be followed 
up through the development of contracted 
Braille into the highly contracted Braille 
shorthand, or through the elementary system 
of Braille Music Notation for simple melodies 
to the system of to-day which can interpret a 
full orchestral score. 

Specimens of the latest novels in Braille, 
short stories which can be slipped in the- - 

A Volume of the First Work to be Published in Braille Type 

pocket, newspapers and magazines circulating 
in thousands, are exhibited. Of historic 
interest is the message in Braille from His 
Majesty the King to the blinded soldiers of 
the Allied Forces, and the Braille edition, 
beautifully bound, of the " Princess Mary 
Gift Book." 

The Lucas system, i860, illustrated by an 
edition of " The Pilgrim's Progress," fore- 
shadows the Moon system, which preceded 
the use of Braille in this country but is still 
extensively used throughout the British 
Empire and the United States. The copper 
wire and the special tools — one for each 
letter — originally used to form the Moon 
characters, are shown, with the plates on 
which the wire characters were affixed. Moon 
books are now printed from a fount of type 
which is set up and, after printing, used again 
for another book. 

Of great interest is the Moon typewriter, a 
cumbersome machine which has not been 
developed as it might have been. 

Several exhibits show how efforts have 
often been made to convey the idea of form 
and distance to the blind by means of 
embossed pictures. Where outlines only are 
concerned, the results are fairly satisfactory, 
but it is difficult to say whether attempts to 
show the gradual disappearance in the 
distance of a balloon or the sweep of prairie 



convey any meaning. Examples are 
given of experiments in humorous outline, 
but these are only funny in not being funny. 
It is rather extraordinary that the sight of a 
comic face may make you explode with 
laughter yet the touch of the actual comic 
face without sight of it may only make you 
stifle your tears. 

From string alphabets in Mexican forests 
to specially designed wireless sets in the 
London of to-day — such is the scope of this 
Museum, and the imaginative mind will 
explore with intense interest the highways and 
byways along which have travelled the 
bearers of light to the blind. 


To the Editor. 
The Blind-Deaf. 

Sir, — Recent letters in The New Beacon 
give the impression that nothing is being done 
for the Blind-Deaf. That, however, is not 
quite true to fact. For many years there 
have been Missions up and down the country 
trying to help the deaf and their workers have 
been in touch with the blind-deaf and often 
made a special feature of these. 

In London the Royal Association in aid of 
the Deaf and Dumb has for ninety years been 
learning the need and the ivay to meet it. 
This is not as simple as it may appear, for 
the blind-deaf are individual personalities 
with very diverse needs and possibilities, 
mental and spiritual as well as physical and 
social, and what is of real service to one may be 
unnecessary and even injurious to another. 
To pauperise or spoil them is " cruel kind- 
ness." Their nerves are already frayed to 
snapping-point and to fan the fires of self- 
pity or encourage the attitude that demands 
help as a right, may lead to real misery and 
discourage sympathy. For the last ten years 
the Royal Association in aid of the Deaf and 
Dumb in London has had a full-time worker 
specially for the blind-deaf, who is assisted 
by the other members of the staff and volun- 
tary visitors. 

This Blind-Deaf Care Branch is trying to 
provide that help which experience shows to 
be necessary for the true welfare of the blind- 
deaf — visitors to take them out and befriend 
them, care and attention to health, taking 
them to doctors, hospitals, dentists, etc. (it is 
most important to save those who already 

i 66 

have so much to bear from any further 
suffering if possible), social tea parties, drives, 
making arrangements and giving financial 
help for an annual change by the sea or in the 
country (another vital need as much for mental 
as for physical health) — spiritual help making 
it possible for them to attend their place of 
worship and providing interpreters and giving 
them individual religious instruction and 
preparation for the Sacraments, finding them 
suitable living places, in fact offering help of 
every kind according to individual needs. 

Wise help, tact and true sympathy are more 
necessary than pity for the building up of 
character. This should be the aim of all 
work for the blind-deaf. 

Yours, etc., 

Graham W. Simes, 

Royal Association in Aid of the Deaf and 
Dumb, 413, Oxford Street, London, W.i 
To the Editor. 

Are the Blind Exploited? 

Sir, — In your April number there appears 
the question " Are the blind exploited, 
victimized or taken advantage of ? " 

In answer to this I would say that from my 
own experience, by hearsay as well as by 
observation, I am led to the opinion that it is 
too often the case. In addition, reports exist 
of unkind treatment, and if not violence, 
profane language being used. Also, the blind 
are too often overworked with a compensation 
verging on sweat shop rates. It is an acknow- 
leged fact that a blind man or woman engaged 
in a line of work is paid less than one who is 
sighted even although the latter is of an 
inferior ability. In other words, the blind are 
paid less than the sighted even though they 
may be much superior in every way. 

In the case of anv institutions where this 
condition prevails, I wonder why the ruling 
powers cannot realize that contributions are 
made for the benefit of the blind and never 
for the sighted. It is surprising that where 
this occurs it has not attracted the attention of 
those philanthropists who are really such in 
deed as well as in words and appearances. 

It may be said that it is unbusinesslike to 
pay the blind equally with the sighted ; 
nevertheless, an institution is run for human- 
itarian purposes and the grabbing and 
grasping of commercialism should not be 
permitted to be in its nature. 
Yours, etc., 

A Friend of the Blind. 

c DfmO\iw 

Published by MP II. /% f f 1 rX. Editorial Offices: 

the National |^V 1~~* /—\ I I I ^ 224 Great Port- 

Institute for 1 I / \ V i\ / X^ land Street, 

the Blind MLS 1 jJL lL V_-> V^_^A X ^1 London. W.\. 


IT is remarkable that during the present generation there has been no national survey of 
the education of blind children — a branch of educational work which perhaps more 
than any other calls for foresight and far vision. 
This gap in national educational research has been apparent for some time, and 
everyone concerned in the education of the blind will welcome the news that something 
is to be done to fill it. A programme of educational research is to be undertaken 
by a Joint Committee of the National Institute for the Blind and the College of 
Teachers of the Blind. The Committee will be assisted by the experience and advice 
of experts nominated by the Board of Education and the Ministry of Health, and this 
should mean that the education of blind children will be regarded as a part of the whole 
educational system of the country and will not be allowed in future to lag behind the march 
of general educational progress. There is no doubt that some schools for the blind are more 
advanced in methods and outlook than other schools for the blind, but all should definitely 
benefit by a closer association with the up-to-date methods and outlook of general schools. 

The Committee will meet in the Autumn, when a plan of research will be laid down. We 
do not know what that plan will embrace, but the problems to be surveyed will 
evidently be many and difficult. Take, for example, the supply of Braille text-books. It 
must always be a limited supply, and cannot offer to teachers of the blind the wide 
selection of first-class text-books in all branches of study available to teachers in sighted schools. 
Probably every teacher of the blind, if asked to advise on the best geography, for instance, would 
name a different book. Yet it is impossible to publish Braille editions of all modern geographies, 
and some agreement must be made between the teachers as to which geography is really the 
most suitable. Every week, almost, claims the latest authoritative work on some branch of 
science, but publishers of Braille books should not issue one out of fifty and trust to luck as to 
its suitability. They should depend, in their selection, on the advice of the teachers as a body. 
Another thorny question is whether blind children should be associated during education 
with sighted children, or whether they should be segregated. The unreasonable pros probably 
equal the unreasonable cons, and it is a question which can only be decided after open-minded, 
wide and intensive research. 

Should the education of the blind include domestic and physical training ? Both are 
supremely important in the life of a blind p2rson. The ability to bake a pie often exceeds in 
practical value the ability to solve the pons asinorum, and physical fitness may overcome the 
difficulties of blindness to a greater extent than an alert mentality. 

The teaching of manual dexterity is another important matter. The majority of blind 
people earn their living by the skill of their hands. Does the elementary education of the blind 
attach sufficient importance to the training of the sense of touch as a substitute to the sense of 
sight ? The methods adopted in the elementary education of the blind ought, it would seem, 
to be based on the principles which recognise the necessity for vocational training in the earliest 
stages. The choice of a career is not open to the blind as it is to the sighted. Blindness is a 
definite handicap and circumscribes the field of endeavour, but elementary education should 
certainly try to widen the field from the very start of mental growth. 

Partially blind children and blind-deaf children provide the north and south poles of the 
questions incident to the education of the blind. The border lines between sight and blindness 
and between blindness and other afflictions are difficult to discern with clearness, yet the future 
life of a blind child with a tendency, as it were, to sight, and of a blind child with a tendency 
to deafness, depends almost entirely on the nature of the environment of early years, and the 
quality and rate of early mental development. 

We have indicated but a few of the many questions which will have to receive the attention 
of the Educational Research Committee. There are many others, such as, for example, the 
selection and training of teachers of the blind, but we feel sure that the formation of the Committee 
is a very big step towards the right solution of such problems, and that the labours of the 
Committee will be of very real benefit to the blind. The Editor. 




IT was a sight to be remembered at the 
corner of Regent Street, when burly 
policemen on point duty held their 
hands up to " Green Line " coaches 
and " General " omnibuses, and 
everybody had to wait whilst women 
from many parts of the environs of 
London trooped out from the Queen's Hall, and 
in a crowd crossed the street to the Polytechnic, 
and there had tea and a conversazione ." 

So our contemporary, The Methodist Times, 
describes the scene which followed the Ninth 
Annual Sisterhood Meeting. 

This event took place at the Queen's Hall, 
on Wednesday, June ioth. At half-past two 
the audience began to fill the stalls and the 
grand tier — quietly because of the organ 
selections given by Mr. H. C. Warrilow, 
F.R.C.O. — and by three o'clock, two thousand 
eager faces were turned towards the platform. 
About two minutes before that time, Mr. 
Arthur Fagge stepped on the platform, raised 
his baton, and the strains of " Jesu, Lover of 
My Soul " floated through the great Hall. 
The singers were the Sisterhood Choir, 
numbering three hundred. This was the 
first occasion on which the Sisters have 
provided the Choir, which will certainly 
remain a feature of all future Meetings. 

Tumultuous applause greeted Captain Sir 
Beachcroft Towse, V.C., who presided, as he 
entered with Dame Madge Kendal, followed 
by other members of the platform party, 
among whom were Lady Towse, the Mayoress 
of St. Marylebone (Mrs. R. Q. Henriques), 
Mrs. Hutton (representing The British Weekly 
on behalf of the Rev. Dr. Hutton, who much 
regretted his inability to be present), the 
Chairman of the Chingford Urban District 
Council, Mrs. and Miss Evans, Mr. J. H. 
Batty, Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Hughes-Buller 
representing the Greater London Fund 
Committee, together with members of the 
Ladies Social Committee and other influential 
voluntary workers particularly interested in 
Women's Meetings. 

The uplifting note, which all who have had 
the privilege of attending these Meetings have 
come to recognise as their key-note, was 
struck as the vast audience joined as with one 
voice in the blind George Matheson's beauti- 
ful hymn : " O Love that will not let me go," 


1 68 

and in the silence that followed, Miss Lily 
Wincey, one of the blind singers, stepped 
forward and presented to Dame Madge 
Kendal the charming Victorian posy which 
had been specially prepared by Messrs. A. P. 
Prewer & Sons, and given to the Fund for 
this purpose. 

In his welcome to those present, the Chair- 
man said : " I thank you all as representative 
of the Sisterhoods of our Churches in and 
around London. I want, if I may, to say in 
the name of all the blind ' Thank you.' That 
thanks comes from the bottom of my heart, . 
and from the bottom of the hearts of those 
thousands of people you are helping." In 
the last ten years, he added, no less than 
£300,000 had been collected by the Greater 
London Fund for the Blind, and towards 
this great sum the sisters had contributed by 
their services. He wished to express the 
gratitude of the Committee of the Fund to all 
who were giving valuable help at the Meeting 
to-day, and would specially mention Mr. 
Arthur Fagge, Conductor of the London 
Choral Society, who was giving his services as 
Honorary Musical Director of the Fund ; the 
Directors of the Polytechnic, Regent Street, 
who had so generously made arrangements 
for tea to be served after the Meeting ; The 
British Weekly, The Methodist Recorder, 
and all other donors of prizes ; the Manager 
of the Queen's Hall, and the stewards. He 
then called upon Miss Edwards, Sisterhood 
Appeal Organiser, to give her report. 

Miss Edwards said : " For three successive 
years the members of the Sisterhood and 
Women's Meetings of our Churches have met 
here in Queen's Hall. It is with feelings of 
profound gratitude that I now present the 
Ninth Annual Report in relation to the 
Sisterhood work. This last year has been 
one of strenuous endeavour ; step by 
step you Sisters have mounted the Hill 
Difficulty on Life's Highway, and realising 
that your path has been illuminated with the 
radiance of the sun by day and the glory of 
the moon and stars by night, you have paused 
by the roadside to stretch forth the helping 
hand of sympathy and love to that great army 
of 10,000 also climbing the same path, but on 
the shadowed side of the road. When you 
gained the cross roads and saw the sign post, 


illuminated in letters of gold — ' Geranium 
Day, 193 i ' — yon laid aside your own burdens 
for a brief space to help those others climbing 
— many of them with painful steps and slow. 
And then you saw the vision when the day was 
done — the vision of Emmanuel's land from 
the top of the hill so difficult to climb. 

" You will be glad to know that your great 
effort has amounted to upwards of £1,250 on 
' Geranium Day ' alone, and a further £346 
has been raised by concerts, box collections, 
sales of work, etc., bringing the total to over 
£1,600, an increase on last year's return of 
£200. No less than £6,600 has been raised 
by your efforts during the last nine years. This 
year many new Sisterhoods have joined our 
ranks and we have welcomed them gladly. 

" 1 have very much pleasure in announcing 

Workshop for Blind Women's prize of a hand- 
woven tea cloth was awarded to Miss 
Breadnam of Grays Congregational Church 
for £8 2s. 2d. ; and the Rev. Alfred Sharp 
(President of the National Free Church 
Council for 1930) had given a book prize to be 
handed to Mrs. Channon, who was not only 
responsible for organising the Penge and 
Anerley district, but had collected personally 
£5 10s. 6d. of the £48 19s. 4d. from that area. 
The Management Committee of the Greater 
London Fund for the Blind awarded a 
special prize to Mr. Atkins, a friend of the 
Hackney Wesleyan Central Mission, who 
collected for the Sisters £5 2s. 4W. ; and 
another special prize was the gift of Mr. R. J. 
James, publisher to the Band of Hope Union, 
to be offered to Miss Dav, organiser of the 

that the Silver Tea Urn, generously given by 
The British Weekly, has been won for the 
third time in succession by the Wesleyan 
Sisterhood Club, Quex Road, Kilburn, who 
have collected the splendid amount of 
£118 6s. as against £100 4s. 3d. raised last 
year, and therefore this Tea Urn becomes 
their property. We heartily congratulate our 
friends on this wonderful achievement." 

When the applause that greeted the 
announcement of these figures had subsided, 
Miss Edwards further stated that again the 
Methodist Recorder had given a prize of Silver 
Tea Spoons to the lady who had collected the 
largest sum by her personal effort, the 
winner being Mrs. Webb, also a member of 
the Quex Road Wesleyan Sisterhood Club, 
whose collection was £8 6s. 4d. The Barclay 

Grays district, as the united efforts of the 
Sisterhoods of that area had won for them the 
second place in the Competition for the last 
three years, the amount collected in 1931 
being £73 2s. iod. Certificates signed by 
Dr. Hutton would be handed later to all 
Meetings which had helped in the " Geranium 
Day " Competition. 

" £6,600 — what a fine achievement and 
worthy of your united efforts!" Miss Edwards 
concluded. "But let us not be weary in well 
doing on the upward path ; for when next 
' Geranium Day ' approaches and this Meeting 
is but a memory, you may meet with Mr. 
Timorous and Mr. Mistrust on the road, who 
will tell you of the lions in the path — then, if 
you are valiant like Christian, you will go 
forward and the Vision Splendid will be yours, 




and like him you will be welcomed at the end 
of the road into the Celestial City and hear 
those words ' Well done, thou good and 
faithful servant.' " 

Before distributing the prizes Dame Madge 
Kendal acknowledged smilingly the enthusi- 
astic greetings of the Sisters. 

" This is a happy Meeting — isn't it ? " she 
said. " I've never heard of such sums of 
money being collected before ! It seems like 
a fairy story, and yet when I look round I 
can't say you look like fairies : you look like 
something better than fairies, good-hearted 
women and men who have come to help those 
for whom Sir Beachcroft Towse has said 
' Thank you.' " 

Dame Madge caused great amusement by 
declaring that she had not the heart to give 
away the Tea Urn for ever, and when Mrs. 
Waterman stepped forward to claim it on 
behalf of the Quex Road Wesleyan Sisterhood 
Club, removed the lid and clung to this 
tenderly, begging Mrs. Waterman to allow her 
to keep just one little piece. Before Dame 
Madge delivered up the lid, saying that she 
hoped Mrs. Waterman would make nice tea 
and not forget to put the sugar in the cups, 
the photographer had " snapped " a happy 
picture, which will live long in the memories 
of the amused spectators. 

Each prize was accompanied by a witty 
phrase for the recipient to treasure with the 
award, and the great domed ceiling re-echoed 
the laughter of two thousand women as she 
told the solitary man prize-winner, " I have 
always been afraid of your sex ; but I have 
now reached the age when I can bear the sight 
of a mere man." 

So the veteran actress swayed the audience 
to tears and laughter with that consummate 
art which held her generation spellbound in 
the heyday of her fame. 

The last speaker was " a mere man " — Mr. 
H. C. Preece, the eloquent blind secretary of 
the Fund, who was welcomed with the 
heartiness appropriate to friendship of nine 
years' standing. He, too, was " grave and 
gay," his stories rousing the audience to 
fresh merriment, led by Dame Madge herself. 
In more serious vein, he said : " We love you 
women, we blind men. You do not pour over 
us unavailing streams of compassion. You do 
not look upon us as objects for your pity but 
as opportunities for your service. You 
understand us, and that is why we love 



you. . . . You give the blind a new life 
You bear our burdens, and so you fulfil that 
Divine Command of Him Whose highest 
expression was a generous and continuous 
service. Ten thousand of us — blind of 
London — offer this prayer for you women : 
that the glorious gift of sight may be preserved 
for every one of you until the end, that it may 
be given and preserved to your children and 
to your children's children, and that so you 
will be rewarded for the magnificent way in 
which you have helped God Himself to fulfil 
in our day the promise made long ago in 
Isaiah : ' / will bring the blind by a way they 
knew not ; I will lead them in paths thai they 
have not known : I will make darkness light 
before them, and crooked things straight. These 
things zvill Idoun to them ,and not forsake them . " ' 

The delightful musical programme which 
makes this gathering unique among Meetings 
was deeply appreciated. Mr. H. C. Warrilow, 
familiar as the Musical Director of the 
National Institute for the Blind, chose for his 
organ solo " Minuet and Trio in B flat " by 
W. G. Wood. He was followed by Miss 
Isabella Vass, who received a particularly 
warm welcome, as a very special friend of the 
Sisters, and other artistes well known to them 
who contributed to the programme were 
Miss Lily Wincey and Mr. William Turner, 
who, with Mr. Michael Doyle, completed the 
popular G.L.F. Quartet. 

The collection taken at the Meeting 
amounted to £39 13s. 8d. 

Tears shone in many eyes as this memorable 
Meeting concluded with the Community 
Hymn " Lead, Kindly Light," but they were 
happy tears, springing from the depths of 
hearts full of that true joy which is surely the 
most precious gift of the Spirit. 

A Correction. 

The presentation to Mrs. Hattersley Ward, 
Superintendent of the Barclay Workshops for 
Blind Women, on May 15th, was made, on 
behalf of the Committee, by the Viscountess 
Brentford, not by the Viscountess Chelmsford, 
as stated in the last issue of The New Beacon. 

Stereotyping Machines Ready for Sale. 

The stereotyping machines made by the 
American Braille Press, 74, Rue Lauriston, 
Paris, are now ready for delivery, and orders 
are being taken at a price of 350 dollars, f.o.b. 
Paris, that is, approximately £72. 



A N article on the career of 

f^L Dr. Edward Allen ap- 

/ m peared in The Beacon some 

/ m years ago, but in view of 

/ % the fact that Dr. Allen has 

1 ^L within the last few weeks 

-^ -^- retired from his post as 

Director of the Perkins Institution, Massa- 
chusetts, after twenty-four years selfless 
devotion to it and altogether forty years 
dedicated to the interests of the blind, it is 
perhaps fitting that some account should be 
given once again of his fine record of service. 

He was born near Boston seventy years ago 
and was educated first in Germany, and later, 
at Harvard, where he graduated in natural 
science, and for a year studied medicine. 
Fortunately, however, for the blind, he gave 
up the plan of becoming a doctor, and 
coming over to London he took a post at the 
Royal Normal College which he held for 
three years. At the end of this time he 
returned to America, and was for two years 
on the staff of the Perkins Institution until 
his appointment as Principal of the Pennsyl- 
vania Institution, Philadelphia. 

There he remained for sixteen years, and 
did important pioneer work ; he had brought 
with him from the Royal Normal College a 
very strong sense of the importance of 
physical training for the blind, and an 
appreciation of beauty and the value of 
beautiful surroundings, which stood the 
management of the Philadelphia School in 
good stead, when it was decided to build 
in the suburb of Overbrook. 

In 1907, Dr. Anagnos, the Director of the 
Perkins Institution, died, and Dr. Allen was 
invited to succeed him. For the past 
twenty-four years then, he has been working 
at Perkins. In 1912 the Perkins Institution, 
under Dr. Allen's superintendence, moved 
from the old hotel in South Boston where 
it had been established since 1839, to fine 
new buildings and grounds on the banks of 
the Charles River. Those who recently 
had the privilege of visiting the Institution 
during the New York World Conference 
have brought back stories of its stately 
buildings and beauties that would have been 
difficult to believe had they not substantiated 
their accounts of it by photographs. As 
Overbrook, the place reflects, architecturally 

and aesthetically, Dr. Allen's practical ideas. 
We read in a recent Report of the Institution 
that one of the things which a teacher should 
strive to impart to the children in his care is 
" a loving first-hand acquaintance with their 
natural surroundings," and in surroundings 
so beautiful as those of the Perkins Institution 
it should assuredly not be difficult. " Here " 
— to quote from a booklet given to delegates 
at the Conference — " in well-equipped school- 
rooms, with gymnasium and swimming 
pool, library, museum, and printing plant, its 
pupils to the number of about 280 . . . 
carry out a well varied and systematic 
curriculum . . . the cottage family plan, 
its unique feature, providing the socialisation 
of the pupils so that they may be acceptable 
members of the community later." 

Dr. Allen is so intimately bound up with 
the Perkins Institution, and the Perkins 
Institution owes so much to his guidance 
and inspiration, that it is difficult to prevent 
any article dealing with him from becoming 
a mere account of the Institution with all its 
amenities, its library, museum, domestic 
science centre, kindergarten, and so on. But 
fine equipment is not everything, and we are 
concerned here rather with the ideals which 
lie behind the fine buildings, and which have 
characterised Dr. Allen's work throughout, 
and helped him to achieve his ends. We have 
spoken of his love of beauty, and jthe impor- 
tant place he gives to physical fitness, but no 
account of his work would be complete that 
did not stress some of his other aims. 

The prevention of blindness has always 
been a matter of deep concern to him, and a 
friend who knows him has spoken of the joy 
that lit up his face when he was able to 
announce that owing to the improved concern 
for infant welfare, the Home for Blind Babies 
at Massachusetts would no longer be needed 
specifically for that purpose. His experience 
in London interested him in the problem of 
the myopic child, and on his return from 
England he actively promoted the opening 
of the first Sight-Saving Class in Boston. 

He has studied the conditions prevailing 
in most schools for the blind in the United 
States, and has visited many schools in 
Europe, being always ready to place his 
own wide knowledge and experience at 
the disposal of his fellow-educators. He 




has studied the psychology of the blind child 
and co-operated with the American Founda- 
tion in having the Perkins kindergarten made 
an experimental school under the supervision 
of the Foundation's psychologist. But to 
Dr. Allen, psychology is not a mere matter 
of the laboratory ; he carries his wise and 
sympathetic understanding of the child-mind 
into every-day life, and the same friend who 
spoke of his happiness in the diminution of 
child-blindness gives a pleasant picture of him 
as he encourages the small children at 
Perkins " to build wonderful log-cabins in 
the open air of the lovely grounds ; but 
when the house is built he understands and 
permits the joy of demolishing it. He 
sympathises and encourages his young blind 
farmers, who bring him of the best yields of 
their small plots, and he lingers with them 
in sympathetic admiration of their portly and 
dignified pig." 

Perhaps one of Dr. Allen's most important 
achievements has been his work in con- 
nection with the training of teachers for the 
blind at the Harvard Class which he created. 
The course over which he presides is recog- 
nised and carries credit to those who hold a 
degree, and it is interesting to read that of 120 
students who had studied with Dr. Allen up 
to October of last year, 85 had entered on 
work in the education of the blind, and of 
these seven filled principalships, two were 
executive heads of residential schools, and 
one a government official in charge of special 
education. At one time twenty-five 
languages, including Esperanto, were under- 
stood by the pupils of the Harvard Class. 

The encouragement of Braille and the final 
settlement of the type question in 1916 owe 
much to Dr. Allen, and Braille printing has 
always greatly interested him. Perkins has a 
separate, highly organised Braille printing 
plant which has made a notable contribution 
of Braille music, books, etc., and produced 
some interesting raised illustrations. 

The library at Perkins contains a unique 
and the most important collection of inkprint 
" Blindiana " and tactile literature as well as 
records of every kind in print, including 
newspaper clippings, etc., from all the world. 
The museum of " Blindiana," created by Dr. 
Allen, is also world-famous. 

He has devoted much thought to the 
particularly pathetic group of the deaf-blind. 

" The education of these children," he 



writes in a recent issue of The Teachers' Forum 
" cannot be too broad and rich ... we 
should not grudge them either what they can 
get out of existence or what the preparation 
for it should cost. Let anyone who questions 
this last try to imagine what life would be 
worth to him if unable to hear and unable to 
see." Miss Helen Keller, a pupil at Perkins, 
owes much to Dr. Allen, who put into Braille 
books essential for her college work. 

It is difficult not to appear to be exaggera- 
tive when endeavouring to appraise the value 
of Dr. Allen's work for the blind. Picture 
a man born " blessed by all the fairies," 
descended on both sides from that sterling 
old " Mayflower " stock, possessed of genuine 
culture, a profound scholar — in brief, a man 
of the old school, a gentle man. To most 
men of that type, the world would seem to be 
the arena for a brilliant spectacular career, or 
if public life were distasteful, a fair field for 
cultured pleasure. But Dr. Allen thought 
otherwise. For him were the quiet achieve- 
ments of philanthropy, not the glory of 
worldly success and the glitter of publicity. 
He has ever been an idealist, yet he has never 
permitted his ideals to etherealise the facts of 
life. He has tackled the problems confront- 
ing him with the practical grasp of a man of 
business, but behind his actions has been the 
far vision of the statesman. He has impressed 
his own dignity on his work, and to the 
execution of his self-appointed task he has 
brought the spirit of high adventure. In 
following the way of his ambition, he has 
gained esteem and affection, and " the human 
record of his great and rare service " — as it is 
described by an acquaintance — proves the 
truth of his own favourite message to the 
blind, " They can who think they can." 

We have written throughout this article 
of " Dr. " Allen, and it is perhaps worth 
noting here that he graduated from Harvard 
cum laude, and that the title of D.Sc. was 
conferred upon him honoris causa about a 
year ago by the University of Pennsylvania, 
in recognition of his eminent services in the 
education of the blind. At the request of 
the Board of Directors he remains Director 
Emeritus and Director of the Harvard Class 
for the Blind. Dr. Allen's many friends in 
England rejoice at the honour paid to him, 
and look forward to conveying their congratu- 
lations to him in person during his visit to 
England this summer. 





IT is not our intention in these articles 
so to present the facts relating to each 
institution as to constitute a series of 
criticisms pitting the, work of one 
organisation against the other. Our 
object is to give the known character- 
istics and facts in order that where 
details of importance can be introduced into 
a system, those associated with workshop 
management ma}' carefully consider the 
respective merits of any such system. Else- 
where we have dealt at length with minimum 
wages and task labour, and our object here is 
merely to present to the readers of this 
journal such up-to-date information as may 
enable them to reach a sound judgment on 
economic questions of paramount importance. 
When we are considering the evolution of 
the special workshop idea we cannot fail to 
admire the active interest and work of those 
who espoused the cause towards the middle 
of the last century. The undertakings for 
which they were responsible seem to us, 
viewing them from such a distance, to be very 
puny and almost insignificant. It is only 
when we realise the nature of the obstacles 
with which those early pioneers had to 
contend that we are constrained to bestow 
upon them that measure of appreciation to 
which they are so justly entitled. No one is 
so foolish as to imagine that finality has been 
reached in the development of workshop 
organisation, and no one suggests that such 
facilities cannot be vastly improved and 
widely extended. But these considerations 
should not prevent us from recognising 
whole-heartedly the progress that has been 
made, nor should we be deterred from 
offering helpful criticism where the exigencies 
of the situation seem to require such. 

In this article we desire to draw attention 
to the work of the Cardiff Institution for the 
Blind, for in many respects its activities differ 
fundamentally from those of other agencies 
undertaking welfare work. In no sense can 
this institution be regarded as a wealthy 
corporation. The Society is able to pay 20s. 
in the pound, and generally to make modest 
provision for likely contingencies, but it has 
no large bank balance upon which to draw for 
the sustenance of its work. 

If wc may venture to express an opinion in 
this connection wc would say that such a 
status is not necessarily prejudicial to its work, 
for the management realise that results must 
be secured during the everyday life of the 
agency if it is to continue to maintain a 
healthy existence. Within recent years the 
workshop and factory employees in the 
Cardiff area have liberally supported the 
claims of the Institution, and this fact has 
rendered it possible for the management to 
provide substantial sums for the augmentation 
of wages. 

In the last article we drew attention to the 
fact that the Hull Institution had inaugurated 
a system of wage payments based upon what 
is known as the " variable minimum," and 
that so far as could be seen not only the 
management but the workers appear to 
favour the arrangement. At Cardiff, however, 
the minimum wage, except for women, is not 
favoured by the management, though we are 
informed that a local agitation has been 
conducted by a small section of the workers 
with a view to securing the minimum rate of 
wages paid to unskilled labour employed by 
the citv council. We are advised that the 
management of the Cardiff institution have in 
mind the numerous minimum wage experi- 
ments and do not find that the results justify 
them in departing from their own well-tried 
system of wage payments. 

The Cardiff Institution for the Blind was 
established in 1865, and for fifty-three years 
conducted ordinary trading operations before 
seeking a charter of incorporation, which was 
obtained in the year 191 8. 

Since the system of wage payments 
obtaining at the Cardiff institution is probably 
the only one of its kind in the country, it will 
be useful to give a detailed description, and as 
far as possible it is proposed to employ the 
official language used by the management in 
order to avoid possible errors. The system 
provides a bonus of 22s. 6d. weekly for all 
married men for a full week's work, and a 
bonus of 13s. to all single men and women. If 
there are children of school age dependent on 
the married person, 2s. is allowed for the 
first child and is. each for the others. In 
addition Trade Union rates of wages are paid, 




and to such rates is added a further percentage 
which ranks as augmentation, the percentage 
varying according to the particular department 
or the Trade Union list. For example, in the 
basket- making department, Trade Union 
rates are paid, plus 25 per cent, augmentation, 
plus general subsidy. In the mat-making 
department, Trade Union rates are paid, plus 
10 per cent, augmentation, plus the general 
subsidy. In the ships' fenders department 
where no Trade Union list exists, " we have 
fixed a rate of wage which allows the article 
to be made at an economic rate for competi- 
tion, but we pay to the workers 100 per cent, 
augmentation because they could not other- 
wise approach anything like a living wage. 
The same arrangements apply to our coal-bag 
making." The women workers receive a 
minimum wage of 28s. 6d. per week, but in 
this connection we are informed that " only 
their actual earnings are entered in the trade 
wages column." 

During the years 1930-31 88 blind persons 
were employed, 62 men and 26 women. For 
purposes of comparison we give below the 
wages, bonuses and augmentation paid during 
the past three years. A perusal of these 
figures will doubtless occasion some surprise 
among those who believe that economic 
earnings should always be a higher amount 
than that made available for subsidy purposes. 
Our business at the moment, however, is not 
to make excursions into the sphere of criticism, 
but merely to record the facts as they are 
reported to us. 

1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 

Wages £2,604 £2,630 £2,237 

Augmentation & Bonuses £4,149 £4,676 £4,805 

Good Conduct Money . . £257 £291 £316 

Holidays £124 £118 £114 

We have previously suggested that the 
system of wage payments obtaining at the 
Cardiff Institution differs fundamentally from 
that in operation elsewhere. The responsible 
authorities find that these arrangements work 
well, but it is clear from the facts recorded 
that the volume of voluntary charity far 
exceeds the economic earnings of the under- 
taking, and doubtless on this account the 
Council of the Cardiff Institution will rightly 
contend that the organisation is in every 
sense a philanthropic one, and therefore 
entitled to a large measure of public support. 
We remember other days when the position 
of the blind worker employed at this same 



institution was not a happy one, but within 
recent years such radical improvements have 
been effected as to secure an honourable place 
for the organisation among those agencies that 
are entitled to our respect and admiration. 
During the past few years the society has been 
fortunate in retaining the services as manager 
of Mr. Charles A. Martin, who is not only a 
keen business man but also deeply interested 
in every aspect of welfare work to which he 
devotes much time and attention. 

We understand that the Cardiff City 
Council provide much substantial help for 
this organisation and have recently given 
evidence of increased interest and support. 
There is no very marked evidence on the part 
of the municipality of a desire to assume 
control of this institution, nor do we feel that 
they would be in a position to manage the 
undertaking with greater skill and efficiency 
than is displayed by the present council of 
this voluntary organisation. 

(To be continued.) 

Members of Executive Committee. 

The members of the Executive Committee 
of the International Council of the Blind, 
elected by the delegates at the New York 
Conference acting as a World Council, are as 
follows : — 
Dr. Siegfried Altmann, Director, Israelitische 

Blinden-Institut, Vienna, Austria. 
Mr. W. McG. Eagar, Secretary-General, 

National Institute for the Blind, London, 

Herr Alrik Lundberg, De Blindas Forening, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 
Dr. Miguel Merida Nicolich, Director, Insti- 

tuto Municipal para Ciegos y Sordos- 

Mudos, Malaga. 
Commendator Dottore Aurelio Nicolodi, 

Director, Unione Italiana dei Ciechi, 

Florence, Italy. 
Fraulein Margaret Schaffer, Secretary, Bern- 

ischer Blindenfursorgeverein, Berne, 

Dr. Carl Strehl, Syndikus, Blindenstudienan- 

stalt, Marburg-Lahn, Germany. 
Mr. Tadasu Yoshimoto, Japan and Oxford. 
M. Paul Guinot, Secretary-General, Feder- 
ation Nationale des Aveugles Civils, Paris. 



Examiners' Reports on School and Home Teachers' Examinations, 1931. 

School Teachers' Examination. 


HE Twenty-Third Examin- 
ation of the College was 
held on 19th and 20th May, 
at the School for the Blind, 
Swiss Cottage, London, 

Seventeen candidates 
entered — thirteen women and four men — all 
of whom took the Examination for the first 

The work of the candidates was good with 
the exception of Arithmetic. Eleven can- 
didates gained the certificate. Their names 
with the number of subjects in which honours 
were secured are as follows : — Howard, Mr. 
A. S. (4), Ludgate, Miss E. McH. (3), 
Metcalf, Miss A. (5), Nicholls, Mrs. K. F. J. 
(2), Parker, Miss M. A. (1), Pinniger, Miss D. 

E. (3), Powell, Miss F. E. (1), Rothwell, Mr. 

F. (4), Symes, Mr. J. W. L. (2), Theakston, 
Miss D. (2), Waid,Miss D. (1). 

Arthur Pearson Prize. 

The Arthur Pearson Prize was awarded to 
Miss A. Metcalf of the Stoneleigh Special 
School for the Blind and Deaf, Leicester ; 
Mr. F. Rothwell of the Royal Blind School, 
Broomhill, Sheffield was proxime accessit. 

Home Teachers' Examination. 

The ninth Examination for the Home 
Teachers Certificate was held simultaneously 
at the School for the Blind, Swiss Cottage, 
London, N.W., School for the Blind, Waver- 
tree, Liverpool, and the Royal School for the 
Blind, Edinburgh, on Tuesday, Wednesday 
and Thursday, 5th, 6th and 7th May, 

I 93 I - 

Eighty-two candidates entered for the 
Examination of whom 80 presented themselves 
and 21 of these were re-entrants, three of 
whom had previously obtained the Certificate. 
Forty-nine Certificates have been granted. 
Of the successful candidates 5 were blind, 
7 partially blind and 37 sighted. 

The Arthur Pearson Prize was awarded to 
Miss M. C. Fricker of the Essex County 
Association for the Blind ; Miss D. G. L. 

Hall of Bolton Workshops and Homes for the 
Blind was proxime accessit. 

The following is a list of successful can- 
didates ; the number of subjects in which 
honours were obtained is indicated after each 
name :—Begg, Miss A. R., Blackwell, Mrs. 
N. K. (2), Booth, Miss L. (5), Bottomley, 
Miss M. L. (2), Braceivell, Mr. J. R. (1), 
Brazen, Miss E. (2), Brine, Miss H. L., 
Browne, Mr. J. S. (4), Burkitt, Mrs. M., 
Bynon, Miss G. B. (2), Campbell, Miss S. L. 
(i), Carr, Miss M. E., Charlwood, Miss M. (3), 
Christie, Miss V. (4), Clark, Miss A. (1), 
Crofts, Miss A. (1), Cutting, Miss C. E. (3), 
Davies, Miss E. M. (1), Dakins, Mr. W. F., 
Edwards, Mr. J. M. (2), Fricker, Miss M. C. 
(5), Garratt, Miss F. B. (5), Gourlay, Miss 
M.D.(i), Herrald, Miss J. M.(i), Flail, Miss 
D. G. L. (6), Holborow, Miss M. L. M., 
Hotson, Miss IF B. (2), Hughes, Miss E. A. (2), 
Hughes, Mr. J. (1), Jones, Mr. E. (1), 
Jones, Miss P.' E. (1), Ledger, Mr. A. E., 
Lord, Miss L. (4), Lynch, Mrs. D. F. (2), 
McQuade, Miss J. M., Millne, Miss A. R. (4), 
Morgan, Miss M. (4), Mote, Miss D. E. (2), 
Newson, Miss M. (4), Owen, Miss E. L. M. (4), 
Partridge, Mr. C. A. (1), Ramsbottom, Miss 
M. G., Read, Miss M. E. A., Rutherford, Miss 
C. E. (2), Snell, Miss E. M., Stoker, Miss M. 
(4), Thomson, Mr. J. D. (2), Williamson, Miss 
M. G. (4), Woolway, Miss M.G.(\). 

E. D. MacGregor Prize. 
The Annual Competition for the E. D. 
MacGregor Prize was conducted by the 
Examiners, on behalf of the Union of Counties 
Associations for the Blind, on May 7th. 
There were two entrants but as neither 
showed sufficient ability in teaching and the 
schemes submitted were poor the prize was 
not awarded. 

Home for the Blind, Torr, Plymouth. 

The Torr Home is now well established in 
its new quarters, and the two photographs 
that illustrate the Report for 1930-31 give an 
attractive picture of some of the blind 
residents in their sitting-room, and a view 
of the Home from the grounds. A donation 
of £250 from the National Institute for the 
Blind is gratefully acknowledged. 





Midland Counties Association for the Blind. 

The Annual Meeting of the Midland 
Counties Association for the Blind was held at 
the Town Hall, Oxford, on May 29th, 1931, 
under the Chairmanship of Miss Merivale. 

The Committee discussed the appointment 
of a General Purposes Committee as it was 
felt that the General Committee had now 
grown too large owing to the number of 
representatives nominated to that Committee 
since the passing of the Local Government 
Act, 1929. It was considered that routine 
business could best be dealt with by a Sub- 
Committee and that the appointment of such 
a Committee would be helpful to the general 
efficiency of the Association. 

It was therefore decided that a General 
Purposes Committee be appointed consisting 
of ten members — four representatives from 
the Voluntary Agencies, four representatives 
from Local Authorities and two blind mem- 
bers — with the Chairman and Vice-Chairman 

The functions of this Sub-Committee will 
be to deal with routine business and to act in 
an advisory capacity. 

Miss Merivale was appointed to represent 
the Association on the Executive Council of 
the National Institute for the Blind. 

The following delegates were appointed to 
represent the Association on the Council of 
the Union of Counties Associations for the 
Blind :— Dr. Holden, Mrs. Knapp, Mrs. 
Barton Land, Mr. Starling, Mr. Thomas, and 
Mr. Wilson, and Miss Merivale and Miss 
LIrmson were appointed as Members of the 
Executive Committee of the LTnion. 

After the conclusion of formal business Miss 
Merivale and Mr. Starling gave an account 
of their experiences at the World Conference 
for the Blind held in New York last April. 

Miss Merivale spoke on the general work 
undertaken by the delegates and the wide 
range of their activities, followed by an account 
of the work done in connection with the 
Social Welfare and Home Teaching and 
Visiting of the Blind. 

Mr. Starling, who was more particularly 
interested in the industrial aspect of the 
Conference, dealt with the subject of Work- 
shops and Employment. 



The Committee was greatly interested in 
what Miss Merivale and Mr. Starling said, as 
this was the first occasion upon which those 
present had had the opportunity of hearing at 
first hand an account of what had taken place 
at the World Conference. 

Eastern Counties Association for the Blind. 

The Annual Meeting of the Eastern 
Counties Association for the Blind was held 
at the County Hall, Cambridge, on Friday, 
the 19th June, 1931, at which the Chairman, 
the Rev. Dr. T. C. Fitzpatrick (President of 
Queens' College, Cambridge) presided in the 
morning ; and Mr. J. P. Kirkman, M.A., J. P., 
in the afternoon (owing to the absence of the 
Vice-Chairman, Major General R. N. R. 
Reade, C.B., C.M.G.) 

The Hon. Officers were re-elected, together 
with the Council which consists of one 
Representative nominated by each County and 
County Borough Council, two Representatives 
from each Voluntary Agency which sub- 
scribes to the funds of the Association, and 
five co-opted Members. The Rev. Canon 
C. E. Bolam was elected to represent the 
Eastern Counties Association on the Council 
of the National Institute for the Blind. 

The Representatives on the General Com- 
mittee of the Union of Counties Associations 
for the Blind are the Chairman the Rev. Dr. 
T. C. Fitzpatrick (or Vice-Chairman, General 
Reade) the Rev. Canon C. E. Bolam, Major 
T. H. Bryant, Mr. R. C. Fanthorpe, Mr. E. 
Evans, Mrs. Nussey, Mr. A. K. Turner, and 
the Secretary, Miss M. C. Tenney. The 
Representatives elected by the Association to 
the Executive Commitee of the Union of 
Counties Associations are the Rev. Canon 
C. E. Bolam, and the Secretary, Miss Tenney. 

The Report and Balance Sheet were 
approved and Grants made to each of the 
Societies with a Special Grant to the Norwich 
Institution towards the Extension Scheme. 

Among the decisions arrived at by the 
meeting was an agreement to re-establish the 
Executive Committee, and to hold a Confer- 
ence of Home Teachers, the latter practice 
having been dropped since 1927. 

The following subjects were discussed : the 
Incomes of necessitious and unemployable 
blind persons ; British Wireless for the 


Blind Fund ; Memorandum from the Nat- 
ional Institute for the Blind ; the Prevention 
of Blindness and a Home for mentally- 
retarded blind children. 

The following items of interest occur in the 
Annual Report which was presented to, and 
adopted by, the meeting : there is a total of 
3,285 on the Register ; and an Observation 
List containing 584 names and particulars of 
those whose sight is defective but who are 
not registered under the Blind Persons Act is 
kept ; these cases are carefully watched and 
much sight has been saved in this way. There 
are four blind persons on the Register who 
are 100 years old — one in South Bedfordshire, 
one in East Suffolk, one in West Suffolk and 
one in Great Yarmouth. There are twenty- 
five Home Teachers in the Area, two of whom 
are part-time, and during the year approxi- 
mately 25,500 visits to the blind have been 
paid by these Home Teachers, excluding, ol 
course, all Social Gatherings. Mention is 
made in the Report of the Garden City in 
Bucarest established by " Carmen Silva " in 
the hope that there may be someone who 
would like to follow " Carmen Silva's " lead, 
and create, as a lasting memorial, a Garden 
City for the blind. 

South Eastern and London Counties Associa- 
tion for the Blind. 

The Annual Report of the East Ham 
Welfare Association for the Blind gives an 
account of another year of excellent work by 
this efficient Association. Many suggestions 
will be found in it by those who are looking 
for hints to improve similar work. Good use 
is made of voluntary help and of the powers 
of the Local Authority. Copies can be 
obtained from the Hon. Secretary, Town 
Hall, East Ham, E.6. 

The Annual Report of the Berkshire 
County Blind Society bespeaks excellent 
work by the Society, but it records the fact 
that the Berkshire County Council gives no 
financial help directly to blind persons or to 
the Society for welfare work. The Report 
embodies reports from each of the four local 
Sub-Committees centred in the towns of 
Maidenhead", Newbury, Windsor, and 
Wokingham. By vigorously enlisting and 
organising voluntary help and raising volun- 
tary funds, the Society has achieved much, but 
it states clearly how much still waits to be done. 
It has only succeeded in raising incomes to 
12s. 6d. a week at present. Copies of the 

Report can be obtained from the Hon" 
Secretary at the Town Hall Chambers, 

The Southampton Association for the 
Welfare of the Blind publishes its first 
Annual Report since it took the place of the 
former Southampton Association for the 
Blind. The Report explains the circumstances 
of the change and gives an informative 
account of the work now being done for the 
blind of the County Borough of Southampton, 
with details of the constitution, objects, and 
rules of the new Association, its relation to and 
co-operation with the County Borough 
Council, its voluntary resources, the classi- 
fication of its register of blind persons, 
instances of what it and the County Borough 
Council together are able to do for them, 
special mention of financial assistance to the 
unemployable blind and of the provision of 
wireless, and the addresses of blind workers 
wanting orders. Copies can be obtained from 
the General Secretary, Municipal Offices, 
High Street, Southampton. 


South Eastern and London Counties 
Association for the Blind — 21st July, 1931 . 

(Executive Council — 2.30 p.m. Executive 
Council N.B.R.S. — 3.30 p.m. Annual 
General Meeting — 4 p.m.) 


We much regret to report the deaths of : — 
Walter King, the blind sportsman and 
politician. In 19 10 he unsuccessfully op- 
posed Sir A. Acland-Hood.the chief Conser- 
vative Whip, in the Wellington Division of 
Somerset, and afterwards supported Sir 
Robert Newman, the Independent M.P. for 
Exeter. For a short time he was a Socialist 
Candidate for a Somerset constituency. In 
his younger days he was a keen follower of 
hounds, but later he spoke on many platforms 
in favour of the abolition of cruel sports. He 
was always to be seen at the big agricultural 
shows in the country, and there were fewer 
finer judges of horses and cattle. 

John Whall, of Hounslow, the blind 
Editor of the Middlesex Chronicle. He edited 
the paper for forty years, succeeding the late 
William le Queux. He was educated at the 
Swiss Cottage School for the Blind, and at one 
time conducted a Philharmonic Society. 





National Baby Week Council. 

The Annual Report of the National Baby 
Week Council for 1930 states that it is now 
fourteen years since the crusade of propa- 
ganda in the cause of maternity and child- 
welfare was launched, and although much has 
been done, much still remains to do. 

As in former years the attention of the 
public was directed during the week to three 
special subjects ; these were the need of a 
National Maternity Service, of more Nursery 
Schools, and of the further spreading of a 
knowledge of parentcraft. The Report grate- 
fully acknowledges the very warm support of 
the public press in bringing these specially 
selected subjects before a wide number of 

Blind Girls' School, Hunan, China. 

There can be few centres of work for the 
blind carried on against heavier odds than 
the little school at Hunan, but it is impossible 
to read of the work done without a feeling of 
wonder and admiration for the dauntless 
courage of the mission-workers there ; ill- 
health among the children they look after, 
attacks by Communists, damage to buildings 
by heavy rain-storms seem to be commonplaces 
of every day, yet the work goes on, and the 
Libenzeller Mission heads its Annual Report 
with " Be of good cheer ; I have overcome 
the world." 

Hill Murray Institute for the Blind, Peking. 

In the 1929 Report of the Hill Murray 
Institute we were told that their sales had 
risen to " an unprecedented figure " ; in the 
1930 Report we are told that this figure has 
been nearly doubled, and that for the time 
being the Institute is free from financial 
embarrassment. Annual Reports are gener- 
ally very dull reading, but the superintendent 
of the Institute is to be congratulated on the 
way he makes dry bones live, and strikes a 
note of personal interest without ever becom- 
ing sentimental. His account of how self- 
government has been introduced into the 
loom-weaving shop, and how the blind boys 
have responded to the experiment is full of 




The King Confers Distinction on Two 
Blind Men. 

Two blind men, Captain Gerald Lowry, of 
London, and Mr. A. Fullerton, of Dublin, 
were invested by the King last month with 
the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Captain 
Lowry, the well-known osteopath, was 
decorated for his work among the poor in the 
East End. 

Blind Novelist Visits Russia. 

Mr. F. Le Gros Clark, the novelist, who has 
frequently contributed to The New Beacon, 
has gone to Russia with a party of tourists. 
He is blind, has lost one arm, and is otherwise 
maimed. Unscathed after years in the War 
as an infantryman, he was wounded after the 
Armistice by the accidental explosion of some 

Blind Children's Success at Yorkshire Music 

Two children from the Yorkshire School 
for the Blind figured prominently in the prize 
list at the Yorkshire Choral Competition, last 
month. They were Thomas Christian (13), 
a Lincolnshire boy, who was placed first out 
of twelve competitors in the junior piano solo 
class (under 14 years), and Olive Stead, who 
took second place in the junior piano solo 
class (under 16 years). 

A Programme of Sensitive Beauty. 

The concert given last month by the pupils 
of the Yorkshire School for the Blind at York, 
was described in the Press as not only an 
excellent entertainment but as a programme 
of music which contained many items of 
sensitive beauty. Miss Kathleen Torr, a 
former pupil of the School, now living in Hull, 
was the outstanding performer. She sang 
with charm and played the piano with ability. 

Appointment of Blind Vicar. 

The Rev. Percy Claud Nichols, B.A., a 
blind Church of England clergyman, of 
Penge, has been appointed Vicar of Dudding- 
ton, Northamptonshire. He was educated 
at the Royal Normal College, Upper Norwood, 
and took his degree at Oxford. He is 37 years 
of age, is married and has two boys. The 
living has two churches, one at Duddington 
and the other at Tixover. 




The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copy. 
ORGAN— s. d. 

10.861 Handel. The Dead March in Saul (arr. 

by W. T. Best) 2 

10.862 Hcnselt. Repos d'Amour (arr. by 

Edwin H. ... ... ... 2 

10.863 Whitlock, P. W. Five Short Pieces ... 2 8 

10.864 Beethoven Sonata No. 28 in A, Op. 101 

(Macpherson's Edition) ... ... 6 

10.865 Carroll, Walter (arr. by). First Lessons 

in Bach, Book 1 3 

Chopin. Studies (Klindworth Edition)— 

10.866 Op. 10, Nos. 1-6 6 

10.867 Op. 10, Nos. 7-12 6 8 

10.868 Op. 25, Nos. 1-6 7 4 

10,860 Op. 25, Nos. 7-12 7 4 

10,870 Demuth, N. F. A Graceful Waltz ... 2 
10,971 Finck, Herman. Vive la Danse (Petite 

Suite de Ballet) 2 

10.872 Nilssen, E. Dainty Lady (Danse 

Piquante) ... ... ... ... 2 

10.873 Wright, K. A. Columbine's Dream 

Dance ... ... ... ... 2 


10.874 Blake, E. Memories of You (from " On 

with the Show "), Song Fox-Trot ... 2 

10.875 Fogarty, P. and Vallee, R. Betty 

Co-ed, Song Fox-Trot ... ... 2 

10.876 Lindemann, VV. Drink, Brothers, 

Drink! Song-Waltz 2 

10.877 Young, J. I'm alone because I love 

You, Song-Waltz ... ... ... 2 


10.878 Haydn. The Mermaid's Song (Unison 

Song) ... ... ... ... ... 2 

10.879 Hely-Hutchinson. The Twa Corbies, 

G; D-E 1 2 

10.880 Quilter. Go, Lovely Rose, F ; E— F 1 2 

10.881 Sanderson, W. Nightingale of June. 

(Waltz-Song), E flat ; D— A 1 ... 2 

10.882 Tschaikowsky. Over the Meadows of 

Heaven, E ; E— G 1 2 

10.883 Warlock. In an Arbour Green, G ; 

D— G 1 2 


The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 
10,538-10,542 Barabbas, by Marie Corelli, 5. d. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 5 vols. F.297 ... 6 

10,492 Barrack Room Ballads, and Other 
Verses, by Rudyard Kipling. Grade 
2, Large size, Interpointed, Cloth 

Boards. G.71 8 9 

10,128 " Beattock for Moffat," " A Fisherman," 
" The Impenitant Thief," " The 
Evolution of a Village," and " Castles 
in the Air " from " Success and 
Other Sketches," by R. B. Cunning- 
hame Graham. Grade 2, Pocket size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers. D.30 3 3 
10,275-10,277 Blind Corner, by Dornford Yates. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 3 vols. F.157 ... 5 3 

per vol. 

10,354-10,357 Dickens : A Portrait in Pencil, s. d. 
by Ralph Straus. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 
4 vols. F.238 6 

10,278-10,284 Evan Harrington, by George 
Meredith. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 7 vols. 
F.405 5 9 

10,368-10,369 Family at Misrule, The, by Ethel 
Turner. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 2 vols. F.12"> 6 3 

10,374-10,376 Good Naturcd Lady, The, by 
J. E. Buckrose. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols. 
F.170 5 9 

10,453-10,456 Greene Murder Case, The, by 
S. S. Van Dine. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 4 vols. 
F.233 5 3 

10,407-10,410 Gyfford of Weare, by Jeffery 
Farnol. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 4 vols. F.242 6 

10,358-10,363 My Brother Jonathan, by Francis 
Brett Young. Grade 2, Large size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers, 6 vols. 
F.348 5 9 

10,370-10,373 Ovingdean Grange, by Harrison 
Ainsworth. Grade 2, Largesize, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers, 3 vols. F. 258 6 3 

10,045 Prevention of Blindness, The, by George 
Foggin, B.A. Grade 2, Pocket size, 
Interpointed, Pamphlet. C.12 ... 1 3 

10,717-10,720 Pupil's Class-Book of Arithmetic, 
The, Book VI, by E. J. S. Ley. 
Grade 2, Intermediate size, Inter- 
pointed, Stiff Covers, 4 vols. B.243 6 6 

10,450-10,452 Rasp, The, by Philip Macdonald. 
Grade 2, Large size, Interpointed, 
Paper Covers, 3 vols. F.170 ... 5 9 

10,411-10,413 Substitute Millionaire, The, by 
Hulbert Footner. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers, 3 
vols. F.184 6 

10.125 " Success," " The Gualichu Tree," and 

" Los Seguidores " (from " Success 
and Other Sketches ") by R. B. 
Cunninghame Graham. Grade 2, 
Pocket size, Interpointed, Paper 

Covers. D.24 2 9 

10,127 " Sursum Corda," "The Pyramid," 
" Terror," " Postponed," and " Lon- 
don " (from " Success and Other 
Sketches ") by R. B. Cunninghame 
Graham. Grade 2, Pocket size, 
Interpointed, Paper Covers. D.27 ... 3 

10.126 " Un Infeliz," " From the Mouth of the 

Sahara," " At Utrera," and " Might, 
Majesty and Dominion " (from " Suc- 
cess and Other Sketches ") by R. B. 
Cunninghame Graham. Grade 2, 
Pocket size, Interpointed, Paper 
Covers. D.24 ... ... ... 2 9 

The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 
3,078—3,081 Under the White Cockade, by s. d. 
Halliwell Sutcliffe. 4 vols. (Limited 
Edition) 12 



Saunderson, Robert ; by Izaak Walton ... 1 

Wolsey ; by Hilaire Belloc ... ... ... 4 




per vol. 

Jerram, C. S. (Ed. by) Anglice Reddenda 

(Second Series) ... "... ... 4 


Ellis, A. Williams ; Anatomy of Poetrv ... 3 

Smith, D. Nicholl ; Notes to King Lear ... 2 


Bede, the Venerable ; Ecclesiastical History of 
England 6 

Marsh, F. B. Founding of the Roman Empire 4 

Voltaire : Candide ... ... ... ... 2 


Sa.ntayana, G. Scepticism and Animal Faith ... 4 

Oxford Book of Mystical Verse ... ... ... 6 

Steele, R. Conscious Lovers ... ... ... 1 


Bradley, R. N. Racial Origins of English 
Character ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Redwood, H. God in the Slums ... ... 2 


Allingham, Margery. Mystery Mile 

*Arnim, Countess von. Expiation 
Feval, P. and M. Lassez, Secret of the Bastille 
Footner, H. The Viper and other Stories 
*Hay, Ian. Poor Gentleman 

Jameson, Storm. The Voyage Home 

Leslie, Henrietta. Mrs. Fischer's War ... 

London, Jack. Martin Eden ... 

Masefield, J. The Hawbucks 

Millin. S. J. The Jordans 

Oppenheim, E. P. Prodigals of Monte Carlo . . . 

What Happened to Forrester ... 

*Parry, Sir E. A. Berrington, or 200 Years Ago 

Phillpotts, Eden. Three Maidens 

" Preedy, G." The Rocklitz 

Raymond, E. The Family that Was 

*Salten, F. Bambi — A Life in the Woods 

Sedgwick, A. D. Third Window 

Sheppard, A. T. Here comes an Old Sailor ... 
Stratton-Porter, G. Her Father's Daughter ... 
Wren, P. C. Snake and the Sword 
*Wright, S. F. Island of Captain Sparrow 
* Addison, Joseph. Essays. Chosen and Edited 

by J. R. Green ... 
*Belloc, Hilaire. Conversation with an Angel, 

and Others Essays 

Blatchford, R. Said's Bowl 

Bridges, T. C, and H. Hessell Tiltman. Master 

Minds of Modern Science 

*Brooks, N. Abraham Lincoln and the Downfall 
of American Slavery 
Cecil, Lord Robert, and the Rev. H. J. Clayton. 

Our National Church ... 
Gore, Charles. Bishop. Jesus of Nazareth ... 
*Hattersby, A. F. Short History of Western Civili- 
zation from Earliest Times to the Present Day 
Hearnshaw, F. J. C. Development of Political 

Hodson, Geoffrey. Thus have I Heard 
*Home, Health and Gardens, by various authors 
Macaulay, Rose. A Casual Commentary 
Marchant, Sir J. (Editor). life after Death 
According to Christianity and Spiritualism ... 
Martin, Rev. G. " Little Way " of Spiritual 

Murray, Professor Gilbert. Ordeal of this 
Generation. (Halley Steward Lectures for 


O'Rahilly, A. Father William Doyle, S.J. 

Portigliotti, G. (Translator B. Miall). Some 
Fascinating Women of the Renaissance. 

(E. W. Austin Memorial) 3 

Powers of Attorney. (Manual on the Law and 
Practice). Issued by the Council of the Chart- 
ered Institute of Secretaries. (E. W. Austin 
Memorial) ... ...' ... ... ... 2 

Shaw, G. Bernard. The Apple Cart : a Play ... 2 
Stenton, Doris M. William the Conqueror ... 2 
*Strachey, L. Eminent Victorians, Cardinal 
Manning, Florence Nightingale, Dr. Arnold, 
General Gordon ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Street, C. J. C. President Masaryk ... ... 4 

Yeats-Brown, Major F. Bengal Lancer ... 4 

*Davies, T. Tir y Dyneddon. Juvenile ... 1 

*Farren, Lady. Frisky Tales ... ... ... 1 

*Produced by the National Institute for the Blind. 


Superintendents and Head Teachers of Schools in 
England and Wales, who have pupils who will complete 
their training in the Summer Term and whom they can 
recommend for a gift from the Henry Stainsby Memorial 
Fund, should send without delay for a form of application 
to the Secretary-General of the National Institute for 
the Blind. Gifts take the form of watches, Braille 
typewriters, apparatus and Braille books. 


Fully qualified HOME TEACHER, with varied 
experience at home and abroad, requires post in 
September. Excellent testimonials. Write E. H., 
c/o Editor, The Nf.w Beacon. 

WANTED.— HOME TEACHER for Warwickshire 
Association for the Blind. Must hold Home Teachers 
Certificate, and be able to drive a car. Apply giving 
age, experience and when certificate was obtained to 
Mrs. Heber-Percy, Hon. Secretary, Guy's Cliffe, 

SUNNI HOLME.— Boston and Holland Blind Society 
have several vacancies for blind women, as their Home 
has recently been extended. Applications are invited 
on behalf of suitable blind persons desiring companion- 
ship, comfort and a pleasant home. The Secretary, 
Boston and Holland Blind Society, 25, Pen Street, 
Boston, will be pleased to supply details. 


Applications are invited for the post of Lady Home 
Teacher (Sighted) to take charge of, and administer 
the Council's Scheme for the Welfare of the Blind. 

Applicants must be Certified Home Teachers with 
Administrative and General Experience of Blind 
Welfare Work. 

A knowledge of the working of Knitting Machines 
would be an additional qualification. 

Commencing Salary £182 per annum. 

The position is an established post under the Local 
Government and Other Officers Superannuation Act, 
1922, and the person appointed will be required to 
pass a Medical Examination and contribute to the 
Superannuation Fund. 

Applications giving detailed particulars of experience, 
age, with copies of three recent testimonials, and 
endorsed "Home Teacher" should be addressed to 
me not later than Monday, 27th lulv, 1931. 

Town Hall, Town Clerk. 


PrinUd by Smiths' Printing Company (London & St. Albans), Ltd., M-24, Fetter Lane, London, E.C.4. 






Vol. XV.-No. 176. AUGUST I 5th, 1931. Price 3d. 


Entered as Second Class Matter, March 15, 1929, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass., under the A ct of Match 3, 1879 {Sec. 397, P.L. and R.) 


General Superintendent and Secretary, The Birmingham Royal Institution for the Blind. 

OVER a year has elapsed since the Local Government Act, 1929, became operative, 
and this gives a sufficiently long period over which to review the effect this 
i Statute has had on the relation of Local Authorities to Voluntary Societies, 
I and on Blind Welfare Work generally. 
f To assist in this survey it is necessary to refer to the Blind Persons Act, 

1920, and trace how Governmental aid has assisted in the development of 
work for the Blind. 
Section 2 (1) of this Act provides that it shall be the duty of every Local Authority to make 
arrangements to the satisfaction of the Ministry of Health for promoting the welfare of blind 
persons within their area, and may provide and maintain or contribute towards the provision 
and maintenance of Workshops, Hostels, Homes or other places for the reception of blind persons 
within or without their area. Where these services have been delegated to Voluntary Agencies the 
Local Authorities shall pay annually to the Voluntary Agencies concerned for the three years 
ending March 31st, 1933, such sum as is stated in the Schedule to the Scheme made by the 
Ministry of Health under Section 102 (1) of the Local Government Act, 1929. 

The figures shown in the schedule to the Scheme were calculated on the basis of the amount 
of grant paid by the Ministry of Health to each Voluntary Agency together with the contributions 
paid by the Local Authorities for the year ended March 31st, 1929. The Scheme further states 
that the contribution shall be the minimum sum payable by Local Authorities to Voluntary 
Agencies unless a change in circumstances justifies a reduction in the amount payable, which 
cannot be effective without the approval of the Ministry of Health. Paragraph 5 of Circular 
1 ,086 of the Ministry of Health also provides that apart from the scheme it will be open to the 
Council under Section 2 of the Blind Persons Act 1920, to make contributions to Voluntary 
Associations for the Blind in excess of those set out in the Schedules to the Scheme. 

The spirit of the Scheme, then, is to urge Local Authorities to pay a greater contribution 
where increased service to the blind justifies it. In other words, Local Authorities are at liberty 

to approve any extension of Blind Welfare 
Work in their area and to contribute towards 
its cost such extra sum as they think expedient 
to enable the work to be efficiently accom- 
plished. This is important because the period 
taken by the Ministry of Health as that on 
which to calculate the amounts payable by 
Local Authorities to Voluntary Agencies was 
one in which a limited liability had been 
undertaken by many Local Authorities, due 
partly to the comparatively small service 
rendered to the Blind in those areas, and 
partly because these Authorities had either 
taken little or no interest in Blind Welfare 
Work or were not disposed to assist the 
Voluntary Agency financially to any appreci- 
able extent. 

The change occasioned by the payment of 
Government grants to Local Authorities 
instead of to Voluntary Societies direct, also 
resulted in a change of practice in Govern- 
ment inspection. As from April ist, 1930, 
direct inspection of Voluntary Agencies by 
H.M. Inspectors of the Ministry of Health 
ceased in favour of what the Ministry intended 
should be a system of supervision of the work 
of these Agencies by the Local Authorities. 

The effect of this change in policy has been 
two-fold. In some areas the result has been 
a greater desire on the part of Local Authori- 
ties to do more for the blind in those areas 
and to extend that part of the service for 
which little provision had formerly been made. 
In consequence greater financial help has been 
forthcoming to assist Voluntary Agencies in 
their work. In some areas a contribution is 
made to the Agency concerned for the purpose 
of providing the Unemployable Blind with an 
income from all sources of 27s. 6d. per week, 
while in other districts a smaller income is 
assured. A guarantee to Workshops for the 
Blind and Home Workers' Schemes for any 
loss incurred in employing the Blind has also 
been undertaken by some Local Authorities 
as well as the payment in full of Augmentation 
of earnings on an approved scale. 

On the other hand, backward Local 
Authorities are not inclined to make any 
contributions to Voluntary Agencies in excess 
of that stated in the Scheme, to provide for 
any extension of service, and as the Scheme 
under the Local Government Act makes no 
provision of a compulsory nature to provide 
for expansion, the result is that the tide of 
progress is stemmed and the status of the 
Blind for whom these Local Authorities are 




responsible is kept at a low level. Others, 
while agreeing in principle to the extension of 
blind services, have not accepted their share 
of the cost. This state of affairs is to be 
deplored, especially as Local Authorities can 
avail themselves of new money from the 
Ministry of Health which is intended to 
provide for the normal extension of Health 
services which also includes the work for the 
Blind. The provision of the Local Govern- 
ment Act which withdrew Government 
inspection of Voluntary Agencies extends the 
responsibility of Local Authorities in Blind 
Welfare Work. This is beneficial from all 
points of view as it tends to make Local 
Authorities take a direct interest in this work 
and regard it as a serious part of their Health 
services. Concerning inspection , the Ministry 
of Health requires that Local Authorities shall 
satisfy themselves as to the efficiency of the 
services provided by the Association for the 
Welfare of the Blind in respect of which the 
contribution is paid. Accordingly, any 
arrangement entered into which fulfils this 
object complies with the Ministry's require- 

The withdrawal of direct inspection of 
blind services by one body is very much 
regretted. The influence of that body 
however still remains and can and should be 
made full use of. With conscientious super- 
vision on the part of Local Authorities, 
coupled with the periodical inspection afforded 
by the Ministry of Health, satisfactory 
supervision should subsist. The fact that the 
Ministry of Health can be called upon by 
Local Authorities for help and guidance is a 
matter which has been lost sight of and is one, 
therefore, which needs emphasis. 

If we review the trend of events with 
regard to supervision we find that some Local 
Authorities have made arrangements for 
regional inspection and have agreed to the 
appointment of a Supervisor of Blind Welfare 
Work to act in a joint capacity for a group of 
Authorities : others have appointed one of 
their staff to act as a Liason Officer between 
the Voluntary Agency and themselves, while 
in some areas it is doubtful whether any form 
of Local Authority inspection exists. 

The varying methods of supervising the 
work of Voluntary Agencies adopted by Local 
Authorities throughout the country will no 
doubt be examined and receive the careful 
consideration of the Ministry's Inspectors 
when their inspection of Local Authorities 


takes place during the first three years of this 
new Scheme. It will be interesting to learn 
the views of the Ministry on this matter. 

Another important effect of the Local 
Government Act on Blind Welfare Work is 
the Municipalisation of certain of the Volun- 
tary Agencies, thus depriving them entirely of 

their voluntary nature and making them part 
of the Municipal machinery. It is too early 
to indicate the result of this action other than 
to mention that the Local Authorities con- 
cerned in adopting this course have accepted 
the fullest financial responsibility for the care 
of the Blind in their area. 




THE Report of the All-India 
Blind Relief Association for 
1930 has recently been 
published, and is a docu- 
ment so important as to 
merit a rather more de- 
tailed notice than that 
usually given to Annual Reports. It is the 
story of a gallant effort against terribly heavy 
odds, of an effort that began rather less than 
twenty years ago against an age-old and 
firmly established enemy, and though little 
has so far been achieved in comparison with 
the magnitude of the task that little is full of 

Investigations made over wide areas in 
India have shown that there are about one 
and a half million totally blind persons in that 
country, and about four and a half millions 
partially blind. It is a terrible figure ; so 
terrible that it might paralyse effort, were it 
not for the further fact that by far the greater 
part of the blindness (some authorities would 
put it as high as 90 per cent.) is preventible. 
It was the recognition of this appalling 
amount of preventible blindness that made an 
appeal in 1913 to Mr. C. G. Henderson, at 
that time an Indian Civil servant, and the 
founder of the All-India Blind Relief Associ- 
ation. He had no medical training, but even 
as a layman he could not help being horrified 
at the number of blind persons whom he 
encountered in his work, and he asked himself 
if something could not be done. He learned 
to diagnose various affections of the eye, and 
made arrangements with the headman of every 
village in his district to compile a list of blind 
and partially blind persons in the area, and 
to gather these people together on the occa- 
sion of his own periodical visits to each 
village ; he then arranged for them to be sent 
to hospitals or dispensaries whenever this 

could be achieved. Further he offered a 
reward of one rupee to native midwives for 
each case of infantile ophthalmia which they 
notified immediately, and in this way several 
cases received early preventive treatment. 

In the course of his Government work Mr. 
Henderson was transferred to various districts 
between 1913 and 1919, and in each area he 
did work on the same lines, seeking out cases 
of blindness, and trying to bring treatment to 
the very door of the people. His general aim 
was fourfold : — 

1. The prevention of ophthalmia neona- 

2. The systematic search for all cases of eye 

3. The establishment of ophthalmic 
hospitals and small dispensaries. 

4. The immediate notification of small-pox 
and measles. 

Those readers of The New Beacon who 
read an article on the prevention of blindness 
in Egypt in our February issue may remember 
that an ophthalmic service was set up in that 
country through the generosity of Sir Ernest 
Cassel in 1902, and later generously financed 
by the British Red Cross. That service aimed 
at bringing treatment direct to the patient in 
rural areas by the setting up of temporary 
eye-hospitals, on the lines of an experiment 
that had proved very successful in Russia. 
An English oculist was appointed as Director 
of the work and a travelling hospital was 
provided, consisting of tents for operative and 
out-patient treatment ; the hospital usually 
remained a few months in one place, treating 
all the patients who came to it from the sur- 
rounding country. By 1927, there were 26 
permanent, and 13 travelling hospitals in 
Egypt, which in one year alone treated 350,000 

The population of Egypt is fourteen 



millions and that of India three hundred and 
twenty millions, of whom by far the greater 
number live in rural areas. The problem 
then in India, as in Egypt, is primarily a 
rural one. The people are living in hamlets 
and villages, their " homes " are often only 
the most squalid huts of straw and mud, with 
little or no ventilation, dark with smoke from 
the fires of cow-dung, and shared, as a 
photograph in the Blind Relief Association 
Report shows, only too often, by human beings 
and animals. " The climate and the condi- 
tions under which this poverty stricken 
population live favour the spread of eye- 
disease, which if not properly taken in hand, 
leads to partial and complete blindness." 

To obtain for India, with its far greater 
population, a service at all comparable to that 
in Egypt is therefore a gigantic task, and one 
which private effort and philanthropy cannot 
be expected to compass. But in every field 
of social service, the trail is first blazed by 
voluntary effort, and it is only when experi- 
ments have proved to be on right lines that 
Government help is forthcoming and official 
recognition afforded. It is this recognition to 
which the All India Blind Relief Association 
looks forward. 

Profiting by a study of the Egyptian 
experiment, the Association has employed two 
methods : — 

i . Village field workers are engaged to work 
in thickly populated rural areas, in conjunc- 
tion with a central hospital. These field- 
workers are Indians, who are given three 
months training in an ophthalmic hospital, in 
order that they may learn to detect cases of 
eye-trouble, and are required to pass a simple 
written and oral examination, set by a civil 
surgeon. They are then given their area, and 
take up their residence in a central village, 
from which they visit the outlying villages of 
their district, keeping a register of the blind 
and partially blind, of persons requiring 
operation or simple treatment (each field 
worker is given a first-aid outfit for the 
treatment of quite simple eye-ailments) of 
newly-born children, and of small-pox and 
measles cases. The field worker is expected 
to give treatment in cases of infantile ophthal- 
mia, small-pox, and measles, his work being 
supervised by a travelling surgeon. 

2. Where a scattered population, bad roads, 
and limited means of transport, make it 
difficult for a field-worker to carry on suc- 
cessfully, travelling hospitals are made use of ; 

the people in the district are notified that a 
travelling hospital is coming, and will be 
encamped for a certain time within their 
reach. By its means a wide and scattered 
area can be helped, which without it would 
remain isolated from medical aid. 

Perhaps a short account of a camp visit 
lasting ten days, and held just a year ago, will 
give some idea of the work. The camp was 
held at Gulbarga in Hyderabad, and at first 
created little stir, very few patients presenting 
themselves ; but as news of the camp spread, 
interest grew, and in all over 400 cases were 
dealt with. Small-pox, trachoma, cataract, 
and glaucoma were among those in evidence, 
and " in practically every case of glaucoma 
branding with a hot iron had been resorted to 
as a counter-irritant to what must have been 
intolerable pain . . . centuries of neglect of 
his physical welfare seem to have ingrained in 
the villager a stoicism that has to be seen to 
be believed." It is indeed a tragic story. 

The later pages of the Blind Relief Associ- 
ation's Report are devoted to an appendix 
giving details of a questionnaire sent to a large 
number of hospitals on the subject of blind- 
ness. It is impossible here to do more than 
quote a few extracts from it : — 

" This is the only hospital," writes a 
doctor in Bihar, " where eye operations are 
performed, in an area with a population of 
somewhere between one and two millions." 
" If it were possible to visit every village in 
the area for eye diseases alone, and the 
confidence of the people were gained, one 
would be swamped with work . . . with 
common sense and simple care many of the 
tragic results that we see as sequels to eye 
disease would be obviated," is a report from 
Bombay Presidency. " Eye affection during 
this time " (in the first six months of infancy) 
" is generally treated by every granny or 
barber midwife that comes across," is the 
statement of a Madras doctor. " Practically 
all these cases could be prevented by propa- 
gation of cleanliness," runs another comment 
from Rajputana. 

Those who heard Mr. Rau of Mysore 
speak at the annual meeting of the College of 
Teachers could not have failed to be impressed 
as he pleaded for the help and sympathy of 
his hearers in the task of blindness-prevention 
in India. Those who, having heard him, now 
study the Report of the All-India Blind 
Relief Association, will get a fresh sense of the 
vastness of the work to be done. 



White Sticks and Umbrellas in Manchester. 

At a meeting last month of the Safety First Group for the Blind in the Blind Aid 
Society's rooms, Manchester, a resolution was unanimously passed advising all blind 
people to carry a white stick, or, in the case of women, a white umbrella. Councillor 
Barlow presided over the meeting which was attended by blind and partially blind people 
from Manchester and Salford. Thanks were accorded to the Chief Constables of 
Manchester and Salford and to the police of the cities for their recognition of the signal. 
National Institute and the World Conference. 

The Executive Council of the National Institute for the Blind, at its last meeting, 
expressed its deep sense of obligation to the American Foundation for the Blind, for 
organising the World Conference on the Blind, and enabling delegates from all over the 
world to make the journey to New York. 

It also warmly welcomed the establishment of the World Council for the Blind, 
expressed its desire to co-operate wholeheartedly in the Council's work, and recorded its 
appreciation of the generous financial support given by Mr. William Nelson Cromwell 
and Mr. M. C. Migel. 
Appeal for the Blind on Government Forms. 

Following is an extract from " Hansard," July 9th, 193 1 : — 

Commander Southby asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer for what reason it has 
been decided to discontinue the use of Government forms for advertisement purposes ; 
and upon what date was that decision arrived at ? 

Mr. Pethick-Lawrence : The decision was reached in July, 1929. The appearance 
of private advertisements on Government forms proved a constant source of complaint ; 
the revenue obtained therefrom was not large and the Government decided to put an 
end to the practice. 

Commander Southby : Will the Hon. Gentleman make an exception in the case of 
the blind, who got considerable revenue from these advertisements ? 

Mr. Pethick-Laivrence : The matter was fully considered, and I do not think it 
likely that the Government would re-open it now ; but I will look into the Hon. and 
gallant Member's point. 
Commander Southby : Will the Hon. Gentleman receive a deputation ? 
Memorial Tablets Unveiled at Royal Normal College. 

The annual prize festival of the Royal Normal College and Academy of Music for 
the Blind, Upper Norwood, was held last month, when there was a large attendance of 
patrons and others interested in the welfare of the institution. A programme of music 
carried out by the students was preceded by the unveiling of three memorial tablets by 
Mr. Josiah Beddow, the oldest member of the Board of Governors. These were : — (1) 
In appreciation of the financial aid of the Gardner's Trust for the opening of a Kinder- 
garten and Preparatory Department in 1882, and for their support in continuing to grant 
the valuable scholarships first given in 1881 ; (2) in grateful memory of Sir Francis 
Joseph Campbell, the first principal, and of his son, Mr. Guy Marshall Campbell, who 
died in 1929 ; and (3) to record the sincere thanks of the Board of Governors of the 
College to the Carnegie Trustees for their financial assistance afforded in 1918 and 1922. 

Sir Bernard Mallet presided at the prize distribution and the awards were presented 
by Miss. Sybil Legh. Both had undertaken their tasks at very short notice, owing to 
the fact that Lt.-Col. C. P. Crane, Chairman of the Committee of Trustees, and Mrs. 
Crane had been unable to be present. 

The Chairman, Lord Lamington, said that there were between 700 and 800 former 
pupils of the college who were earning their own living ; most of them were engaged in 
connection with music — as organists or as teachers — because music appeared to be the 
particular prerogative of the blind. He appealed for more funds for the great work 
that was being done at the college. 





UNDER its reconstitution, 
the Executive Council of 
the National Institute for 
the Blind will consist of 
62 members, representing 
five groups. Below we 
give particulars of the 
groups and the names of the members already 
elected or nominated. An asterisk indicates 
those members who are blind. 
Group A. Persons elected by Counties Associ- 
ations for the Blind . . . . . . 9 

Each Counties Association to elect one 
representative, except the South Eastern and 
London Counties and the Northern Counties 
Associations which shall each have two 
representatives in view of the large blind 
population of their areas. 
Elected : — 

Councillor J. W. Flanagan ; Councillor 

G. Oliver ; Northern Counties Association 

Major S. C. Welchman ; Western Counties 


*Canon C. E. Bolam ; Eastern Counties 


Mr. W. Bateman ; North-Western Counties 

Mr. B.J. Evans ; S. Wales and Monmouth- 
shire Association. 
Miss J. Merivale ; Midland Counties 

Mr. Harvey Plant ; Mr. John B. Heaton ; 
South Eastern and London Counties 

Group B. Persons elected by the follozving 

bodies : — 
National Library for the Blind . . . . 2 

Elected : Mrs. Danckwerts. 
Mr. W. H. Brown. 
St. Dunstans . . . . . . . . 1 

Elected : * Captain Ian Fraser. 
Union of Associations . . . . . . 2 

Elected : Mrs. Knapp. 

The Rev. H. Every. 
College of Teachers of the Blind . . 2 

Elected : Miss M. M. R. Garaway. 
Dr. J. M. Ritchie. 
Association of Workshops for the Blind . . 2 

Elected : Mr. S. W. Starling. 
Major H. Willans. 

Gardner's Trust for the Blind . . . . 1 

■Elected: Lt. - Col. E. C. Clay. 
The Clothworkers' Company . . . . 1 

Ejected : Dr. P. M. Evans. 
Organisations of the Blind . . . . 6 

Elected : *Dr. Ernest Whitfield ; * Mr. 
Herbert Royston ; National 
Union of Professional and Indus- 
trial Blind. 
*Mr. H. M. Whitfield ; Associa- 
tion of Certificated Blind 
*Mr. E. S. Woodley ; Worcester 

College Old Boys Association. 
*Mr. R. T. Stephenson ; Royal 
Normal College Old Students' 
*Mr. W. G. T. Pemberton ; St. 

Group C. Persons elected by Local Govern- 
ment Associations 
County Councils Association . . . . 3 

Elected : Mr. E. W. Cemlyn-Jones. 
Mr. D. Hardaker. 
Dr. J. Middleton Martin. 
Association of Municipal Corporations . . 3 
Elected : Mr. T. Holt. 

Dr. J. Graham. 
Councillor Lee. 
Association of Education Committees . . 1 

(Name of Representative to come.) 
Association of Directors and Secretaries for 
Education . . . . . . . . 1 

Elected : Mr. A. W. Allen. 

Group D. National Members . . . . 24 

Persons interested in national work for 
the blind, to be elected as vacancies occur 
by the remaining members of the group. So 
far as is reasonably possible not less than 
one-third shall be blind. 

Elected : Miss Alice S. Armitage. 

Mr. J. H. Batty. 

Mr. Ormond A. Blyth. 

Mr. J. J. Crosfield. 
*Dr. E. G. Dowdell. 

Mr. W. H. Eastman. 

Dr. A. Eichholz. 

Dr. James Graham. 

Mr. Godfrey H. Hamilton. 

Mr. R. Hughes-Buller. 




Alderman W. W. Kelland. 

Mr. A. J. W. Kitchin. 

The Rt. Hon. C. A. McCurdy. 
*Mr. W. Percy Merrick. 
*Mr. G. F. Mowatt. 

Sir Michael O'Dwyer 
*Miss Jean Robinson. 

Mr. Walter S. Talbot. 

Mr. W. H. Tate. 
*Captain Sir Beachcroft Towse. 
*Mr. T. H. Tylor. 

Mr. Henry J. Wagg. 

Nominated : *Lord Sanderson of Hunman- 
*Captain V. M. Deane. [by. 

The Council, as constituted above, will 
have power to co-opt a further group. 

Group E. Members of governing bodies of 
(i) Workshops or Institutions for the Blind, or 
(it) other voluntary organisations concerned 
with the blind . . . . . . . . 4 

Mr. Henry J. Wagg and Dr. J. Graham, 
elected as representatives of Group D, have 
been nominated or elected in other Groups, 
and two vacancies in Group D are thereby 

Blind Pianist's Recital. 

Miss Mary Munn, a blind Canadian from 
Montreal, gave a successful pianoforte recital 
at the Grotrian Hall last month. Her 
programme was varied, ancient and modern, 
from Bach to Medtner. 

Incorporated Association for Promoting the 
General Welfare of the Blind. 

The Annual Report for 1930/31 is a cheerful 
one, in spite of world-depression, and its 
inevitable effect on trade and philanthropy. 
The capital position of the Association has 
been improved by legacies amounting to 
£7,200, continuous employment has been 
provided for all workers in all departments 
throughout the year, and the wages bill of the 
Institution has increased by more than £600 
on the previous year ; overhead charges have 
been reduced by over £1,000, and £12,000 
has been raised from the public at a cost of 
under 19 per cent., a large proportion of which 
was paid to blind persons. An interesting 
step has lately been taken by the appointment 
of a Welfare Worker, and the experiment 
promises to be most successful. 


Scottish Advisory Committee. 

The Department of Health for Scotland 
have reappointed the Scottish Advisory 
Committee on the Welfare of the Blind for a 
further term of office to advise them on 
matters relating to the care and supervision of 
the blind, including any questions which may 
be specially referred to them by the Depart- 
ment. The Committee, which is representa- 
tive of the interests of the Local Authorities 
under the Blind Persons Act, of Institutions 
and Societies for the Blind, and of the blind 
themselves, is as follows : — 

Sir William Reid, D.L., J.P. (Chairman) ; 
Rev. Thomas Burns, C.B.E., T.D., D.D., 
J. P., F.R.S.E. (Vice-Chairman) ; Mr. James 
Balfour ; Mr. Ian Carmichael ; Mr. William 
Edgar ; Mr. William R. Halliday ; Mr. 
Charles G. Lothian ; Mr. W. H. Blyth 
Martin, D.L. ; Mr. Alex. Morrison ; Mr. 
George Mackay, M.D., F.R.C.S.E. ; Council- 
lor Mrs. McLean ; Mr. Adair Robb ; 
Ex-Provost James Ross ; Ex-Bailie J. M. 
Rusk, S.S.C. ; Mr. Mackenzie S. Shaw, W.S.; 
Mr. W. M. Stone, F.E.I.S. ; Mr. Bertram 

Mr. G. Hawley of the Department of 
Health for Scotland will act as Secretary. 

Home for Retarded Blind Children. 

In connection with the Home for Retarded 
Blind Children at Abbotskerswell, South 
Devon, the National Institute for the Blind 
has made the following staff appointments : — 
Head Master : Charles Edward Spurgeon. 

(Late of Swiss Cottage.) 
Senior Mistress : Miss M. McConnochie. 

(Late of School for the Blind, Westbury- 

on-Trym, Bristol.) 
Matron : Miss M. M. Davis. (Late of 

School for the Blind, Westbury-on-Trym, 


New Members of National Institute Sub- 

Revenue : Mr. William Harrison. 

Homes : Miss K. Oliver, the Rev. T. Everard 

Healey, Mr. G. W. Winterbottom. 
Publications : Mr. R. Peppitt, E.inden Lodge 

School for the Blind (as deputy to Miss 

Garaway, representing the College of 

Teachers of the Blind). 





Roman Trade Mark Discovered. 

(Reprinted by kind permission of the " Daily Telegraph.") 

IONG ago, in Roman London, there 
practised a certain Caius Silvius 
Tetricus, who sold to all needing 
them medicines to relieve troubles 
of the eyes. 
. His stamp, with which he 
gg marked the remedies with his 
own name and their purpose, has just been 
turned out of the soil near London Bridge, 
at a depth of 15 ft. below the surface. 

This most interesting relic is illustrated 

It is a little slab of greenish, slate-like stone, 
two inches square and three-eights of an inch 
in thickness. On each of its four edges is an 
inscription of two lines, deeply engraved in 
retrograde, in well-formed capital letters. Its 
recovery and identification is due to Mr. 
Quintin Waddington, assistant curator of the 
Guildhall Museum, who maintains a constant 
watch on all City excavations. 

Caius made up his preparations, as did 
other oculists of his day, into little solid sticks 
— not unlike shortened sticks of sealing-wax — 
and, before these dried, impressed them with 
his stamp, the legend going right round. For 
use, pieces were broken off and beaten in a 
mortar into an ointment with oil, honey, or 

Each of the four faces of the stamp served 
for a different medicament. Thus three of 
them, when translated, read : 

Caius Silvius Tetricus's scented un- 
guent for granulation of the eyelids." 

" Caius Silvius Tetricus's lotion for 
inflammation of the eyes." 

" Caius Silvius Tetricus's preparation for 

removing weals (of the eyeball)." 

On the fourth face the letters are imperfect 

beyond the name, and the reading is doubtful. 

This is the first find in London of the stamp 



of a Roman oculist, though I recorded and 
illustrated in The Daily Telegraph of Novem- 
ber 12th, 1929, the discovery at Moorgate of 
a little pot of red " Samian " ware, itself 
stamped with the words, " Lucius Julius 
Senlis's saffron salve for roughness of the eyes 
or eyelids." 

It is known from Latin literature that eye 
trouble was prevalent in the Roman provinces. 
It has been attributed, probably correctly, to 
the immoderate use — in Londinium, as else- 
where — of the popular hot-air baths. 

Mr. Waddington cannot give a date for this 
relic, but " Tetricus " has recalled to him the 
Emperor of that name, who in the troubled 
period sometimes called that of " The Thirty 
Tyrants," ruled very effectively over Gaul and 
Britain from a.d. 267 to 274. If this London 
practitioner, or perhaps his father, adopted 
the name in compliment to the venerated 
ruler, that would place him about a.d. 300. 

Much credit is due to Mr. Waddington for 
puzzling out the inscriptions, and his are the 
translations given above. Many a good 
Latinist might break his teeth against the 
first in the order given, which actually reads : 

Edinburgh Society for Teaching the Adult 

The 72nd Annual Report of the Society, 
for the year 1930/31, states that owing to 
increased activities (including the establish- 
ment of a Clinic for the examination of all 
persons anxious to be placed on the Society's 
Register) larger premises have had to be 
acquired. In these new premises it has been 
possible to set aside a room for blind persons 
wishing to read or study undisturbed, and a 
Club for women has been opened. 


In the May issue of The New Beacon, the 
letter on " The Needs of the Deaf-Blind," 
signed " G. B. Hamilton," should have borne 
the signature " G. B. Middleton." 

In the obituary notices in the July issue of 
The New Beacon, " Mr. Walter King " 
should read " Mr. Walker King." 



THE death of William Wol- 
stenholme has robbed the 
community of the blind of 
one of its outstanding 
figures. The whole musical 
world is bereft of a player 
with marvellous gifts, and a 
composer of striking originality. 

As a player he was great, as a composer he 
was unique. His playing both on organ and 
piano had a curious quality which was at once 
highly nerved and yet restrained, broad in 
conception yet exquisitely intimate, impulsive 
and enthusiastic yet controlled. Brain and 
hand were so much in sympathy that a rare 
independence was the result, which left him 
free to follow his inspiration unswervingly. 

At the age of six he would play on a piano 
with one hand and on a harmonium with the 
other. This was the more wonderful as the 
instruments were not in tune, so that one 
hand had to transpose to be in the same key as 
the other. This is surely a prodigious mental 
feat quite apart from musicianship ; and this 
was the key-note of the whole of his playing, 
that there was sheer brain behind every note 
of it. 

He could weld three or four melodies 
together in superb and intricate technique 
which yet remained perfectly easy for the 
most untrained listener to follow. 

Behind all this great intellect was a spirit of 
joy and love of life, and something very 
personal and individual, which characterised 
all his playing. When he played in public it 
was thrilling, but when he played in private 
to a few friends with whom he was in perfect 
sympathy, it was an unforgettable delight. 

It is as a composer that he occupies a very 
special place. Without employing any of the 
devices of " modern " music, his music was 
yet distinctly original. Indeed, when he 
consciously adopted the 20th century style 
he was almost less himself than in his very 
earliest works. Just as in the case of Grieg, 
so there is a definite Wolstenholme style 
which anyone can recognise. It influences 
other composers, and is reflected in their 
work. It would be possible to write a piece 
" a la Wolstenholme." In fact, his style is one 
of the most individual things in all English 

His harmony, too, often has a very special 

atmosphere as in his songs, and especially in 
the piano piece " Noel " (N.I.B. edition). 

He had a great sense of humour, and a 
keen wit, and these qualities, together with a 
certain whimsical impishness found their way 
into some of his music, especially his improvis- 

The Bohemesque in G for organ (N.I.B. 
edition) is especially interesting because in it 
we find his melodic originality, his most 
characteristic harmonic treatment, and also a 
boundless joy, great vitality, playfulness and 
every kind of fun — in fact the piece is an 
impulse of sheer joy which is absolutely 

Sometimes we find a vein of thoughtful 
philosophy in his music, as in the organ 
Prelude in C (Novello) and the third move- 
ment of the organ Fantasia in E (Novello) and 
perhaps most of all in the two sets, Seven Pre- 
ludesand Seven Postludesfororgan(Ashdown). 

Much of his finest work remains unpub- 
lished and it would be a great service to music 
if this could be remedied. Certainly the organ 
Sonata dedicated to Alfred Hollins and the 
Nocture in Eb for violin and piano must be 

His improvisations are world famous. 
Again they were very much his own and never 
degenerated into mere musical small talk. 
Sometimes he would extemporise a fugue or 
some other perfectly conceived form which 
would bear the closest analysis. At other 
times he would follow the whim of the 
moment in a spontaneous flow of every kind 
of musical contrast — a continuous inspiration 
which was in itself the very main spring of form. 

Wolstenholme was born in Blackburn, 
February 24th, 1865. His gifts showed 
themselves at a very early age. Educated at 
Worcester College for the Blind, he took his 
Mus.Bac. at Oxford. 

Sir Edward Elgar, Lionel Tertis, Stanley 
Hawley and others recognised his genius and 
were instrumental in bringing him forward, 
and in making his early works known. 

From St. Paul's, Blackburn, he came in 
1902 to London as organist of the King's 
Weigh House, and lived in London ever after, 
subsequently occupying the posts of organist 
at All Saints', Norfolk Square, and All Saints', 
St. John's Wood. 

He toured widely as an organ recitalist of 



the first rank, in Britain and America. He was 
so much appreciated in America that Schmidt 
and Co., published many of his compositions, 
and there are several gramophone records of 
his organ playing. He also made rolls for 
organ and piano for a German instrument 
which reproduces on organ or piano the 
individual rendering of the artist. 

Like his music, his whole personality was 
unusual and individual ; it would be difficult 
to imagine anybody happier than Wolsten- 
holme and more difficult still to find an artist 
so serenely equable in temperament. Pie had 
wider interests than is generally known, 
knowing a great deal for instance about Greek 
verse, and his songs show a fine taste in 
poetry, and a knowledge of many rare and 
lesser-known poets. His sheer delight in life 
and music, and his affectionate nature, free 
from introspection and complexity, made one 
know who they are that " enter into the 
Kingdom of heaven " even on earth in the 
twentieth century. Many kind things are said 
of those who have just died, but everything 
we say now of Wolstenholme might have been 
said during his life. I once heard someone 
say that if Wolstenholme could not say 
anything good of anyone he said nothing at 
all ; but it went deeper than that, for he did 
not even think the unkind thing ; that whole 
point of view was foreign to his nature. He 
was never bored, but the nearest I have ever 
seen him come to boredom was when he was 
in company of people who were enjoying a 
discussion, as humans do, of the faults of 
another ; he was quite uninterested. 

Wolstenholme had a rare sympathy and 
intuition ; his quietness in the presence of 
anyone who was not well was not merely the 
absence of disturbance, but had in it a 
soothing helpfulness. Then how kind he was 
to young composers just beginning ! How 
jolly he was, making witty puns, and always 
ready for his cups of tea ! As a friend said : — 

" There zvas a composer called Willum 
Who could improvise just fit to killum, 
When they said — ' Cup o' tea ? ' 
' Great idea,' replied he, 
And they fill um and fill um and fill urn." 

This great dear joyous personality has gone 
from us, but he has left to the world music 
brim-full of the milk of human kindness, with 
sunshine woven into the very stuff of its 
being. His intimate friends who loved him 
had a privilege and happiness which nothing 
can take from them. S. L. 



The Danzic Sweepstake. 

Captain Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C., 
Chairman of the National Institute for the 
Blind, in a letter addressed to the Press last 
month, with reference to the Sweepstake in 
Danzic, organised under the title of " The 
World Blind Trust," stated that, as the 
National Institute for the Blind had been 
referred to in the Press communique issued 
by the promoters, he wished to point out that 
the Institute knew nothing of the matter and 
was not responsible for it in any way. 

The Blind of Gibraltar. 

The Rev. Canon C. E. Bolam has sent us a 
copy of the report of the Inspector to the 
Committee of the Gibraltar Blind Society, 
indicating the initial steps which are being 
taken by the Society which Canon Bolam, 
acting for the National Institute for the Blind, 
founded in December last. 

The present number of persons registered 
is 42 of whom 25 are completely and 17 nearly 

Some of these persons have undergone 
ophthalmic specialist operation and treatment, 
others are under treatment and others wish 
to be operated and treated, but this is out of 
their scope, due to poverty. 

In their general circumstances some are 
well looked after and do not require any 
pecuniary relief, others are in need of some- 
thing, and some are in very poor and needy 

Six blind people wish to learn Braille and 
Music, and two Braille only. 

London Society for Teaching and Training 
the Blind. 

The Report for 1930/31 traces the way in 
which the London Society touches on the life 
of the blind from childhood to adult life, and 
shows how " each period of life must have its 
appropriate measure of assistance." It is 
specially interesting to read of the part it plays 
in schooldays and to know how, in addition to 
mere book-learning, those in charge recognise 
the importance of dancing, organised games, 
drill, and remedial gymnastics. Visits to the 
Science Museum, and the Imperial Institute, 
and the many activities connected with 
Scouting and Guiding, help to make the 
children's lives very normal and happy. As 
usual, the Report is fully illustrated with 
pictures of pupils at work and play, in the 
schoolroom and in the workshop. 

c DfmZA f cw 

Published by ■/ II. /\ i M \ rV Editorial Offices: 
the National f^W ¥~* /— % I I I ^ 224 Great Port- 
Institute for WW J \\ j\ /I ^ land Street, 

the Blind m^r mL^i m. V__^ v^_^ JL ^ z, on <w w.\. 

CONSOLIDATION— National and Regional. 

WORK for the blind is still a charity and irrevocably a social service, and 
under either aspect its immediate future gives cause for considerable 
anxiety. Times are hard. Long established sources of charitable revenue 
are bound to dwindle, and the continued expansion of expenditure from 
the public purse on social services is certainly about to be checked. 
Moreover, the organisation of the Blind World is even now none too 
stable. Structural changes in its organisation are still being made. Volun- 
taryism stands firm but municipalisation is making strides. Here and there voluntary societies 
have succumbed. Others are uncertain about the future. The sincerity of some extremists, 
who demand the elimination of voluntaryism everywhere, does not necessarily put them in the 
right. But voluntaryism cannot save itself merely by goodwill, however fervent. Financial 
support from public funds confers on public authorities the right to supervision and to some 
measure of control. The question of the day is how far that control can be asserted without 
breaking the charitable impulse, which brings to the blind the personal service and financial 
sacrifice of thousands of kindly well-wishers. 

That delicate question cannot yet be answered. The Local Government Act has released 
some fresh forces, and arrested certain developments. As Mr. Starling points out in the 
admirably judicious article printed in this number of The New Beacon, consciousness of local 
responsibility has made some local authorities more sensitive to the needs of the blind, while 
elsewhere authorities which were backward are backward still. Unevenness of development is 
a fault which local societies acting in isolation are powerless to correct, and particular importance 
attaches therefore to any attempts made by national or regional agencies to reconstitute or 
reconstruct themselves in order to grapple with their present-day task on modern lines. 

The Northern Counties Association has faced the problem of co-operation between volun- 
taryism and local authorities boldly and with decision. It now comprises 44 out of 46 local 
authorities in its area, and 46 voluntary societies. Of the 46 local authorities 37 have accepted 
the services of its Regional Supervisor, whose important task is to do for the six Northern 
counties what was previously done for the country as a whole by the Ministry of Health Inspec- 
torate. The Northern Counties Association is, in fact, no longer an Association of voluntary 
agencies ; it is a composite body of a new and most interesting type, and its future will be 
watched with keen interest, notably by other County Associations which have not yet entered 
into so closely knit a partnership with the local authorities. There is certainly room for the 
formation of intermediate types of organisations in social work as in industry. The success of 
the Northern Counties Association's venture, judged simply by its effectiveness in promoting 
the spiritual and material well-being of the blind, will depend on voluntaryism being able to pull 
its full weight in the partnership. 

The reconstitution of the Executive Council of the National Institute for the Blind is a 
parallel move, actuated partly by the determination to strengthen and consolidate the voluntary 
system and partly by the desire to implement fully the arrangement made in 1925 by the Institute 
with the Advisory Committee on the Welfare of the Blind. 

The predominant voice in the control of the Institute will in future lie with directly elected 
Councillors, representative of the blind and of workers for the blind throughout the country. 
The outline of the new constitution on page 186 of this issue shows that the scheme has been 
most carefully constructed. At least one-fourth of the Council will be blind persons. The 
rule which has hitherto debarred from membership the salaried officers of voluntary societies 
has been waived in favour of the College of Teachers and the Association of Workshops. Local 
authorities are represented through their national associations. Such an amalgam of national 
and local members, of blind and sighted, of voluntary workers and official representatives, should 
be strong and well able to direct wisely the effective performance of the national services for 
the blind. The Editor. 




A Pamphlet on Talking Gloves. 

Although the manual alphabet as used by 
the deaf-blind is extremely easy to learn, and 
must always be mastered by Home Visitors as 
part of their routine duty, it is surprising to 
find many people who have to come into 
contact with the deaf-blind in Institutions and 
Homes and are content to be without means 
of communicating with them. The loneliness 
of the deaf-blind man and woman must often 
be almost intolerable, and it is surely the 
bounden duty of those whose work brings 
them into contact with this most sadly 
handicapped class to do anything within their 
power to alleviate it. 

For such people, who do not feel able to 
master the deaf-blind manual alphabet, the 
" Talking Gloves " described in a pamphlet 
by Harold Clark, and recently published in 
Ohio, should meet a need. The gloves are 
familiar to most workers here, and are very 
simply made, as they merely consist of ordin- 
ary cotton gloves, bearing the letters of the 
alphabet upon them. The position of the 
letters is memorised by the blind-deaf, and 
his companion spells out conversation to him; 
considerable speed can be quickly attained. 
The pamphlet gives an interesting instance 
of this, from an article by Dr. Alexander Bell; 
just about 50 years ago he made use of the 
gloves to communicate with a five-year-old 
pupil — " A little practice," he writes, " en- 
abled me to play upon his hand as one would 
play upon the keys of a piano and quite as 

A description is given in the pamphlet of 
the use made of talking gloves by two elderly 
American men, both of whom were enabled, 
by keeping in touch with current events 
through having the newspaper read to them 
in this way on their hands, to acquire a vast 
amount of general knowledge. " Never for a 
moment has Mr. H. lost touch with the world. 
If you wish any figures on the cost of the 
Panama Canal, if you are looking for expert 
information about' the East River Tunnel, if 
you are interested in monorail cars, aeroplanes, 
automobiles, radium, you will find a mine of 
information in the discourse of this octo- 
genarian man." 

Perhaps the very simplicity of " Talking 



Gloves " has militated against their popularity; 
people are inclined to imagine that such a 
simple method of communication cannot be 
satisfactory. To such sceptics Mr. Clark's 
pamphlet will perhaps bring conviction as to 
the value of this very simple contrivance. 

A Home for the Blind in Holland. 

We have just received an illustrated booklet 
describing a Home for Blind Men and Women 
" Sonneheerdt," at Ermelo, Holland ; its 
pictures are particularly attractive, and the 
whole place, from the kitchen where " sub- 
stantial but excellent meals are carefully 
prepared " to the entrance hall, with a bas- 
relief on the wall and a beautiful hydrangea 
at the door, seems to be flooded with sunshine 
and light. " Everyone wants to be alone 
sometimes, and Sonneheerdt has catered for 
this " are the words opposite a photograph of 
one of the bedrooms ; each blind person, we 
are told, has a separate room, fitted with 
central heating, running water, and simply 
but very attractively furnished. Braille 
printing works have been started in connection 
with the Home, and there is also a workshop 
for the making of brushes, baskets, rugs, and 
for chair-caning. 

Institute for the Blind of Trinidad and 

The Report for 1930 states that there are 
now 46 adults and 7 children in the Institute. 
Like almost every other institution here and 
overseas, the Trinidad Institute is feeling the 
present depression, and hopes that the 
Government will do something to increase its 
grant, and so to make up for the falling-off of 
private benevolence. The Report is illus- 
trated with photographs of men and women 
at work, and with an attractive picture of the 
main building. 
National Library for the Blind. 

The Report for 1930/31 states that a new 
circulation record has once more been 
reached, and over twenty thousand more 
volumes issued from Westminster and Man- 
chester than in the previous year. Nearly 
four-hundred voluntary copyists are now at 
work, and over a hundred paid blind copyists 
are engaged in the work of transcription. In 
the course of the Report some delightful 
letters are quoted from readers, thanking the 
Library for " intellectual delight past com- 
puting," and for deliverance from the " all- 
devouring dragon of loneliness." 




HIS Club was founded about 
ten years ago when little or 
nothing was done by the 
various voluntary agencies 
to cater for the recreative 
side of the lives of blind 
people after they had left 
school or been trained for some occupation. 
It is a club of the blind for the blind and is 
entirely managed by blind people. It is 
self-supporting and is run on a subscription 
basis of ten shillings a year. This sum 
entitles a member to participate in all the 
various events — whist drives, socials, draught, 
domino, bagatelle and ring-throwing competi- 
tions — free of any extra charges. 

The club room is kindly lent by the 
Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society, 
and here, on most Saturday evenings in the 
year, the members gather together to pass an 
enjoyable evening and are provided with 
refreshments. This room, however, is fast 
becoming too small for the various activities of 
the Club and efforts are being made to raise 
funds for the securing of premises of our own. 
In this connection, the sale of sweets, per- 
fumes, necklaces, bead flowers and silver 
paper has realised quite a good sum of money, 
but we are now contemplating even greater 

So far I have only dealt with the indoor life 
of the Club, but there is an outdoor side, and 
this may be the more interesting to many 

When we were firmly established indoors, 
we realised that this was insufficient, and that, 
if our people were to keep healthy, they must 
be provided with health-giving exercise and 
out-of-door recreation. The Manchester 
Corporation were therefore approached, with 
the result that we now have a piece of ground 
in one of their parks, complete with fine 
pavilion, skittle allev, and cricket pitch. Not 
only that, but this ground is shut off from the 
rest of the park and sighted people are not 
allowed to enter it without the permission of 
the Club. Of course, the ground is open to all 
blind people, but the utensils and accessories 
belong to the Club, and they are held respon- 
sible for the cleaning of the pavilion and for 
general orderliness. 

Secretary of the Club. 

This year the greatest event of our Club's 
life occurred. 

Just about Christmas time we received a 
letter from the Royal Glasgow Blind Asylum 
Social Club for the Blind saying that they 
would like to spend Easter week-end in 
Manchester in order to compete with us in 
various kinds of games. This caused great 
excitement, and our committee set to work to 
make the necessary arrangements. Unfortun- 
ately, the local blind institution (Henshaw's 
Institution for the Blind) could do nothing to 
help us, but the Blind Aid Society assisted us 
to get hotel accommodation at reasonable 
charges and also loaned us their room for the 
whole week-end. 

On Saturday morning, April 4th, at six 
o'clock, our president and several members 
were at the station to meet the Scotch 
midnight express. From the station these 
twentv-one Glaswegians (fourteen gentlemen 
and seven ladies) were conveyed to the hotel 
for breakfast, then on to our ground at 
Heaton Park, where they were initiated into 
the game of cricket, which does not appear to 
have achieved the same popularity among the 
_blind in Scotland as it has with us. 

In the afternoon a skittle match, Glasgow 
v. Manchester, was played, when prizes were 
given to the highest scorers — a lady's and 
gentleman's amongst the partially sighted and 
a lady's and gentleman's amongst the totally 
blind. Three out of these four prizes were 
handed over to the visitors, though Manches- 
ter won the game. 

After the match we all adjourned to the club 
room, where tea, followed by a whist drive and 
dance, was provided. On the way the 
visitors kept the car alive with songs of 
" bonnie Scotland." The only English tune 
attempted (to our shame be it said) was 
unknown to the English contingent present. 

At the whist drive two out of the four 
prizes were won by the visitors, but Manches- 
ter retained both the boobies. 

Although the Glaswegians must have been 
tired out after their midnight journey and 
strenuous day, the dance went with a right 
good swing, and we were initiated into the 
awful mysteries of the eightsome reel, 
together with its murderous war-cries. 



On Sunday morning we had dinner at 
Boggart Hole Clough, one of Manchester's 
finest natural parks, then went on to Belle 
Vue, where we were personally conducted 
round the zoological gardens by the manager 
himself. We were given a free ride round the 
lake in a motor-boat, and some of us had a 
snake wrapped round our necks. Mr. 
Russell, the organising secretary of the 
Glasgow party, was presented with a snake's 
skin in memory of the visit. We also fed the 
elephants and examined an antler that had 
just fallen off a deer. 

After tea in the Chinese cafe we again 
returned to the club room for a free-and-easy 
evening, during which Mr. Russell gave a 
short history of the Glasgow club. In the 
course of the evening, also a suggestion was 
mooted which may be of interest, and that 
was the affiliation of Social Clubs in order to 
raise funds and generally to facilitate inter- 
city games. 

Monday was spent at the park in various 
sports, all of which, with the exception of the 
cricket match, were again won by the visitors. 

The grand finale of the glorious week-end 
was a concert at the club room on Monday 
evening, in which both Scotch and English 
artists took part, and during which a short 
history of our Club was read. 

Afterwards about eight of our members 
stayed behind to see the visitors off by the 
ten minutes past one train to Glasgow. 

Thus ended the most wonderful week-end 
on record — brimful of fun and right goodwill. 
Manchester, to show how much she is 
maligned, gave us perfect weather : bright 
with sunshine, cool with soft breezes. 

Such an impression the week-end created 
here that we are now saving up to pay a 
return visit to Glasgow, and the Glasgow 
people are as keen about this as we are. 

Now we are in the midst of our summer 

A general sports' day has been arranged, 
and two cricket matches have been fixed with 
Stockport, while inquiries have been received 
from Burnley. Rambles have also been 

We sincerely hope the foregoing may 
stimulate other blind communities to do as 
we have done and thus provide their people 
with something more than " shop " to talk 
and think about, and better health of mind 
and body. 




To the Editor. 

"The Braille Rainbow." 

Sir, — May I be given a little space for a few 
words apropos the letter from Mr. Simes 
which appeared in the current issue of The 
New Beacon ? 

This gentleman is so exactly right in his 
remark that the " Blind-Deaf are individual 
personalities with very diverse needs and 
possibilities " and emphasises their claim to an 
individual society. To discover the best 
means for meeting these needs and offer scope 
to increase these possibilities, is one object for 
which the National Deaf-Blind Helpers' 
League has been founded. To " pauperise 
and spoil " is, in very truth, a cruelly mis- 
taken kindness. Our aim is to save our less 
fortunate comrades from being spoiled by 
pauperism. We are no rival society, we have 
earnestly appealed for co-operation to all 
those who are working on behalf of the Blind 
and of the Deaf. 

Our League should be as a gateway by 
which all such interested persons may arrive 
by a short cut to the solution of the very 
difficult problem how best to promote the 
happiness of those in the " dark silence." Our 
ideals are far too sacred to allow prejudice or 
rivalry to mar the good which may accrue 
from a society founded principally by those 
who, since they wear the " shoe," can tell 
exactly where it pinches. 

Recently, one of our associates called upon 
me to ask what could be done for the Deaf- 
Blind in Newport. One of these whom she 
had visited had had no recreation or conver- 
sation for two years ! Her days are spent in 
sitting in a corner of the room ! No wonder 
the nerves are at breaking point ! And with 
such cases still in existence there is surely 
room for every willing and generous helper. 

It is with proud gratitude that we announce 
our little society to be the first on record to 
produce a stereotyped magazine exclusively 
for the Deaf-Blind. We have been enabled to 
do this by the very generous concessions made 
to us by the National Institute for the Blind. 
Our object is to encourage and stimulate 
talents that have been lying dormant in so 
many of our gifted members. We invite 
those of brighter temperaments to pass on the 
secret of their happiness. We would pool our 


mental resources and share our blessings one 
with another. We tell our funniest experi- 
ences, and thus turn our little tragedies into 
humorous adventures, and several editors 
have kindly given us permission to select 
suitable articles from their magazines, and 
these are transcribed by sighted friends. 

Our " Braille Rainbow " (so named because 
in our creeds, temperaments, and literary 
tastes we vary as distinctly as do the colours in 
the rainbow, and, like these when united in 
purpose, we may harmonise into joy-giving 
radiance), has met with a very warm reception 
— the only complaints being that there are not 
enough pages and too few copies. As yet our 
funds will not allow us to increase the number 
of either of these. And for this purpose the 
smallest donations will be gratefully received 
and acknowledged by Col. Chamier, O.B.E. 
(Hon. Treasurer for " The Braille Rainbow " 
Fund), 16, Winchester Road, Hampstead, 

Yours, etc., 
(Mrs.) E. M. Taylor, 
Editor of " The Braille Rainbow," Official 
Organ of The National Deaf-Blind Helpers' 

To the Editor. 

The National Deaf-Blind Helpers' League. 

Sir, — As Hon. Secretary of the National 
Deaf-Blind Helpers' League, I think a word 
from me would be opportune to correct cer- 
tain misapprehensions under which your 
correspondent, Mr. G. Simes, appears to be 

It is not intended to be understood that 
nothing is done for the Deaf-Blind, but rather 
that more should be done for their social 
welfare and happiness than at present, and our 
aim is to bring about a greater public aware- 
ness on the matter. Of course conditions are 
probably better in London than in other parts 
of the country, and I, personally, always 
receive help from the Blind-Deaf Care Branch 
of the Royal Association in Aid of the Deaf 
and Dumb when asked for. But London 
is not all England, and welfare work on 
the lines described by your correspondent 
does not exist in all areas ; in any case, 
whether in London or elsewhere, there is in 
this region of dark silence always need for care 
and attention in the matter of social welfare 
for the deaf-blind people who are so often 
lonely and unhappy even when their bodily 
needs are provided for. To be deaf-blind in 

a deaf-blind world would be quite a different 
matter, but to be deaf-blind in a seeing and 
hearing world is a condition of isolation which 
it is very hard for people with their normal 
faculties to appreciate. 

Yours, etc., 

A. D. Watton. 
Hon. Secretary. 
To the Editor. 

The Deaf-Blind. 
Sir, — Referring to Mr. Simes's letter ; I 
am very glad so much is being done for the 
deaf-blind in London. I agree with him that 
to " pauperise or spoil " them is certainly 
" cruel kindness." On the other hand I am 
sorry Mr. Simes feels so satisfied ; when that 
stage is reached progress ceases. Ought we to 
feel satisfied as long as anyone deaf and blind 
is obliged to live in a Poor Law Institution or 
Mental Home (unless their mental condition 
renders that necessary) ? 

Imagine being debarred all social inter- 
course with one's fellows, which to a great 
extent is the case in institutions for those who 
can see and hear. Yet many so placed 
manage to retain a normal spiritual and 
mental outlook in spite of these adverse 
conditions. Yours, etc., 

(Mrs.) E. H. Lee, 

To the Editor. 

From John Evelyn's Diary, 1695. 
Sir, — In the course of my reading (using 
the admirable Students' Library of the 
National Institute), I have come across the 
following extract from the " Diary of John 
Evelyn " dated October 25th, 1695, which 
may be of interest to some of your readers. 

" The Archbishop and myself went to 
Hammersmith, to visit Sam' Morland who 
was entirely blind ; a very mortifying sight. 
He showed us his invention of writing, which 
was very ingenious ; also his wooden kalender, 
which instructed him all by feeling ; and 
other pretty and useful inventions of mills, 
pumps, etc., and the pump he had erected 
that serves water to his garden, and to passen- 
gers, with an inscription, and brings from a 
filthy part of the Thames near it a most 
perfect and pure water. He had newly 
burried £200 worth of music books 6 feet 
underground, being as he said, love songs and 
vanity. He plays himself Psalms and religious 
hymns on the theorbo." Yours, etc., 

C. E. Bolam. 
Greatford Rectory, Stamford, Lines. 






IT is recorded of the learned Thomas 
Fuller that he once said : " Scoff not 
at the natural defects of any, which 
are not in their power to amend. 
' Tis cruelty to beat a cripple with his 
own crutches." In our search for the 
ideal system of wage payments we are 
apt to overlook the fact that the people with 
whom we are so intimately concerned can 
never be regarded as ioo per cent, efficient 
in the modern workaday world. 

Any method of remuneration therefore, 
which is entirely based upon a pure system of 
piecework can never be applied to the blind 
employee without subjecting him to the 
greatest economic handicap. It was this 
consideration which compelled the more 
humane and progressive organisations of the 
country to abandon in part the piecework 
system of remuneration nearly twenty-five 
years ago. Obviously to expect the blind 
pieceworker to be entirely self-supporting on 
the results of a much reduced productive 
capacity was to assume an attitude which 
represented in effect the negation of all 
philanthropy, even though the system was 
practised by so-called charitable organisa- 
tions. Such an attitude could not be sus- 
tained, even apart from its baneful effects 
upon the blind community, because quite 
naturally a generous public desired to know 
and to feel that their munificence was being 
bestowed upon recipients whose economic 
efficiency was so seriously impaired as to 
remove them virtually from the arena of 

What other justification for public appeals 
could be preferred, if those responsible for 
the conduct of workshop employment merely 
paid piecework rates ? The best type of 
employer even did more than this : hence 
philanthropy was summoned to the aid of 
those handicapped folk who sought to 
minimise their disability by contributing 
their quota of service to the world's work. 
By painfully slow processes a system of wage 
payments was evolved by which subsidies of 
varying amounts were provided, which at the 
best were totally inadequate to enable the 
blind worker to secure a reasonable standard 
of life. In his anxiety still further to improve 



his status, he sought to redress the balance 
by calling upon the Government and the 
municipalities to do things for him which 
were and are subversive of all true economic 
theory and practice. In short, certain schools 
of thought advocated a system of wage 
payments which had and have no relationship 
to production, and to this extent their 
conclusions lose touch with the realities of 
practical life. 

Any system of remuneration which is so 
far divorced from intrinsic commercial values 
must inevitably tend to become merely a form 
of relief, and the agencies undertaking the 
administration of such artificial arrangements 
are nothing more or less than glorified relief 

Those who regard their administrative 
responsibilities seriously cannot be satisfied 
with the varying systems of remuneration 
that now obtain. The more progressive 
officials are anxiously seeking to discover a 
satisfactory way out of the present impasse, 
but they rightly refuse to be dragooned into 
the adoption of methods that bear no relation- 
ship to the facts of life. Everyone desires the 
introduction of a system which will secure to 
the individual the proper reward of his 
labour. We are all anxious that a due 
assessment of disability should be made and 
as far as may be, compensated for, but it is 
difficult to agree that remuneration should be 
provided that is altogether out of proportion 
to economic worth, and one which so far 
ignores productive capacity as to deliberately 
encourage the viewpoint that wages can 
remain static even though production fall to 
zero. John Stuart Mill put the matter very 
concisely, and in our opinion very truthfully, 
when he wrote : " The bad workmen, who 
form the majority of the operatives in many 
branches of industry, are decidedly of 
opinion that bad workmen ought to receive 
the same wages as good." Undoubtedly this 
conception has only too frequently influenced 
certain lines of conduct when wage adjust- 
ments have been sought. In some quarters 
it is fashionable to sneer at the point of view 
that unless there is an incentive in your system 
of remuneration, men will fail to give of their 
best, either to the State or the private em- 


ployer, and those who behave in this manner 
entirely fail to recognise that there is any 
validity in the doctrine of " the rent of 
ability." Possessing little or no skill them- 
selves, they are unwilling to recognise that 
the highly efficient workman is entitled to a 
proportionate reward for the services he 

A number of correspondents have asked 
that we should state our own views in respect 
of the system of wage payments we would 
desire to have inaugurated ; that will come 
in due course, but for the present we are 
anxious to give details of the arrangements 
that are made by certain workshops for the 
blind which are experimenting in the sphere of 
economic inquiry and research. 

One of the oldest institutions for the blind 
in this country, the old St. George's School 
and Institute, now better known as the 
Leatherhead School for the Blind, has estab- 
lished a large and well-equipped factory for 
the employment of the blind in Waterloo 
Road, London, S.E. At the time of writing, 
143 work-people are employed. In 1926 it 
was decided to try the experiment of mini- 
mum wage payments, and it is not too much 
to say that the departure from the old 
system is more than justified. It is necessary 
here to point out that the experiment was 
entered upon with much trepidation ; efforts 
had been made in many other places to 
establish a similar system, but the results 
had been disappointing, and so the atmos- 
phere was charged with doubts and hesitation 
and many dismal prophecies. The Govern- 
ment department particularly concerned was 
frankly sceptical, and the London County 
Council did not give the scheme its blessing. 

Those who were responsible for the 
adoption of the system had sufficient pre- 
science to properly safeguard the new enter- 
prise, for they knew that the inauguration of 
a general system of minimum wage payments 
would spell financial and commercial ruin 
unless it were adequately protected. Subject 
to the Committee being satisfied that the 
standard of work is maintained, the manager 
is empowered to augment the income of 
married men to 45s. per week, including 
bonus, and the single men and widowers 
without dependants to 35s., including bonus, 
on the following conditions, viz : — 

1. No such augmentation shall apply to 
any worker under the age of 21 years. 

2. New workers shall not receive augmen- 

tation until they have been employed 
for a period of six months. 

3. Any person marrying subsequent to this 
date will have his claim to augmentation 
specially considered, but in no case 
shall any worker be considered eligible 
unless he is earning at least 15s. per 

4. All income, including earnings of wife, 
but excluding contributory pensions, 
shall be taken into account in determin- 
ing the minimum of 45s. and 35s. 

5. No augmentation shall be given to any 
worker who fails to maintain his average 
earnings for any reason whatsoever, 
" other than through no fault of his 

6. For the purpose of the augmentation 
and the bonus of 15s., the week is 
divided into 11 sessions, two sessions 
daily from Monday to Friday, and one 
on Saturday. 

7. There are further regulations providing 
penalties for absence from work and 
other causes within the control of the 

It may fairly be claimed that the system in 
operation at the Waterloo Road factory has 
now passed the experimental stage, and we 
learn with interest that there is no intention 
on the part of the management of making any 
fundamental departure from methods that 
have been so eminently successful. 

It is perhaps necessary to explain that the 
guaranteed payments are made up in the 
following manner : the piecework rates on all 
work executed plus a bonus of 15s. per week 
to every worker, and where the piecework 
prices and bonus are less than the stipulated 
minimum, the balance is provided as an 
augmentation of wages grant. It will be 
noted therefore that there is sufficient elas- 
ticity in the scheme to secure to pieceworkers 
the full results of their labour, and the 
speedy and efficient man is not penalised by 
having to conform to a standard that is lower 
than his productive capacity. This latter 
provision in our opinion is the saving grace 
of the situation, since it secures to the 
competent workman just that element of 
incentive which it is absolutely essential to 

The following figures clearly illustrate the 
value of this enterprise, and emphasise that 
the element of growth maintains a proper 



proportion as 


ween economic earnings 

and pure benevolence. 

1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 

Earnings £0,401 £7,187 £7,732 

15s. flat bonus ... 4,425 4,734 4,993 

Special augmentation 1,012 1,056 1,130 

Holiday Grants ... 781 912 873 


£12,619 £13,889 £14,728 

In concluding this article, it is fitting to 
observe that no system of wage payments we 
have so far examined is less free from funda- 
mental objections than that which we have 
endeavoured briefly here to outline. It sets 
an accurate value on the commercial im- 
portance of a well-regulated wage system, 
whilst at the same time it gives a reasonably 
adequate share of responsibility to those 
benevolent impulses which are rightly associ- 
ated with all undertakings such as that 
conducted under the auspices of the Leather- 
head School for the Blind. 

{To be continued.) 


From Street Playing to Broadcasting. 

Mr. Maurice Droegmanns, the blind 
violinist, has returned to broadcasting after 
playing in the streets of the West End. He is 
a Belgian, with a Continental reputation as a 
violinist and composer. He says that playing 
in the streets is not a dignified business for an 
artist, but one must live, and even there, he 
will not play " the common stuff." 

New Blind Mus.Bac. 

At the Manchester University last month, 
Mr. Reuben Taylor, who is blind, had 
conferred upon him the degree of Bachelor 
of Music. 

Blind Composer's Opera Produced. 

An opera by a blind composer is now having 
a successful run at the Lyric Theatre, 
Hammersmith. This is " The Piper," by 
Mr. Herbert Ferrers. He conducted rehear- 
sals, and also the first performance. He finds 
conducting a little tiring, but not difficult. 
Carpentry is one of his hobbies. 

Presentation to Blind Harpist. 

A new Gothic harp was presented last 
month at Barmouth to Mr. David Roberts, the 
blind harpist, who has played before Royalty 
and has won prizes at National Eisteddfodau. 





Mr. Edwin Jones, J.P.— Aged 80. 

Alderman Edwin Jones, J. P., of Swindon, 
the blind ex-mayor, has attained his eightieth 
year, and will shortly complete fifty years as a 
Wesleyan preacher. He remains in good 
health, gets about in a wonderful way and 
takes the liveliest interest in all that goes on 
around him. 

Blind M.Sc. 

Mr. Peter S. Sumner, a master at Worcester 
College for the Blind, has surpassed his B.A. 
and B.Sc. degrees by securing the M.Sc. 
degree in economics at the London Univer- 
sity. He lost his sight at Ypres, and was 
formerly a student at Worcester. He teaches 
English, history, and Latin, and took up the 
study of economics as a hobby. In all his 
studies, he has been greatly assisted by his 

Splendid March Past of Blind Girl Guides. 

At the rally last month of the 1,000 Girl 
Guides on Knavesmere, York, marched the 
Blind School Company of 20 sightless girls. 
Few of those who watched the parade 
realised that these guides could not see — that 
the command : " Eyes right ! " for them 
meant no more than turning the head. This 
company neither straggled nor faltered as they 
went by, their hands just touching as they 
marched. After the march past, Mrs. Percy 
Birley, the Chief Commissioner, spoke to the 
Blind School Company and praised their 
display. She also spoke to Kathleen Wilson, 
a " post " guide in a wheel chair, who took 
part in the parade. 

Royal Normal College Successes. 

Kathleen Hilda Fowler, a student of the 
Royal Normal College for the Blind, Upper 
Norwood, has been successful in passing the 
Examination in Shorthand of the London 
Chamber of Commerce at 120 words per 
minute, and also the Senior Typewriting 
Examination (attaining a speed of 50 words 
per minute in the speed test), gaining dis- 
tinction in both subjects. 

Nine other students of the College sat for 
the Junior Typewriting Examination in May, 
all of whom have also passed with distinction. 

The papers (in the case of the Typewriting 
Examinations), instead of being worked from 
manuscript copy, as is the practice with seeing 
candidates, were taken down by the. blind 
candidates in Braille shorthand and typed 
from their notes. 



Report of Annual Meeting. 

THE Annual Meeting of the County Councils and of the Ophthalmological 

Union of Counties Associ- Society, the Ophthalmic Section of the Royal 

ations for the Blind was Society of Medicine and the Council of 

[HE Annual Meeting of the 
Union of Counties Associ- 
ations for the Blind was 
held at Clothworkers' Hall, 
Mincing Lane, E.C.3, on 
Wednesday and Thursday, 
June 24th and 25th, 193 1 , 
under the Chairmanship of Mr. P. M. Evans, 
M.A., LL.D., whose unanimous re-election as 
Chairman was the first business before the 
Meeting. Having taken the Chair, Mr. Evans 
acknowledged the honour done him and spoke 
of the new ideas and methods which were 
coming into operation with which he hoped to 
help the Union to keep abreast. 

During the course of formal business the 
election of Dr. Eichholz as a co-opted member, 
representing the National Institute for the 
Blind, was carried unanimously. Later in the 
meeting the nomination of Mrs. Knapp, Vice- 
Chairman of the Midland Counties Associ- 
ation and of the Rev. H. Every, Vice-Chair- 
man of the Western Counties Association as 
the representatives of the Council of the 
Union on the Council of the National Institute 
for the Blind was received and approved. 

The Report on the work of the year 1930/3 1 
for the Annual Report was adopted, together 
with the Report of the Prevention of Blindness 
Committee for the same year. The latter 
Report contained an account of the means by 
which the Committee had been enabled to 
begin its work, through grants from the 
Clothworkers' Company and the National 
Institute for the Blind. The Committee's 
aims may be summarised as follows : to 
investigate and report on the measures which 
are being taken by Local Authorities and 
Voluntary Societies throughout this country 
for the Prevention of Blindness, to keep in 
touch with methods adopted in other countries, 
to inquire into the system of certification of 
the blind with a view to assisting research into 
the causes of blindness, to seek co-operation 
with all bodies whose assistance is likely to 
encourage preventive measures in adolescent 
and middle life and to stimulate the safe- 
guarding of eye accidents, in industrial and 
agricultural occupations by propaganda or any 
other useful means. The personnel of the 
Committee includes representatives of two 

British Ophthalmologists . The Report , which 
covered the period April 1st, 1930 to March 
31st, 193 1, was supplemented by a statement 
from which the following is an extract : 

The Secretary has carried out investiga- 
tions in the areas of the following County 
and County Borough Councils : — Cheshire, 
Cumberland, Gloucestershire, Lancashire, 
Northumberland, Surrey, Carlisle, Chester, 
Eastbourne, Gloucester, Hastings, Hull, 
Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne and Wolverhampton. She has also 
visited a number of Blind Agencies in order 
to ascertain at first hand the arrangements 
made for dealing with cases of defective 
sight and to discuss problems of Registra- 
tion and Certification of the Blind. 

" At the special request of the Committee 
the Secretary visited and reported on the 
Certification of the Blind Clinic set up by 
the Corporation of Glasgow, where the 
services of four ophthalmic surgeons, two of 
whom attend sessions twice weekly, are 
available for examining and certifying blind 
persons. From the records thus obtained 
valuable statistics are in process of being 
built up. From representations made to 
Dr. Bridge, Senior Medical Inspector of 
Factoriesat the Home Office, it is hoped 
that the Home Office will encourage the use 
of gauze veils in works where drilling and 
grinding are carried on. The widespread use 
of these veils should help to minimise eye 
hazards in the particular branch of industry 
for which they are suitable. These veils 
were brought to the notice of the Union in 
the first place through Mr. Mullens, 
Chairman of the South Wales and 
Monmouthshire Counties Association for 
the Blind, and their use has been strongly 
advocated by Mr. Bernard Cridland of 
Wolverhampton. It was further reported 
that visits to Staffordshire, Derbyshire, 
Lincolnshire, Oxfordshire and Oxford had 
been arranged." 

Reports were received on the British Wire- 
less for the Blind Fund, the Association of 
Workshops and on the result of the examin- 




ation for the Macgregor Prize. In connection 
with the latter, the approval of the Council 
was given to a change in the character of the 
test. Up to the present the examination has 
been in the teaching of Braille and Moon type. 
Excellent work has been done in this direction 
but it was felt that the amount of originality 
which can be shewn in the working out of such 
schemes is limited and that a change would be 
advantageous. The new proposal would have 
the effect of widening the scope of the examin- 
ation, as it would not limit it, as has happened 
in practice, to candidates sitting for the Home 
Teachers Examination. The recommend- 
ation adopted for 1932 was that the Macgregor 
Prize be offered for the best essay not exceeding 
500 words in length on some line of original 
research in the field of Home Teachers' work. 
The suggestion had received the approval of 
Mr. E. D. Macgregor, and the result of the 
new test will be observed with interest. 

A discussion on the adoption of White 
Sticks for the blind was begun on Wednesday 
afternoon and continued before the close of 
the meeting on Thursday morning. The 
concensus of opinion among the blind mem- 
bers present was against the use of white 
sticks ; but no definite recommendation was 
made as it was felt that their adoption should 
depend upon individual choice and not upon 
concerted action. 

On Thursday morning, June 25th, Mrs. 
Barton Land, Secretary to the Staffordshire 
Association for the Blind, gave the meeting 
food for thought in her interesting and 
constructive paper on the problem of Provision 
for the Partially Blind. She was followed by 
Mr. Starling, General Superintendent and 
Secretary of the Birmingham Royal Institu- 
tion for the Blind, who spoke in the light of 
his own experience and produced statistics 
relating to his Institution. Both speakers 
attended the meeting as representatives of the 
Midland Counties Association. 

The discussion which followed was joined 
in by Mr. Dixson, Miss King, Mr. Edward 
Evans and by Mr. Lovett of the Ministry of 
Health and Dr. Underwood of the Board of 
Education, both of whom referred to the sight- 
saving methods, adopted in certain States and 
Cities in America, which they had recently 
had an opportunity of studying at first hand 
during the World Conference on the Blind 
held in the United States. 

As a result of the discussion it was resolved 
to ask the Executive Committee to investigate 

and report on the problem of provision for the 
partially blind. 

In the afternoon an Open Session was held 
at which the Council of the Union and all the 
representatives of Local Authorities and 
workers for the blind who had applied for an 
invitation, were present. The subject before 
this meeting was the World Conference on the 
Blind and papers were read as follows : — 

Home Services by Miss J. A. Merivale ; 

Braille by Dr. Whitfield ; 

The Industrial Aspect by Mr. S. W. 
Starling ; 

The Relationship of the Blind to the 
Community at large by Captain Ian 
Fraser ; 

The General Aspect by Mr. W. McG. 
Eagar and Mr. Lovett. 

These papers will be printed in full and 
copies will be obtainable from the Secretary, 
Union of Counties Associations for the Blind, 
66, Victoria Street, S.W.i. Copies of the 
Report of the Annual Meeting can also be 
obtained from the Secretary. 

The South Eastern and London Counties 
Association for the Blind held a Meeting for 
Home Teachers and Home Visitors in its area 
to hear speakers on subjects touching their 
work, on July 6th, 193 1, at the Clothworkers' 
Hall, London, by the kindness of the Cloth- 
workers' Company, which also entertained 
them to tea. Miss Jean Robinson spoke on 
" Guiding for the Blind," Miss Ainsworth on 
" Social Clubs for the Blind," and the 
Reverend Albert Smith, Chaplain to the 
Royal Association in aid of the Deaf and 
Dumb, on " Work among the Blind-Deaf." 
A Report of the Meeting will be published, 
copies being obtainable from the Secretary to 
the Association at 66, Victoria Street, London, 
S.W.i, and a short account of the speeches 
will appear in the next issue of The New 

The South Eastern and London Counties 
Association for the Blind held a meeting of its 
Executive Council, followed by another 
meeting of the Executive Council as the 
Trustees of the National Blind Relief Society, 
and also its Annual General Meeting, on the 
afternoon of Tuesday, July 21st, 193 1, at the 
Clothworkers' Hall, when the necessary 
annual and other business was transacted. 




The West Sussex Association for the Blind 
publishes a Report for two years 1929/31. 
During those two years the Association's work 
has grown steadily, as has that of the Worthing 
Society for Befriending the Blind, which 
works within its area and is affiliated to it. 
In spite of the loss of Vice-Chairman, Hon. 
Treasurer, and Hon. Secretary, the organis- 
ation has been consolidated. The Report 
gives a comprehensive account of the work 
done in the County. Copies can be obtained 
from the Hon. Secretary, at 47, West Street, 


Deaf and, Blind Institute, Worcester, South 

We have received from the Deaf and Blind 
Institute, Worcester, S.A., a most interesting 
illustrated record of its fifty years' work. The 
School was founded by the Dutch Reformed 
Church in 1881 but for the first ten years only 
deaf pupils were taken ; however, in 1890 the 
Principal of the School visited Europe to 
study educational methods in relation to the 
blind, and on his return it was decided to 
admit blind boys and girls ; there are now 
120 blind pupils. 

Up-to-date teaching methods are employed, 
and a quotation from the Education Inspec- 
tor's Report shows that the standard reached 
is a high one ; he writes : " The standard 
applied in my inspection of the School for the 
Blind is not less severe than in the case of 
other schools under my jurisdiction and the 
results are meritorious in every respect." 
There is much individual teaching, and the 
handling of objects is encouraged. 

Vocational training includes basket and 
mattress making, piano tuning, and chair 
caning, and a high standard of efficiency is 
aimed at. But the section of the Report 
headed " Educated and then ? " suggests that 
the lot of the trained worker in South Africa 
is a very hard one, and that the crying need 
of such an institute as that at Worcester is 
some system of after-care. The writer ends 
with an appeal to those who read the Report 
to do something to provide such a system, 
without which the best training must almost 
inevitably end in failure. 

Mount Lavinia School for the Deaf and 
Blind, Ceylon. 

The Report for 1930 states that there are 
now 127 blind children in the school. A new 
hostel for boys has lately been opened, and a 
new nursery and kindergarten for little girls. 
The help of Toe H in developing the indus- 
trial side of the work is gratefully acknow- 
ledged and weaving, knitting, and basket- 
making are successfully carried on. The 
perennial problem of caring for the boys and 
girls who have learned a trade, but who have 
to leave school without much prospect for 
the future is touched upon in the Report, and 
a Committee has been formed to deal with 
the problem. 

Association of Workshops for the Blind. 

The Second Annual Report (1930-31) gives 
an interesting account of the year's work, 
which has included an enquiry into the wages 
paid to blind workers throughout the country 
and into the question of the rates of augmen- 
tation. The setting up of a Central Market- 
ing Board is still under consideration, and 
although progress has been somewhat 
retarded the project has by no means been 
given up. A list is given of the fifty-six 
workshops and societies belonging to the 
Association, which shows that it has support 
in all parts of the country. The Association is 
hoping to induce local authorities throughout 
the country to accept an agreed minimum 
scale of augmentation. 

Canadian National Institute for the Blind. 

The Report for the year ending March 31st, 
1 93 1, is, as usual, well-illustrated and full of 
interest. Industrial placement is a department 
of blind work in which the National Institute 
has always shown itself particularly active, and 
in this connection, it is interesting to read in 
the Report of the Blind Workmen's Compen- 
sation Act, which became operative a few- 
weeks ago ; under this Act, claims up to 50 
dollars are looked after by industries under the 
Workmen's Compensation Act, and compen- 
sation exceeding this amount is paid by the 
province on receipt of a certificate from the 
Workmen's Compensation Board. During 
the year just ended, 78 placements have been 
made, and an interesting organisation formed, 
made up of the blind men and women placed 
in small business undertakings by the Institute 
who are thus banded together to secure the 
advantages of communal buying. 



Victorian Association of Braille Writers, 
South Yarra, Australia. 

Over six hundred volumes have been 
transcribed by voluntary writers for the 
Library at South Yarra, during the year 
1930/31 ; one voluntary writer has, during 
her twenty-two years of service, transcribed in 
all 475 volumes, a record of generous and 
patient endeavour which must be almost 
unrivalled. Library readers now number 420, 
and over 15,800 volumes were lent during the 

Cardiff Institute for the Blind. 

The 66th Annual Report, for the year 
ending March, 1931, states that in spite of 
trade depression goods to the value of £7,552 
were disposed of, and workers paid at the rate 
of £2,237 m wages, together with the sum of 
£5,197 in augmentation, bonuses, etc. As 
usual, the subscription list of the Institute 
bears witness to the splendid generosity of the 
workers in collieries and factories. 

Guernsey Association for the Education and 
Welfare of the Blind. 

The eleventh Annual Report of the Associ- 
ation for the year ending April 30th, 193 1, 
gives an interesting account of the blind 
persons on its Register ; there are no institu- 
tions for the blind on the island, and they 
therefore have to be sent to England for 
education and training. Grants are made to 
the aged and infirm, and to meet special 
emergencies. It is specially interesting to see 
that the work of prevention of blindness is not 
overlooked, and that during the year 143 cases 
have been dealt with under this head. 

Association of Certificated Blind Masseurs. 

The twelfth Annual Report for 1930/31 
chronicles an important experiment, in that 
steps have been taken to consider the desira- 
bility of preparing blind post-graduate 
students in the advanced forms of electro- 
therapy ; four blind post-graduate students 
are now taking a special course in this branch, 
and the Committee will be guided by their 
achievements in deciding whether this subject 
shall find a place in the future syllabus of 
those taking the medical electricity examin- 

A visit was recently paid to the Massage 
School by the Minister of Pensions, the Right 
Hon. F. O. Roberts, M.P. 



THE deliberations of the New 
York Conference brought 
out, perhaps more clearly 
than ever before, the para- 
mount importance of co- 
ordination and unification 
in all efforts made for the 
blind ; overlapping of every kind must mean 
waste, and every effort must be made to 
prevent it. 

Two steps in this direction have lately been 
taken by the American Braille Press in Paris, 
which will be of interest to our readers, 
especially as the first also marks a step towards 
the unification of Braille. 

1. It has been decided as from January, 
1932, to merge two English publications, the 
monthly " American Review for the Blind " 
in Grade i|, with " The International 
Magazine for the Blind " ; the new form of 
periodical will be embossed in Grade 2, and 
will thus be accessible to English readers. 

2. It has been decided to give up the 
publication of the French monthly, " The 
Braille Magazine," and its readers are urged 
instead to purchase the fortnightly " La 
Lumiere," the publication of the Phare de 
France, which has hitherto been distributed 
free to individual readers, but is in future to 
be published at 10 francs per annum. 

The American Braille Press will only 
publish in languages and for countries 
where, as in Spain, Poland, and South 
America, there is at present practically no 
Braille printing done. The greater part of its 
activities will thus be set free for the con- 
struction of machines for the production of 
zinc plates, and of electric printing presses, 
and for research work in connection with 





The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copy. 

CHURCH— s d 

10,911 Bach. Come, Healing Cross, Bass Recit. 
and Air from "St. Matthew Passion " 
D minor ; A,— E 1 2 


10.912 Handel. With Pious Hearts, Bass 

Recit. and Air from " Judas Mac- 
cabaeus," G minor ; G, — E 1 

10.913 Bach. Allabreve in D, Vol. 8, No. 6 ... 

10.914 Faulkes, W. Festival Prelude on " Ein' 

Feste Burg," ... 

10.915 Hoyte, W. S. Scherzo in B flat 

10.916 Ouef, C. Desespoir 


10.917 Albeniz, J. Zambra Granadina (Oriental 


10.918 Coates, A. Idyll 

10.919 Craxton, Harold. Two Little Studies : 

" A Sad Brook," and " A Spring 
Morning " 

10.920 Defesch, W. Les Flutes (Gavotte) 

10.921 Demaret, R. The Blue Rose (Habanera) 

10.922 Elkin, Robert. Sarabande Pensive ... 

10.923 Farjeon, H. " Prelude " and " Pavane " 

10.924 Foster, Ivor. Canzonetta 

10.925 Kameneff, S. Where Snow-flakes Fall 

10.926 Littleton, Eric. The Ballet Dancer ... 

10.927 Mullen, F. Approaching Dusk (Valse 

Lentc) ... 

10.928 Thornton, R. S. The Children's Musical 


10.929 Butler, R. and Wallace, R. I'm Happy 

when I'm Hiking, Song Fox-Trot ... 

10.930 King, W. The Waltz You Saved for Me, 

Song- Waltz 

10.931 Nicholls, H. When the Guards are on 

Parade, Song Fox-Trot 

10.932 Woods, H. River, Stay 'way from My 
. Door, Song Fox-Trot 


10.933 Arundale, Claude. 

C— F 1 

10.934 Brahms. Cradle Song (Wiegenlied), F ; 

F— F 1 

10.935 Carew, Molly. What Sing the Birds ? 

F ; C— G 1 

10.936 Franck. Nocturne (French), E flat 

minor; E — E 1 

Geehl, Henry. Zinetta, D ; D— G 1 ... 

Geehl, Henry. When Spring Goes Shop- 
ping, E flat ; D— F 1 

10.939 Moya. The Song of Songs, B flat ; 

D— E 1 

10.940 Sampson, Godfrey. In Youth is 

Pleasure, E flat ; E— A 1 

10.941 Schubert. Hark, Hark ! the Lark, 

B flat ; E— F 1 

10.942 Wolf, Hugo. Mignon, G flat ; A, sharp 

—A 1 flat 

per vol. 

West-Away, F 
















The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 

10,832 /Esop's Fables. Retold by Enid Blyton. 
Graduated Braille, Intermediate size, 
Interlined, Stiff Covers. B.53 

10,545-10,550 Iliad of Homer, The, by Andrew 
Lang, M.A., Walter Leaf, Litt.D., 
and Ernest Myers, M.A., Grade 2, 
Large size, Interpointed, Paper 
Covers. 6 vols. F.366 

10,598-10,601 Inconsistent Villains, The, by 
N. A. Temple-Ellis. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers. 
4 vols. F.212 

s. d. 

10,533-10,535 Passenger to Folkestone, The, 
by J. S. Fletcher. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers. 

3 vols. F.145 

10,785 Points of View. Grade 2, Large size, 

Interpointed, Cloth Boards. G.74... 

10,624-10,627 Purple Robe, The, by Joseph 
Hocking. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Paper Covers. 4 vols. 

10,602-10,605 Sea and the Jungle, The, • by 
H. M. Tomlinson. Grade 2, Large 
size, Interpointed, Paper Covers. 

4 vols. F.230 

10,588-10,591 Sense and Sensibility, by Jane 

Austen. Grade 2, Large size, Inter- 
pointed, Cloth Boards. 4 vols. G.269 

10,833 Tarrydiddle Town, and Other Stories, 
by Enid Blyton. Graduated Braille, 
Intermediate size, Interlined, Stiff 
Covers. B.60 

10,787-10,788 1066 and All That, by W. C. 
Sellar and R. J. Yeatman. Grade 2, 
Pocket size, Interpointed, Paper 

Covers. 2 vols. D.67 

Wav of Literature, The, Edited by 
Ernest de Selincourt, M.A., D.Litt. 
Intermediate size. Interlined, Stiff 
Covers : — 

10,834-10,835 First Book. Compiled by Miss 
A. E. Woodall. Graduated Braille. 
2 vols. B.110 

10,836-10,838 Second Book. Compiled by Freda 
M. Buchanan, M.A.(Edin), and 
Eglantyne M. Jebb, M.A.(Oxon). 
Graduated Braille. 3 vols. B.159 ... 

10,843-10,846 Fourth Book. Compiled by Helen 
Darbishire, M.A.(Oxon). Grade 2. 
4 vols. B.267 

per vol. 











The prices of the following publications are subject 
to a reduction of two-thirds for the blind resident in 
the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 

per vol. 
3,082-3,087 Another part of the Wood, by s. d. 
Denis Mackail. (Limited Edition). 
6 vols 12 

3.093 The Great Pine, by Mary Wilkins 


3.094 His Widows, by V. Hunt 

3.095 Master John Horseleigh, bv T. Hardy 

3.096 The Obstacle, bv E. M. Delafield 

3.097 A War Hero, by A. Reid 




Jones, H. Stuart ; Roman Empire 


Rivington, H. G. Law of Property in Land ... 
Smith, H. Emerson. Municipal and Local 
Government Law 


Torrance, A. Tracking Down the Enemies of 

Wicks, S. F. Public Speaking for Business Men 
Yeats-Brown, F. Bengal Lancer 


Moliere. L'Ecole des Femmes ... 


Marcus Aurelius. Meditations ... 

Prichard, H. A. Kant's Theory of Knowledge 

Santayana, G. Realm of Essence 




Rossetti, Poems of Christina ... ... ... 4 


Chamberlin, W. H. Soviet Russia ... ... 7 

Marriott. J. A. R. How we are Governed ... 2 
Portheim, P. Cohen. England, the Unknown 

Isle 3 


Had field, J. A. Psychology and Moral = ... 3 


Tylor, Sir E. B. Anthropology 5 

FICTION. vols. 

Baring, M. Half-a-Minute's Silence, and Other 

Stories ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Birmingham, G. A. Wild Justice ... ... 4 

Bloch, J. R. (Trans. C. K. Scott-Moncrieff). 

— and Co. ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Borden, Lucille. From out Magdala 4 

*Buckrose, J. E. Good-Natured Lady ... ... 3 

Burke, T. Wind and the Rain 4 

*Cannon, Cornelia. Red Rust ... ... ... 4 

Christie, Agatha. Murder at the Vicarage ... 4 

Cowper, E. E. Forbidden Island ... ... 2 

Crofts, F. W. Sir John McGill's Last Journey 5 

Cullum, R. The Wolf Pack 4 

Dell, Ethel M. Storm Drift 5 

*Footner, H. Substitute Millionaire ... ... 3 

Glasgow, Ellen. They Stooped to Folly ... 5 

Hay, Ian and S. King-Hall. Middle Watch ... 3 

Jacks, L. P. All Men are Ghosts 2 

*Kuller, J. van Ammers. Rebel Generation ... 5 

Lewis, S. Main Street ... 7 

Loder, V. Whose Hand ... ... ... ... 4 

Modern Detective Stories ... ... ... 2 

Rea, Lorna. Six Mrs. Greenes ... ... ... 3 

♦Service, R. W. House of Fear ... ... ... 5 

Sitwell, O. Dumb Animal and Other Stories ... 3 

Tynan, K. The Most Charming Family ... 4 

Walpole, H. Rogue Herries ... ... ... 9 

Young, E. H. Miss Mole 5 


jBaverstock, A. H. Priest as Confessor ... 2 

Bensusan, S. L. On the Tramp in Wales ... 2 
*Campbcll, T. Poems : Selected and arranged 

by L. Campbell ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Godley, Hon. Eveline. Charles XII of Sweden : 

A Study in Kingship. (E. W. Austin Memorial) 4 

*Gosse, Sir E. Silhouettes ... ... ... 4 

fHolmes, Archdeacon E. E. The Church, Her 
Books and Her Sacraments. (Boyle Lecture 

1910) 2 

t Ingram, Bishop W. Good News from God ... 2 

Osborn, E. B. Socrates and his Friends ... 3 
Passmore, T. H. New and Living Way : a 

Study of the Hope of Mankind ... ... 5 

Scott, Sir Walter and R. L. Stevenson. Selected 

Poems. (Augustan Books of Modern Poetry) 1 

Sedgwick, H. D. Marcus Aurelius ... ... 4 

Stuart, Dorothy M. Christina Rossetti (English 
Men of Letters Series). (E. W. Austin 

Memorial) ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Thomas, Helen. World without End ... ... 2 


Collodi„C. (Trans. M. A. Murray.) Story of a 

Puppet or the Adventures of Pinocchio ... 2 

Metcalfe, W. C. Among Chinese Pirates ... 3 

Nesbit, E. Nine Unlikely Tales for Children ... 2 

*Smyth, J. Paterson. Boys' and Girls' Life of 

Christ 2 

* Stereotyped Books. 

f Presented by the Guild of Church Braillists. 


Hutten, Baroness von. Maria ... ... ... 5 

Ouiller-Couch, Mabel. Carroll Girls 4 


Herben, J. Malrica Knabo Kiu Glorigis ... 3 

Lagerlof, Selrha. Junulino el Stormyr ... 2 

Newell, L. N. Concise Course in Esperanto ... 3 

Simunovic. Ano de L'Ringludo 2 


Miller, J. R. Things to Live for ... Volume 3 

Pedler, Margaret. House of Dreams-Come-True 7 


preferably near London, very good testimonials 
G.B., 11, Oppidans Road, N.W.3. 

Gentleman (37 years) seeks post as uncertified 
HOME TEACHER ; willing to study for next Exam. ; 
experienced with blind people. Good references. 
F. C. W. Smith, South View, Station Rd., Belton, Gt. 

HOME TEACHER (male), fully qualified, desires 
appointment. Ten years' practical industrial experi- 
ence. Intimate knowledge of social welfare work and 
thoroughly versed in blind administration. Excellent 
testimonials. J. M. E., Care of Editor, The New 
Beacon, 224, Great Portland Street, W.l. 


the Blind. Qualifications : fluency in at least two 
European languages, administrative ability and know- 
ledge of methods of social research and investigation. 
The Director will be required to live in Paris. Three 
years' engagement contemplated. Salary, 75,000 
francs per annum. Apply to " Mundus," at 224, 
Great Fortland Street, London, W.l. 

WANTED by the Bolton Workshops and Homes for 
the Blind, sighted HOME TEACHER AND VISITOR 

(woman) ; must be single person or widow. Salary : 
uncertificated £130 p. a. ; certificated £156 p. a. Write 
stating age, experience and qualifications to the 
Chairman, Bolton Workshops and Homes for the Blind, 
Marsden Road, Bolton, not later than the 22nd August, 
1931. Envelopes to be endorsed " Home Teacher." 


The next Craft Instructors' Examination will be 
held on 13th, 14th and 15th October, 1931, at the 
School for the Blind, Swiss Cottage, London, N.W.3. 
Forms of application can be obtained from the Hon. 
Registrar of the College, 224-6-8, Great Portland 
Street, London, W.l, and must be returned not later 
than 12th September, 1931. 

Copies of previous examination papers can be 
obtained from the Hon. Registrar. 




WANTED — A sighted Woman Teacher and Visitor 
for the Blind in the Selby, Goole and Thome areas of 
the County Council. Salary £156 per annum. 

Applicants must not be over 40 years of age, and 
must have passed the Home Teachers' Examination of 
the College and Association of Teachers of the Blind. 

Forms of Application, together with particulars of 
the duties, may be obtained on forwarding a stamped 
addressed envelope to the Education Officer, County 
Hall, Wakefield, to whom all applications must be sent 
not later than the 28th August, 1931. 

Printed by Smiths' Printing Company (London & St. Albans), Ltd., 22-24, Fetter Lane, London, E.C.4. 

c DftcZNcw 





Vol. XV.-No. 177. 

SEPTEMBER 15th, 1931. 

Price 3d. 


Enttrtd as Second Class Matter, March 15, 1929, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass., under the Ad of March 3, 1879 {Sec. 397, P.L. and R.) 


An Account of the Summer School, held by the British Broadcasting Corporation at 
New College, Oxford, to train Discussion-Group Leaders. 


THIS conference provided a most interesting and profitable week, both of 
instruction and amusement. All went smoothly, thanks to the untiring 
organisers ; and although the serious side of the programme was full, it 
was relieved by such holiday activities as are appropriate to a summer 
school. One soon arrived at two conclusions — (a) that there is now going 
on among the people of this country a good deal of hard, sound thinking 
upon all present problems ; and (b) that most people can be interesting 
when released for a time from their particular " trivial round." Keenness — Comradeship — 
these are the two ideas which emerge, and these, as I think, are the underlying principles of 
the Discussion-Group system. It is a young movement of great possibilities. All its members 
are pioneers. It is an adventure in which the blind may take a full share. 

Many of us are tempted into using the radio only as another form of entertainment — a 
delightfully cheap and enervating form, in which you sit at your own fireside to be amused, 
without the expense or bother of going to a music-hall ; or, at the most, as a vehicle for interest- 
ing and useful information — rather like a periodical. Some people switch on their set regularly 
each evening at about six o'clock or earlier, leaving it to blare and boom away unheeded and 
unchecked until bedtime, while they read the newspaper, talk, play cards, or what not, as if 
their loud speaker were an electric fan, or some kind of toy. This evil practice the B.B.C. are 
especially anxious to quash. 

They feel, and wish everyone else to feel, that an instrument of such enormous power 
and almost unlimited range of action, should try to achieve something of real and permanent 
value to the nation. It should be used for constructive purposes. It should not be content 
with tickling listeners' ears, nor with giving them useful business hints, but should offer them 
first-rate intellectual, aesthetic and ethical stimulation ; sound and vital knowledge, living 


ideas and (not least) a chance to express 
their response to these. If they were to 
neglect this function, the B.B.C. would fail 
•in their trust. If the public refuse to respond 
they will force the Corporation to forsake 
this great conception of service and to 
abandon what can become a real force in 

Blind people all over the country have 
here a magnificent opportunity. Here is 
scope for their initiative and their energy. 
If they are sincere in their wish to " pull 
their weight " and be good citizens, this is 
the very thing for them. Good citizenship 
does not consist wholly in having a job and 
earning your living, though this, of course, 
is important too. It consists also in encourag- 
ing and supporting with all your might 
anything which you believe to be for the 
general benefit. 

Policy of the B.B.C. 

One of the best means that Savoy Hill 
has for putting this belief into practice is 
its adult education scheme — the " Talks 
Programme " about which so many hard 
things have been said from time to time. 
These talks are always given by experts. 
These talks are kept as close as possible to 
the world of everyday things. Their language 
is simple and free from technical terms ; 
examples and illustrations are taken from 
ordinary life with which the listener is 
familiar. The talks department use up much 
energy and time in training these great 
men not to talk over the heads of us 
humble folk. For it is the man in the street 
that the B.B.C. want to reach — the average, 
intelligent citizen who is anxious to learn. 

Moreover, the talks are designed to help 
people to tackle the problems of the day ; 
problems which they see around them ; 
problems which, perhaps, they find in their 
own lives. The programme for next winter 
has some of the qualities of a work of art. 
Each talk belongs to a series of six or twelve. 
Each series, though complete in itself, is 
connected with all the others and fills its 
place in the whole scheme, which is intended 
to make a broad survey of the state and 
trend of modern civilisation. This pro- 
gramme is ambitious ; it shows vision and 
courage ; and I am sure will be welcomed 
by all who want that power which education 
brings, to live more fully and make the best 
of oneself. 


Passive Listening. 

In this mode of education lurks one great 
danger. Someone at the conference used 
an apt expression — " Education should try 
to kindle the fire, not fill the pitcher." The 
pupil should not be a sponge soaking up all 
moisture that touches it ; he should be an 
intellectual sieve, holding and storing what 
he can accept, rejecting the rest. All that 
the loud speaker says should be met by what 
may be called interested resistance. Each 
point should be weighed, criticised, analysed, 
applied, amplified or refuted by personal 
experience, and only after it has passed 
these tests should it be accepted and 
assimilated — " annexed," as Professor Series 
put it. Only in this way can come into being 
that large body of informed, intelligent, live 
opinion which the B.B.C. are trying to create. 

The Discussion-Group. 

It was to combat this danger that the 
Discussion-Group was invented. The term 
discussion-group, as applied to broadcasting, 
is a loose one, standing for a method of 
education which is flexible enough to be 
adapted to almost any local conditions. It 
may be anything from a fireside or family 
group, comprising p'erhaps half a dozen 
members, to a gathering of a hundred or 
more. Both these types, and all inter- 
mediate grades, were represented at the 
conference. It need not be highly organised 
— probably the less the better. Informality 
— ease of intercourse — absence of stiffness — - 
is essential ; for the object of these meetings 
is to listen and to talk. 

Both these things a blind person can do 
perfectly well. If he is the only blind man 
in a group he is at no disadvantage, except 
that he is at present unable to obtain a 
Braille edition of the pamphlet, if any, issued 
in connection with the series. He can take 
Braille notes if he likes. He need not reserve 
his speech until he can " catch the speaker's 
eye." People do not make speeches at group 
meetings ; they sit comfortably in their 
chairs and speak a few sentences at a time 
whenever they have anything relevant to 
say. There is no chairman as such ; no set 
procedure, no fuss. You criticise the broad- 
cast talk, criticise or reinforce each other's 
contributions, collect and compare your own 
impressions and experiences, and sometimes, 
perhaps, add fresh knowledge to elucidate 
some point which the broadcasting lecturer 


has left obscure. There is room here for 
wit, humour, anecdote, controversy and all 
the delightful and stimulating ingredients 
of good conversation. 

The Listeners' Register. 

The B.B.C. have realised that perhaps 
some interested listeners may be prevented 
by circumstances from enjoying the 
advantages of group listening. For these 
there is a " Listeners' Register," upon which 
they can enter their names on payment of 
one shilling, and through which they can 
be brought into contact, either with an 
existing group, or with other listeners 
similarly placed, with whom they can 
arrange discussions orally or by corre- 

The Group Leader. 

One member of the group is more important 
than all others. Experience has shown that 
a group leader is absolutely necessary if the 
group is to do well. He has certain functions, 
which he will not find arduous if he is the 
right man for the job. He has the whole 
conduct of the group in his hands ; yet it is 
impossible to lay down many general rules 
for his guidance because, if he is a good 
leader, his procedure will vary according 
to the subject, according to the contents of 
the broadcast talk, to the size of his group, 
to the individualities of its members, and 
so on. " To be a group leader is an art, 
not a science," said Professor Series. He 
must be tactful, understanding, a quick 
thinker, able to soothe and prod and curb 
and encourage and keep everyone at their 
ease. In short, he must have the makings 
of a good host. 

A Blind Group Leader 

This presents no great difficulties. There 
are, however, one or two small points to 

First, it is essential that a leader who is 
blind should personally know all the members 
of his group — their characters, their interests, 
their opinions. This applies to any leader, 
but particularly in the case of the blind. 
Some of his flock may be shy, or slow to 
express themselves, and, when they have 
something to say, show it only by facial 
expression or some slight movement which 
would escape the keenest ears. It is at this 
moment that a timely word from the leader 
may make all the difference. 

Again, when discussion is lively, two or 

three members may begin speaking at once, 
and may confuse a blind man, who will not 
distinguish them, perhaps, quite so readily 
as a man using his eyes. 

One may sometimes be drawn into a dis- 
cussion merely by a glance, which would, in 
the case of a blind man, be a word — a 
question, perhaps — " What do you think 
about this point, Mr. X ? You've had a lot 
to do with machines " — or something like 

Or it may happen that, where there are 
seeing members in the group, one of them 
may be betrayed by unseasonable levity of 
mind into making physical gestures or 
contortions for the amusement of his fellows, 
thus placing the leader at a disadvantage. 

All these obstacles, however, amount to 
hardly more than quibbles. Everything 
depends, ultimately, upon the leader's per- 
sonality. If he has the right kind of person- 
ality he is the best man to be leader, whether 
he is blind or not. 

Group Formation among the Blind. 

I feel that a sighted group with a blind 
leader is practicable, though the duties of 
the leader are here a little more exacting 
than usual. I would not recommend an 
all-blind group with a seeing leader. 
Individual blind people would do well to 
attach themselves to sighted groups, and 
where blind people form a group of their 
own, I would strongly advise them to include 
also, if they can, a number of seeing members, 
because a group needs the greatest possible 
variety of viewpoint and experience. 

It was suggested at the conference — and 
the suggestion seemed to meet with approval 
■ — that the ideal group should be about thirty 
strong. I suggest that, with a blind man as 
leader, twenty would be a more manageable 

Sets and Reception. 

The quality and volume of the reception 
should, of course, be good. Energy must 
not be wasted in an effort to distinguish the 
actual words of the talk. The B.B.C. 
engineers recommend a cone speaker and a 
set with an outside aerial, placed as high as 
possible, about sixty feet in length. They 
have a number of sets which they are willing 
to lend to new groups until they can purchase 
one of their own. 

If a blind man is leading a group containing 
seeing members it would be well for him to 


remember to arrange the group so that 
they can all see the loud-speaker. Though 
it may seem odd, seeing people apparently 
like to look at the thing to which they are 

There are many other small points, such 
as lighting, care of the set, quiet and 
accessible premises, accommodation for 
possible guides, etc., which need not be 
laboured here. 

Those who have had experience of dis- 
cussion-group work all recommend that, 
where a pamphlet is issued with a series, 
this should be studied by every member of 
the group, both before the series begins and 
concurrently with it. A new type of pam- 
phlet is to appear next session, taking the form 
of an introductory essay on the subject of 
the series, and this will probably be of some 
permanent value. It would be of great help 
to blind listeners if arrangements could be 
made to issue the pamphlets in Braille 
simultaneously with the ink-print edition, 
or, at any rate, well before the talks begin. 

With each pamphlet will be found a list 
of books, and leaders are advised to read 
one or two of these in preparation for the 
talks. They will give him a background of 
knowledge upon which to draw if necessary. 

The Listener reprints most of the talks, 
and these should be read before each meeting 
to refresh the memories of the group upon 
what they heard last week. This would 
necessitate an all-blind group finding a 
reader. The Listener also has a correspond- 
ence column in which listeners can voice 
their opinions. 

Finally, the B.B.C. lay great stress upon 
the need for co-operation. " Write to us," 
they say. " Let us know your difficulties 
and what you are doing and what you 
want." Every letter, however trivial, 
receives a reply. Questions, criticisms, 
suggestions, reports of group meetings, all 
are welcome at Savoy Hill, and receive full 
attention. Only in this way can they know 
how their work is prospering and how it can 
be improved. " Do not," said Mr. C. A. 
Siepmann, " think of us as a great impersonal 
organisation with which you can make no 
contact ; think of us as human, fellow- 
workers with you, ready to hear your 
opinions, always to consider them, and 
s ometimes to act upon them." One came 



away from the conference feeling that the 
B.B.C. officials, and the ideals for which they 
stand, deserve the heartiest backing that the 
Nation can give them. 


"Darley Steps." 

Readers of The New Beacon are familiar 
with some of Mr. C. R. Allen's verse and will 
be interested in the new volume from his pen 
entitled " Darley Steps," and published by 
the Authors' Press, London and Henley-on- 
Thames, price 3s. 6d. The poems are 
dedicated by permission to Sir James Barrie, 
and consist for the most part of lyrics, though 
" Darley Steps," from which the book takes 
its name, is a longer narrative poem. 

Mr. Allen is a lover of nature, and peoples 
his countryside with shy woodland creatures 
and fairies, living, we are told, " an acorn's 
throw from Brighton Way that leads to 
London town." There is an attractive 
effortlessness about his verse, and his 
rhyming is musical : — 
" David the miller of starlight sold 

Bushel on bushel of powdered gold 

To the cunning seraphs whom God had told 
To gild the gorse in May." 

" Fruit-netting " gives a vivid picture of a 
blind man at work in a factory in the gloom 
of a winter day, his hands moving mechanic- 
ally at his monotonous task — " Broken his 
nails, and marred his clawing fingers " — 
while his spirit is far away, back in boyhood 
days when the " sun-sweet netting " fell on 
his shoulder as he sat on the cherry tree 
branch, and played with his sweetheart. 

Mr. Allen sums up his outlook as a poet 
in " A Singer of Songs " : — 
" If the singer of songs would have happiness 

Let him fashion his verse far away from the 

Of cities and multitudes. Safe in his lair 

Let him fashion his song, all his cunning 

And there with his lute he will taste of 
pure joy, 

Joy in the singing, 
Happiness bringing, 

Though there be not a soul who shall listen 
and wonder." 



Number of Free Wireless Licences Issued to the Blind. 

Up to the end of last June the total number of free wireless licences issued to the 
blind was 24,074. 

The Value of White Sticks ; the Deaf and Wireless. 

Two items of interest reach us from the Barclay Workshops. One is that some 
of the Barclay Workshop Girls who are using white sticks say that since they have had 
them they are able to get to work in a quarter of the time. The other is that a 
Barclay woman who has been almost totally deaf for many years is able to enjoy to the 
full her wireless set, hearing the programmes far better than she can hear the voices 
of those speaking to her. 

Opening of New Home for the Blind at Leicester. 

The new Hospital and Home of Rest for the blind of Leicester in Gedding Road, 
were opened last month by the Duke of Rutland, with the Lord Mayor (Councillor 
H. Carver) in the chair. 

The Hospital and Home have been named after Mr. and Mrs. Crew, who have done 
so much for the blind in Leicester. The entire cost — about £6,000 — was raised by 
Mrs. Whiley, who was prevented by illness from attending the ceremony. The Rev. J. 
Gibbons, pastor of Melbourne Hall, acted for her and dedicated the building. Canon 
F. R. C. Payne also took part in the ceremony, and the key to open the building was 
presented to the Duke by Mr. S. N. Smith, the architect. Memorial plates were also 
unveiled by the Duke in the hall after the opening ceremony. 

The Duke of Rutland, before unlocking the door, congratulated the Wycliffe 
Society on having promoted the scheme for building such a handsome and pleasant 
building for blind people. 

A Royal Souvenir for Newington House, Edinburgh. 

Their Majesties the King and Queen have signed an enlarged photograph of them- 
selves with the blind ex-Service men from Newington House, Edinburgh, taken when 
the men were entertained to lunch at Holyroodhouse on July 12th last. The photograph 
will be hung in Newington House to commemorate an interesting event. 

New Retail Store Opened by Henshaw's Institution. 

The Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Manchester (Alderman G. F. Titt and 
Mrs. Titt) yesterday made the first purchase at a new retail store at All Saints' which 
has been established by Henshaw's Institution for the Blind for the sale of goods made 
at the Henshaw Workshops. The new store is to take the place of the shop in Deansgate, 
where the sales have not greatly exceeded £1,000 a year. This figure, said Councillor 
Mathewson Watson, did not compare very favourably with that of Birmingham, where 
the retail sales of articles made by blind workers amounted to about £8,000 a year. 
A turnover of £5,000 a year as a beginning at the new shop would assure its success. 

Declaring the new store open, the Lord Mayor said he had been particularly struck 
by the quality of the work which the blind people in the Henshaw Works turned out. 
The furniture which they made in the department opened about 18 months ago was 
quite equal in quality and workmanship to that made by sighted workers, a fact which 
said a great deal for the training that was given to the blind workers at the Institution. 

Expressing the hope that the removal of the shop to new quarters would increase 
the sales to a figure comparable with that of Birmingham, the Lord Mayor said that 
to buy at the Institution's shop was not charity. It certainly helped to keep the 
workshops busy and to give employment to blind workers, but the buyer got value 
for his money. 





Braille Edition of " The Outlook for the Blind." 

A Braille edition of " The Outlook for the Blind," published by the American 
Foundation for the Blind, is to be published, beginning with the current issue. It is 
somewhat in the nature of an experiment to determine the extent of the demand ; 
should a sufficient interest be shown, its publication will be continued. The subscription 
price is 40 cents per annum. 

New Braille Monthly Literary Magazine. 

A new monthly Braille magazine, " The Braille Book Review," is to appear early 
this autumn, sponsored by the New York Public Library and the American Braille 
Press. Its object is to stimulate interest in embossed reading matter. It will contain 
reviews and announcements of new books, announcements relative to printing presses 
and libraries, occasional sketches of living authors and other items likely to create 
interest in the world of books. 
Message from the Blind Youth of America to English Blind Youth. 

The girls and boys of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, 
Overbrook, Philadelphia, Pa., have sent the following message to the students of schools 
for the blind in England : — 

" The blind youth of America have a mutual tie with the sightless young people 
of England. May we not strengthen this bond by learning more about each other ? 
Can we not have a student from one or several of your schools write letters to us about 
your institutions of learning, manners and customs, while we, in our turn, will write 
to you of our school life and customs in America ? If we can have an interchange of 
correspondence, we shall learn to know and understand each other better. Perhaps, 
before many more years, when airplane transportation has become much less expensive, 
you may fly over to Philadelphia to participate in a ' track meet ' or some other 
competitive sport. 

" The young people of the world to-day will be the leaders of the world to-morrow. 
If the youth of the countries of the world have a better understanding of each other, 
will not the leaders of to-morrow be able to direct international affairs in a much more 
intelligent, peaceful and satisfactory way than heretofore ? 

" We, the students of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the 
Blind, sincerely long for that faith and trust among all nations which shall draw them 
together in a universal cause, the brotherhood of man and the betterment of humanity." 

New York's Din Bewilders the Blind. 

Blind children in New York often cannot learn to walk because of the traffic and 
other noises of the metropolis. This is one strange fact that emerges from a survey 
by the City Health Officer of the effect of city noises on the 5,580 blind people of New 
York. The din of the city, it has been discovered, drowns the sound of a blind man's 
footsteps, by which he is ordinarily guided, and leaves him lost and bewildered. 

Committee to Honour the Memory of Charles Barbier. 

A Committee has recently been formed by M. Paul Remy, at Champigny, to honour 
the memory of Charles Barbier, the French artillery officer who was the originator of 
the embossed system that formed the basis upon which Louis Braille worked. The 
name of Braille is known throughout the world, and that of Barbier is practically 
forgotten ; it is a generous impulse that prompts M. Remy to remind the blind of their 
debt to Braille's forerunner. 

Barbier's system, like that of Braille, was arbitrary, and was based on a set of 
twelve dots, from which a very large number of combinations could be obtained by 
changes in number and position. The system was phonetic, and Barbier was constantly 




making changes in it, which were by no means conducive to simplicity, and must have 
made it very difficult to learn ; but whatever may be said in criticism of it, the fact 
remains that it was the foundation on which Louis Braille built. Braille never repudiated 
his debt to Barbier, but always acknowledged it loyally ; yet we are told that Barbier 
died in 1840 a disappointed man, little guessing that his system, which he termed 
" Writing of the Night," was to be the cornerstone of so great a structure. Thirty 
years were still to run before Braille would come into its own. 


To the Editor. 

William Wolstenholme. 

Sir, — By way of supplement to Mr- 
Sinclair Logan's wholly admirable apprecia- 
tion of Wolstenholme, as a man, and as a 
musician, it shoiild certainly be recorded 
that the first one to take an active part in 
getting Wolstenholme's compositions before 
the public was Dr. Alfred Hollins, who not 
only played them at his recitals but intro- 
duced them to Mr. E. H. Le Mare, who 
forthwith gave them excellent publicity by 
including them in his recital series. 

Also it is interesting to note that among 
the many letters received by Mr. Wolsten- 
holme's sister was one from Sir Edward 
Elgar, who spoke most appreciatively of 
Wolstenholme's music. Elgar took con- 
siderable interest in Wolstenholme when the 
latter was at Worcester, and incidentally 
he acted as his amanuensis for his Mus. Bac. 
examination at Oxford. 

Yours, etc., 
London. H. C. Warrilow. 

To the Editor. 

A Tribute to Hospitals and Homes. 

Sir, — Kindly permit me to write a few 
words of praise on behalf of our wonderful 
voluntary hospitals. My experience as an 
indoor patient commenced over 65 years ago. 
I can only just recollect being in the child- 
ren's ward of University College Hospital, 
London ; also the Hospital for Sick Children, 
Great Ormond Street, London, W.C. On 
December 1st, 1868, I was admitted into the 
Edward Ward of St. Thomas' Hospital (old 
Surrey Gardens), London, and was under 
the care of the late Professor Samuel Solly. 
I was then eleven years of age, and the 
nurses taught me to read, write and spell. 
Miss Florence Nightingale, the Lady of the 
Lamp, also assisted the nurses in their 
efforts. We had no wireless in the wards in 
those far-off days, but plenty of good nurses 

and kind medical students. When I was 
discharged as cured on November 9th, 1869, 
the thought came in my mind that never 
again would I receive such kindness. I did 
not expect then to find myself in a voluntary 
hospital in my 66th year ! When a hospital 
patient is also totally deaf he must be a 
great trouble to those around him. But 
that was not my experience in the Lonsdale 
Ward of King's College Hospital, Denmark 
Hill, London, S.E., in July, 1923, when I 
had to undergo a serious internal operation, 
and my life was saved one midnight by the 
splendid hospital team. Nor was it my 
experience in the Waddington Ward in 
July and December, 1924, and again in 
May, 1925, for operative treatment on my 
eyes, which has saved me from total 
blindness. No. The devoted attention of 
the surgeons and the nursing staff will ever 
live in my memory. The sisters and nurses 
of King's College Hospital are splendid. Our 
voluntary hospitals are still the wonder and 
admiration of the world, and so are the 
homes for the blind. I had a very delightful 
time in 1925 in the Holiday and Convalescent 
Home for the Blind at Quarry Hill, St. 
Leonard's-on-Sea, Sussex. It is a beautiful 
Home, and the matron, also staff, wonder- 
fully kind to the patients. I was admitted 
on November 12th, 1925, into the Devonport 
Home for the Blind, and am still here. 
Friends and employers who helped me in the 
past have passed away, and yet I have much 
to be thankful for. The matron, Miss 
Florence Laishley, also the hon. secretary, 
Mr. E. E. Nicholls, of the Devonport and 
Western Counties Associations for the Wel- 
fare of the Blind, are wonderfully kind to 
me, although I am totally deaf and nearly 
74 years of age. I thank God, and the 
splendid team of King's College, for preventing 
me from being totally blind also. 

Yours, etc., 
Plymouth. William J. L. Hooper. 




IN a wide sense, the enlightened teacher 
in every age has also been a psycholo- 
gist, recognising that no two of his 
pupils are alike, and learning by 
experiment and failure, renewed ex- 
periment and final success, to adapt 
his teaching to the individual. But 
psychology, in a narrower sense, is a young 
science, and the application of psychology to 
educational problems is something relatively 

To the layman there is at the outset some- 
thing rather repugnant about the whole 
thing ; we dislike to hear people talk glibly 
of " low intelligence-quotients " (or even 
" low I.Q.'s ") and we vaguely resent the 
suggestion that we can be labelled and 
classified and popped into the pigeon-hole of 
a laboratory. It is a reasonable and healthy 
resentment, and Dr. French, Principal of the 
Californian School for the Blind, put the 
point well when he urged that research, if it 
is to be tolerable as well as worth-while, 
must observe the common decencies of life, 
adding — " A little research is a dangerous 
thing, and half-baked conclusions are fatal." 
Another American writer, Miss Rocheleau, 
emphasises the same point when, writing of 
the deaf-blind, she says : — " The usual intelli- 
gence-tests . . . should never, never be applied 
to deaf-blind children or even adults, as a 
foot-rule is applied to lumber," and points 
out how essential it is that the child's self- 
confidence shall not be carelessly undermined ; 
giving a dog a bad name comes dangerously 
near hanging where little children are 

American educationists are alive, then, to 
the dangers of a mechanical reliance on 
psychological tests ; but they are alive, too, 
to the changes that have made the world of 
to-day an amazingly different place from 
that in which our grandparents lived, and 
one in which, if our children are to cope at 
all successfully with its amazing, ruthless 
whirl, they must be equipped with the best 
education that we have to offer ; rule of 
thumb methods must, as far as possible, be 
superseded by scientific ones. 

The systematic application of psychology 
to education dates from 1904, when M. Binet, 
a French psychologist, was invited by the 

French Government to draw up some scale 
of measurement in order that the intelligence 
of school children might be tested, and 
proper arrangements made for the segregation 
of those of low mentality. In 1905 he 
published his first set of tests, and in 1908 
and 191 1 revised editions of the tests were 

The tests aroused the interest in America 
of Dr. Goddard, of the Training School for 
the Feeble-minded, Vinelands, New Jersey, 
and he decided to make use of them, with 
certain modifications, for the testing of 
children in his care. Meetings of education- 
ists were held from time to time at Vinelands, 
and at one of these it was suggested to 
Dr. Burritt, of the Pennsylvania Institution 
for the Blind, that the time had come for the 
introduction of tests into schools for the 
blind. He was much interested, and in 1916 
a resident psychologist was appointed at his 
school, together with a Director of Research, 
in the person of Dr. Samuel Hayes, who has 
ever since taken a leading part in educational 
research in schools for the blind in America. 

At the same time, Dr. Edward Allen, of 
the Perkins Institution, whose great work 
on behalf of the education of the blind is 
already familiar to readers of The New 
Beacon, arranged for the appointment of a 
psychologist at his school, and the Depart- 
ment of Applied Psychology was founded 
there. Its aims may be briefly summarised 
as follows : — ■ 

1. The development of methods for testing 
the intelligence and school achievement of 
blind children. 

2. The routine testing of pupils seeking 
admission to the school, and their periodic 
re-testing at stated intervals. 

3. The assistance of teachers in dealing 
with " difficult " children. 

4. Co-operation with all other institutions 
having similar aims. 

In 1916, Dr. Hayes carried out intelligence 
testing at the Perkins Institution and the 
New York State School, Batavia, as well as 
at the Pennsylvania Institution, and three 
years later, when, in addition to his work at 
Pennsylvania, he accepted the post of 
Director of Psychological Research at the 
Perkins Institution, he arranged to carry out 



a further survey of seven schools. The 
results of this survey were reported at the 
Convention of American Instructors of the 
Blind in 1920, and aroused very wide 
interest ; a great many teachers were fired 
with ambition to carry out similar tests in 
their schools, and as it was impossible for 
Dr. Hayes and his assistant to pay personal 
visits to more than a very few, he issued a 
pamphlet on .Self-Surveys, giving instructions 
to teachers on the way in which the tests 
might be carried out in schools where a 
personal visit from a psychologist was 

The work of Dr. Goddard at Vinelands had 
not only aroused the interest of Dr. Burritt 
of Pennsylvania, but also that of Mr. Robert 
Irwin, another American educationist whose 
name will be familiar to many of our readers. 
In 1914, Mr. Irwin had attended a Summer 
School at Vinelands, and with Dr. Goddard's 
help had produced a set of Binet tests 
suitable for the blind ; he arranged the whole 
collection in year-groups, and made use of 
them when complete in various homes for 
blind babies, schools for the blind and 
classes for the blind in public schools. 

Between 1916 and 1923, mental testing 
was going on in several schools for the blind, 
and by 1923 we are told that tests had been 
given to more than twelve hundred blind, 
and partially blind, children. It was felt by 
Dr. Hayes and Mr. Irwin that the time had 
come for a revision of the tests, in the light 
of growing experience, and accordingly a 
Revised Guide (Irwin-Hayes) was published 
in 1923 and a further revision in 1929. 

In 1924, the American Foundation for the 
Blind began to develop educational research 
and appointed a psychologist who had for 
five years previously been carrying on work 
of the kind at the Perkins Institution. She 
devoted herself to various problems, especially 
to the adaptation of intelligence-tests to 
blind needs, and to the study of the blind 
child's reading, but after a time she began 
to feel that if her work was to be of practical 
use it was essential that new educational 
theories should be " tried out " ; laboratory 
work alone was not enough, and needed to 
be translated into action. An arrangement 
was accordingly made, by which the Perkins 
Institution co-operated with the American 
Foundation for the Blind, and the Lower 
School of Perkins (with its 120 children) 
was converted into a Department of Special 

Studies, where " any and every promising 
method is welcomed and put into shapa for 
prolonged trial." New methods are not 
accepted merely because they are new, nor 
the old rejected merely because they are old, 
but those at work recognise that on the one 
hand quite certainly educational methods 
of the past were not perfect, and that on the 
other, quite probably " the best is yet to be." 
In an article in " The Outlook for the 
Blind," Dr. French gives his reasons why 
research in schools for the blind is vitally 
important, and does so with such conviction 
that his summary is worth noting here ; it 
is as apposite in schools for the blind on this 
side of the Atlantic as on the other. 

1. He points out that the education of the 
blind requires special technique based on the 
muscle and skin senses, and that we need to 
study those senses if we are not to make our 
education too " visual." 

2. The blind child has to live in a world 
of seeing people, and we must study how 
best to fit him to adapt himself to that world. 

3. Blindness often involves physical and 
mental complications which must be segre- 
gated and understood if the blind child is to 
be properly educated. 

4. Environment, sleep, lighting, heat and 
diet are all subjects that need to be studied 
by the educator, and equally he needs to 
study the intangible " atmosphere " sur- 
rounding his pupil if he is to know when to 
hold out the helping hand and when to leave 
his charge to risk a fall. 

5. Blindness in general does not exist, 
but rather " blindnesses " of many kinds 
and varying degrees, and procedure must 
vary in accordance with such variations. 

Dr. French ends his article by pointing 
out that up to the present educational 
research in America has been fragmentary 
and isolated, as indeed all pioneer effort 
must be, but he suggests that the time has 
come for work " on a national, if not inter- 
national, scale." So far, little has been done 
in England, but the newly formed Committee 
for educational research, under the auspices 
of the College of Teachers and the National 
Institute for the Blind, holds important 
promise for the future. The work already 
done in America will be of help to this 
Committee, and it is to be hoped that 
the day of international co-operation in 
matters of such vital importance is not far 




THE National Institute for 
the Blind have issued the 
following particulars re- 
lative to the Special 
School for Mentally 
Retarded Blind Children, 
" Court Grange," Abbots- 
kerswell, near Newton Abbot, Devon : — 


To provide suitable education for mentally 
retarded children who are blind within the 
meaning of Section 3 (a) of the Board of 
Education Form 40 D and are not certifiable 
as mentally defective under the Education 
Act, 1921. Cases of physical defect will also 
be considered for admission, provided that 
they do not require treatment beyond the 
capacity of the school to provide. 

Applications for admission should be made 
to the Secretary-General, National Institute 
for the Blind, on Board of Education Forms 
306 M and 40 D (and, in case of physical 
defect, 40a. D). Pupils are admitted for a 
probationary period of three months in the 
first instance, and the management reserve 
the right to demand the withdrawal of a 
pupil should his (or her) presence be detri- 
mental to the well-being of the School. 


The fee of £85 per annum, payable each 
term in advance, is inclusive. 

An initial payment of £5 for provision of 
school uniform is payable on admission. 

No charge is made for stationery, books or 
other apparatus except for articles constitut- 
ing and remaining the personal property of 
the pupil. 


There is at present accommodation at the 
school for 30 resident pupils (15 boys and 
15 girls). 

Health Certificates. 

Each pupil should furnish a health certifi- 
cate on admission (or after absence from the 
school on holiday). The medical officer to 
the school will examine each new pupil as 
early as possible after arrival at Court Grange 
and periodically thereafter. 




It is expected that pupils will return to 
their homes during school holidays. Where 
desirable, arrangements will be made by the 
matron for pupils to remain at Newton Abbot 
during the holidays. 

General Regulations. 

Visits are made by arrangement with the 
head master. Parents or guardians will be 
welcome at any time which does not interfere 
with school hours. Pupils may go out with 
their parents or guardians on Saturday 
afternoons or Sundays, and with friends of 
the parents, if permission has been given 
in writing to the head master by the parents, 
upon whom the responsibility falls. 

Arrangements will be made, if required, 
to escort pupils to and from London by a 
specified train on the days preceding and 
following the first and last day of term. 

Correspondence regarding admissions and 
fees should be sent to the Secretary-General, 
National Institute for the Blind. 

All communications relative to health, 
visits, clothes, etc., should be sent to the 
head master. 


The School will be under the management 
of the National Institute for the Blind, and 
the officers appointed are as follows : — 

Head Master : Mr. C. E. Spurgeon. 

Senior Mistress : Miss M. McConnochie. 

Matron : Miss M. Davis. 

Medical Consultant : E. D. Macnamara, 
M.D., F.R.C.S. 

Medical Officers. — Hon. Medical Officer : 
G. M. Tanner, M.A., M.B., B.Ch. 

Hon. Ophthalmic Surgeon : D. Wilson, 
M.B..B.S. (Lond.). 

Hon. Dental Surgeons : H. Dagger, L.D.S., 
R.C.S., and H. S. R. Sellar, L.D.S., R.C.S. 

The term begins on September 15th, and 
the following dates are proposed for the 
current school year : — 

Autumn term — September 15th to 
December 21st (inclusive). 

Spring term, 1932 — January 12th to 
March 22nd (inclusive). 

c ^7ficD\ f cw 

Published by ■/ L /A I I 1 X. Editorial Offices: 

the National f^V |^ /"A I I I X 224 Gjeat Por '" 

/nsff/u/e V II / % \ ,\ / ^J land Street, 

the Blind K_J M-^l W J V^_^ 1 ^| London, W.\. 



^ HE value of wireless as a means of self-education amongst the adult blind 
has not yet been generally realised. In April we gave information as to 
the B.B.C. Area Councils and the necessary procedure for the formation 
of Discussion Groups, also suggesting the possibility of issuing Talks and 
Lecture Programmes in Braille, should there be any demand for them. 
In the same month, the National Institute for the Blind sent a circular 
letter to Voluntary Institutions and Clubs for the Blind asking whether 
the blind in each specific area were interested in wireless as a means of education, whether 
Discussion Groups had been formed or encouraged, and whether there would be a demand 
for the B.B.C. booklets or for The Listener in Braille. 

The answers received to the questionnaire are mainly very disappointing, and judging 
from them it is evident that the blind generally are not yet interested in the educational 
possibilities of wireless, that Discussion Groups have not been formed, that no blind people 
have expressed the desire to join existing Discussion Groups of sighted people, and that the 
encouragement of Discussion Groups amongst the blind is considered by the officials of 
Institutions to be not practicable. On the other hand, there seems to be a fairly general 
desire for Braille editions of B.B.C. pamphlets and The Listener provided they are not too 
expensive. The apparent reasons for this depressing lack of interest are as follows : A great 
number of the blind people dealt with by Local Associations are too old to be interested in 
anything educational ; the lack of guides and suitable transport are serious obstacles ; blind 
people who are working all day are too tired in the evening to care for anything but the re- 
creational side of wireless ; blind people do not consider blindness in itself a sufficient link for 
the formation of a Discussion Group amongst themselves. 

Each of these reasons may be sufficiently strong in itself to prevent the formation of a 
Discussion Group in a particular district, but we think that each of them is akin to the reasons 
which are always given by conservative thinkers against any new suggestion. It is obvious 
that each of them could be overcome by a little enterprise, particularly on the part of Social 
Clubs for the Blind. Hardworked officials are not the best people to initiate a new experiment, 
and the suggestion to form a Discussion Group should be made to the blind concerned by 
individuals who are not only fully competent to make a success of the idea, but have the will 
and the enthusiasm to do so. 

It is encouraging to know that the officials of the B.B.C. are extremely keen on promoting 
Discussion Groups amongst the blind, and that they are doing their best, whenever the occasion 
arises, to introduce the idea of Discussion Groups and to help practically in their establishment 
and to promote their growth. We understand that since the questionnaire was sent out by 
the National Institute one or two Groups are being formed, and we hope that the formation 
of these Groups will be the thin edge of the wedge in promoting an ambition amongst blind 
people of all classes to make full uses of the unique facilities afforded by wireless for systematic 
study in many subjects of fascinating and practical interest. 

Mr. W. H. Coates, a blind man, attended the Summer School held by the B.B.C. at Oxford 
for the training of Discussion Group leaders, and his experiences are given in the leading article 
of this issue of The New Beacon. It will be seen that he came away filled with enthusiasm. 
He is in favour of Groups consisting of both blind and sighted people and considers that in 
group listening " blind people all over the country have a magnificent opportunity. Here is 
scope for their initiative and their energy. If they are sincere in their wish to pull their weight 
and be good citizens, this is the very thing for them." 

We heartily endorse Mr. Coates's opinion. The British Wireless for the Blind Fund has 
nearly succeeded in its object of providing all blind people with wireless sets, and we firmly 
believe that in the minds of those who initiated the Fund was the intention to provide 
the blind not merely with a means of amusement for leisure hours but with a means of 
developing knowledge and sustaining mental abilities. The Editor. 




(August ist to 8th.) 

CRACOW, the scene of this 
year's Congress, is a town 
of historic associations and 
with many interesting and 
well preserved old build- 
ings in that part of Poland 
formerly under Austrian 
rule, where the life — at least, the town life — 
is German, rather than eastern, in character. 
Yet in the mornings you see the barefooted 
peasant women selling their country produce 
in the market-square and tripping home- 
wards at a good round pace with heavy 
bundles on their backs over rough cobble- 
stones which are tiring enough even to the 
well-shod pedestrian. Taxis and motor- 
coaches there are, but the town is still full 
of droshkys, whose drivers, arrayed in very 
tight trousers, usually white with a dark line 
down the outside of each leg, will take you 
quite a long way for sixpence if you do not 
excite their cupidity by offering more. 

Our first impression of the place was one 
of hospitality and comfort. Esperantists 
met us at the station at six in the morning 
and drove us in a taxi to our well-appointed 
hotel to catch up some of the sleep we had 
missed in our thirty-six hours' journey, for 
we were not like one of our party, who 
climbed on to the parcels rack and vowed he 
slept soundly all night long above our heads. 
I imagine that about one thousand 
Esperantists were present at the Congress, 
including some two hundred of the towns- 
folk who, having received only ten lessons in 
Esperanto during the previous three weeks 
from the gifted teacher, Father Che, had yet 
gained enough confidence in using the 
language to show us about their town, 
translate menus and extricate us from any 
difficulties due to our ignorance of Polish. 
These people certainly did credit to their 
teacher and showed that with a will to work 
it is possible to gain a useful knowledge of 
Esperanto in a very short time. 

In the blind section of the Congress we had 
only nine blind Esperantists and a few 
seeing friends interested in blind affairs. 
Those of them who so desired had free 
quarters in a new and well arranged students' 
hostel. The small number of members from 
abroad did not surprise me, considering the 




hard times now prevailing throughout 
Europe, and also, because the Esperantists 
are to meet next year in Paris, for which 
many, both blind and seeing, are already 
trying to save up. But I was disappointed 
to find only three Polish members, for I 
understand that Esperanto is taught in all 
four blind schools in the country. I was told, 
however, that in spite of the existence of the 
schools, the condition of the blind in Poland 
is one of extreme poverty, and very few 
could have found money enough to pay the 
railway fare, while those who had occupations 
could not spare the time. I think the only 
blind men I met in Poland who had made 
good in business or professions were Jews, 
educated at the Jewish Blind School in 
Vienna, but another young man from the 
same school told me that on leaving it he 
had to return to his native Polish village, 
where the post comes once a week, and where 
the only work he can do is occasionally to 
make a few baskets for the peasants, who 
pay for them with a pint of wheat. The 
country is poor and the people have neither 
time nor money to devote to the blind. As a 
blind German professor afterwards said to 
me, " Life is much easier among rich neigh- 
bours than among poor ones." 

Our small party could, of course, do little 
in the way of " business," though we much 
enjoyed one another's society and that of 
our seeing Esperantist friends. 

On our way home we met in Berlin several 
friends who had come in contact with the 
deputation from the National Union of the 
Professional and Industrial Blind some 
months ago, to the members of which they 
sent kindly greetings. They told me that 
many of the blind there are still working 
in industry, mainly owing to the percentage 
law, but that others are sharing in the general 
unemployment, because so many factories 
have had to close. Indeed, the great 
majority of the factory chimneys we passed 
on our way through Germany were smoke- 

Although Greater Berlin has four million 
inhabitants, it seems to be an easier place 
for blind people to get about in than London. 
Some, like Mr. Hasselbach, go all over the 
city without any guidance, but most of our 


friends had their guiding dogs, and said 
would never be without them. 

One or two little incidents gave us the 
impression that both in Poland and Germany 
the public shows less consideration to blind 
travellers than in England, though this does 
not apply to officials on railways and public 
conveyances, who are most helpful. 

We spent the last week-end of our trip in 
a German provincial town as the guests of a 
distinguished blind linguist. In his youth 
he had studied languages in the hope of 
becoming a university professor, but this was 
barred by his blindness, so, having obtained 
his doctorate, he began to teach English, 
French and Spanish in his own town, and 
has maintained himself and his family in 

comfort ever since. His success is un- 
doubtedly due to his charming personality, 
which makes his classes so popular, and his 
thorough and practical knowledge of his 
subjects, which has enabled his pupils to do 
well in examinations and to make good use 
of the languages he has taught them. I 
cannot help thinking that the achievements 
of such a man suggest that modern language 
teaching, if properly prepared for, ought to 
be definitely added to the professions prac- 
tised by the blind. 

The finishing touch to our interesting and 
enjoyable holiday was given by the customs 
official at Harwich who, seeing our Congress 
badges, gave us a friendly greeting in 


WORKERS for the blind 
are for the most part 
rather ignorant of the 
contents of periodicals 
in Braille type, and as 
it is now just fifty years 
since Dr. Armitage first 
published Progress, it is perhaps a fitting 
occasion to give readers of The New Beacon 
some account of the contents of its Braille 

There are probably few periodicals which, 
in proportion to their circulation, have so 
wide a circle of readers. Rather over fifteen 
hundred copies are published monthly, and 
of these about a hundred and eighty are sent 
overseas ; a number go to Australia, Canada, 
India, the United .States and South Africa ; 
there are readers in most European countries, 
including France, Germany, Italy, Holland, 
Norway, Poland and Spain, while China, 
Japan, Palestine, Syria and Fiji are also 

It is a magazine that has no special axe to 
grind, and it attempts to reach the blind 
man in the street, trying to give him articles 
and stories that are well but popularly 
written ; it seeks to interest a type of 
reader who may find The Literary Journal 
too exclusively literary, or The Braille 
Mail too purely a newspaper, but who 
wants to know something of what is happen- 

ing in the blind world, who takes an interest 
in current questions of the day, provided the 
articles on them are not too technical, and 
who enjoys a good story. 

In order that readers may be kept in 
touch with the social and political happenings 
around them, a new feature has recently 
been added to Progress in the form of an 
editorial, " From Week to Week," giving 
a brief summary of the events of the past 
month, both here and overseas. Unfortun- 
ately, in a world that rushes along very 
breathlessly, the summary is apt to be out 
of date by the time it appears. " A Cabinet 
Committee has been set up to consider the 
Report of the Economy Committee and it is 
not unlikely that the Cabinet will be sharply 
divided over the subject " was stale reading 
when it appeared in Progresss rather more 
than a week later, for already the Labour 
Cabinet had been superseded by the 
National Government. But this is a difficulty 
by no means peculiar to Braille papers. 

A short story is included in each month's 
issue, written, if possible, by such a recog- 
nised master of the short story as Aumonier, 
Percival Gibbon, W. W. Jacobs or O. Henry ; 
short stories of suitable length (they must 
not exceed three or four thousand words) are 
not easy to find, as the thrilling detective 
story or good adventure tale is almost always 
too long, and the slight psychological sketch, 




of the type written by Katherine Mansfield, 
hardly suitable for a magazine that is 
definitely popular in its appeal. It is 
difficult, sometimes, to overcome the tempta- 
tion to print a good story regardless of its 
length, but to do so would mean the cutting 
down of other equally important features. 

Three or four general articles follow, one 
often semi-political, but selected on account 
of its impartiality — " The Irwin-Gandhi 
Agreement," recently reprinted from The 
Spectator is typical — and another dealing 
with travel or foreign customs. " The 
Glamour of San Francisco," by J. B. 
Priestley, and " The Rug-makers of Persia," 
by Miss Sackville West, are recent examples 
of the latter, while it was with some pride 
that Progress reprinted in its July issue 
Mr. Courtauld's copyright story of his 
solitary adventures in the Arctic, by special 
permission of the editor of The Times. 
Probably readers of Progress alone were 
privileged to share with readers of The 
Times in that wonderful story of endurance 
and cheerful courage. 

A popular article that will appeal to the 
less literary reader is generally included. 
" Are the Bugginses True to Life ? " by their 
creator, Miss Constanduros, is an example 
of this lighter touch, and one that makes a 
special appeal to that very large section 
of readers who listen in. A short poem, 
generally selected from one of the fairly 
modern anthologies, generally completes this 
section of the magazine. 

" The Question Box " follows, and 
although the space it takes up is small, the 
heart-searching it causes in preparation is 
out of all proportion to the result ; questions 
dealing with the duties of the Junior Lord 
of the Treasury, the area in which the 
nightingale may be heard, the Great Wall of 
China, the most judicious investment for the 
small investor and the verification of the 
sources of many poems all take time ; some- 
times the editor is baffled (the heights of 
each member of the Royal family proved 
too much for him), but on the whole 
Whitaker's Almanack, The Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, Dr. Brewer's " Phrase and Fable," 
and a good stock of patience suffice to over- 
come most problems presented. 

Part of the magazine is given up to corre- 
spondence, and animated discussions on the 
White Stick controversy, uniform Braille and 

questions relating to sports for the blind have 
recently filled its pages. " Matters of the 
Moment " contains notices of interest to 
readers, offers of exchange of magazines, 
interchange of addresses for those who desire 
foreign correspondents, accounts of meetings 
and social gatherings of the blind and 
interesting achievements of blind people all 
over the world. 

The prize competition is always a popular 
feature and proves that readers of " Progress " 
have as ready a wit as other magazine 
competitors ; a recent competition, asking 
for a list of possible ideal marriages, produced 
an alliance between King Alfred and Mrs. 
Beeton, while the first line of a Limerick 
beginning " There was a young man of 
North Wales " was topically continued by a 
competitor as follows : — 

There was a young man of North Wales 

Who went hiking o'er mountains and dales, 
He used up some leather 
{Yes, indeed, and whateffer), 

Till nothing was left but the nails." 

The copy ends with " Nuggets," a collec- 
tion of short, humorous stories, schoolboy 
howlers, anecdotes of celebrities and so 

Two supplements (apart from the 
Announcements supplement of new pub- 
lications) accompany each number of 
Progress ; one of these is devoted to 
Chess and the other to Home Occupations, 
and consists of knitting patterns, household 
hints, cookery recipes and descriptions of 
possible pastime handicrafts. 

In order to celebrate the jubilee of 
Progress a competition was set last 
month entitled "If I Were Editor," and 
some valuable suggestions for improvements 
were received, which it is hoped to put into 
practice in due course. But from the 
editorial point of view, one satisfactory thing 
emerged from the competition ; on the whole 
Progress readers are well satisfied. Perhaps 
one letter received during the last few 
weeks might be quoted : — " As it is 
Progresss jubilee, I should like to take 
this opportunity of speaking a few words 
of appreciation and gratitude for all it has 
meant to me, and thousands of others. 
When we consider its limited space and yet 
how much it contains that suits the needs 
of all its readers we are astounded. To me 
it is like a dear old friend." 





By Canon C. E. BOLAM, F.R.Hist.S., 
Hon. Chief Chaplain, National Institute for the Blind. 

THE Editor has asked me 
to write an article under 
the above title and I 
gladly accede to his re- 
quest. At the same time 
I approach the subject 
with considerable hesita- 
tion and I am not quite sure whether I 
quite like the title. To talk of " going 
into the Church," is a loose and inaccurate 
phrase. What is really meant, of course, 
is " taking Holy Orders." Further, " taking 
Holy Orders " should, I think, be looked 
upon as a calling and not a career, so, 
having cleared the ground, let us come 
to the real question. Is it desirable and 
possible to encourage totally blind men to 
seek Holy Orders ? 

This is an important question and I feel 
strongly that it is my duty as Chief Chaplain 
of a great National Institution to give 
the matter careful attention. My work 
does not consist (in my view) merely in 
supervising money raising activities by 
means of sermons and recitals, but also in 
exploring all avenues by which advice and 
assistance can be given to the blind in 
matters directly or indirectly connected 
with my particular department. There are 
two questions that call for consideration : — 
(i) The immediate question before us, 

in this article ; 
(2) The placement and assistance of blind 

men when they have taken Orders. 
In this article I propose to deal only 
with the first question. In the first place 
let us see what are the principal qualifica- 
tions requisite for any man, sighted or blind, 
with regard to " Ordination." 

He must feel that he has received a call 
from God to this work — it is a spiritual 
charge, the care of souls given by the 
Chief Shepherd, and where this sense of 
vocation is absent disaster must follow. 
To seek Holy Orders merely as a possible 
career is, in my view, a wrong and unjusti- 
fiable act. In support of my view I would 
refer the reader to The Charge given by the 

Bishop in the Ordering of Priests (Book of 
Common Prayer). I quote only a few 
lines here. 

" And now again we exhort you, in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you 
have in remembrance, into how high a 
dignity, and to how a weighty an office 
and charge ye are called ; that is to say, 
to be messengers, watchmen and stewards 
of the Lord ; to teach and to premonish, 
to feed and provide for the Lord's family ; 
to seek for Christ's sheep that are dispersed 
abroad, and for his children who are in the 
midst of this naughty world, that they may 
be saved, through Christ, for ever." 

Again, he must be qualified intellectually 
and must, of course, be able to pass the 
necessary tests. It is particularly urgent, 
that, in these days, a high standard of 
intellectual ability should be demanded 
by the Bishop. When we come to consider 
the question of ordination for totally blind 
men we come to rather a thorny question. 
There is no doubt that the Bishops are 
very reluctant to ordain in this case and, 
personally, I think their reluctance is 
reasonable. Some of the Bishops may base 
their refusal on an old Canon law which 
insists on physical fitness, but I do not 
think that this argument weighs very heavily 
to-day ; again, we want to remember that 
it is difficult for a bishop to realise the capa- 
bilities of a blind man. It is only intimate 
knowledge of the blind that dispels the belief 
that they are more or less helpless. Again, 
the bishop is, to some extent, responsible 
for the future of the man he ordains, and 
he knows the difficulty which a blind man 
experiences in getting a curacy or a living. 
The present position is, I understand, 
that the bishops are advised to consult 
the Archbishop of Canterbury before accept- 
ing blind men for Orders. What is wanted, 
in my opinion, is some liaison between the 
Archbishop and my own department of the 
National Institute. With our knowledge 
of the blind we might, I think, give valuable 
assistance to the Archbishop and Bishops 




and thereby ensure that suitable blind men 
are accepted for ordination and assisted 
afterwards by way of placement. I am 
hoping shortly to have the opportunity 
of discussing the matter with the Arch- 

I am convinced that the right kind of 
blind man makes a thoroughly efficient 
parish priest, and that there are no difficulties 
that he cannot surmount ; the people are 
always ready to help him. During a long 
experience (over thirty years) of parish 
work, and during five years of hospital 
and camp work during the war, I have found 
that my own disability of defective sight 
has been, in many ways, rather a help than 
a hindrance. It brings out the best in 
other people and certainly establishes a 
bond of sympathy, for everybody is up 
against something in one way or another. 

There is one very real danger to be guarded 
against, the danger of a blind man seeking 
Orders as one of the few careers open to 

him. We must be satisfied that the blind 
man seeks Orders because he feels a definite 
call to spiritual work and not because it is 
a possible " job " open to him. He must 
be thoroughly self-reliant and capable. He 
will, for instance, get about his church and 
parish alone, and, of course, administer 
Communion efficiently. Clumsy and help- 
less blind men prejudice the sighted against 
blind clergy, and make it more difficult 
for really first-class men to obtain Ordina- 

Bearing in mind the need for more clergy 
and the greatly improved means of education 
and training of the blind, I maintain that 
the right kind of blind man ought to be, 
and will be, accepted for Orders, and I shall 
use all the influence of my department 
to assist such a man. 

I hope this article will evoke some corre- 
spondence and some helpful criticism and 
thereby strengthen our hands in our effort 
on behalf of the blind with regard to this 
question of Orders. 




IT will already be obvious to most 
readers that the methods of remunera- 
tion we are endeavouring to describe, 
whilst having certain salient features 
in common, differ so widely in other 
essential characteristics as to make 
comparison very difficult. So far as 
we have proceeded, it will be agreed that 
each organisation in the methods of remuner- 
ation applied possesses some distinctive 
advantage over the rest, and were it possible 
to bring into one common wage system those 
outstanding characteristics, we are doubtful 
even then if the ideal could be reached. 

When one is attempting to assess the 
comparative methods and systems in opera- 
tion, regard must be paid to the capacity 
of the respective organisations to comply 
with demands that are not determined on a 
pure economic basis. Some agencies have 
greater financial resources at their disposal 
than others, and if charity means anything 
at all it is legitimate to assume that the 
disposition of the wealthy organisation will 



be reflected in the conditions meted out to 
its employees. So many factors have to be 
considered when these assessments are being 
made, that anything in the nature of hasty 
generalisations are apt to be positively 
harmful, so that the greatest care must be 
exercised when presenting our survey not 
to dogmatise unduly or to show a preference 
that does not rest upon solid foundations. 

When discussing these problems we are 
often disposed to exalt certain charac- 
teristics which make a strong appeal to us, 
regardless of the fundamental differences 
which exist as between localities and the 
industrial pursuits that are practised there, 
and nowadays rateable values obtaining in 
the various areas are having a bearing on 
this subject and apparently will continue 
to exercise still greater influences upon 
standards of life, so long as real wages 
constitute but a part of the remuneration 
claimed by blind workers. 

There is something of value to be said in 
favour of those employment agencies where 


economic earnings constitute by far the most 
important item on the pay-sheet, as for 
example, is the case with the Blind Employ- 
ment Factory under the control of the 
Leatherhead Institution. In our last article 
we adduced evidence of this fact, not by 
minimising the value of the charitable under- 
taking, but by emphasising the importance 
of the wage-earning factor as a stabilising 
quantity in the social and industrial life of 
the worker. As we then indicated, this 
employment agency is in reality what it 
claims to be, a society for affording remunera- 
tive employment to the blind and guaran- 
teeing to them that their handicap will be 
taken account of in wage regulations by a 
reasonable assessment of the disability. If 
we may presume to say so, this fundamental 
principle should never be lost sight of by any 
kindred organisation if it desires to be 
anything more than a poor-law relief agency. 

As we write, we have before us a record of 
one of the best-known and certainly one of 
the best-equipped training and employment 
agencies in Britain. We refer to the Notting- 
ham Institution. 

This organisation was founded in 1843, 
and for many years it has continued to 
receive blind persons for training from all 
parts of England and Wales. No survey of 
this problem would be in any sense complete 
which failed to take account of the activities 
and enterprise of such an agency. Unlike 
many institutions, the Nottingham Society 
has been blessed during a succession of years 
with an able and enlightened administration ; 
its officers have been and are men with 
progressive minds, alert and interested, and 
this attitude is reflected in all the trans- 
actions of the undertaking. 

We must look in detail at the system in 
operation there in order to understand and 
appreciate some of the difficulties that have 
to be encountered in propounding systems 
of wage payments. Such an examination 
will repay us amply for the time so expended. 

We are in agreement with the point of 
view of the Secretary of the Institution when 
he observes that in considering the possi- 
bilities of a uniform system of remuneration 
for trained blind workers, it has often been 
stated by persons of long experience, who 
are well able to advise in such matters, that 
any such scheme should include three main 
principles, viz. : — 

1. The payment of standard rates of 
wages where possible, and, for work where 
such rates do not exist, an agreed rate 
should be paid based on the commercial 
value of the work done. 

2. The payment of an adequate aug- 
mentation of the actual wages earned, as 
compensation for the disability of blind- 

3. Such further assistance as may be 
necessary in cases where the actual wages 
earned, together with the augmentation, 
are insufficient for the proper maintenance 
of the persons concerned. 

The method of payment at the Royal 
Midland Institution for the Blind, Notting- 
ham, is mainly based on this system. It is 
contended that there is much in this method 
which might well be recommended as a 
model scheme. Such a scheme may be as 
elastic as the generosity of the authorities 
or the funds available will permit. 

Critics have said that the system is faulty 
because it seeks to pile subsidy upon sub- 
sidy, rendering the arrangements unneces- 
sarily complicated when a clear and simple 
device would be to so subsidise earnings as 
to secure a minimum income for all workers ; 
but this brings us back to the inherent 
weaknesses of all systems based upon 
minimum wages, and leads to the presump- 
tion that income and not production is the 
real determining factor of the situation. 
It will be agreed, however, by all who have 
the merest smattering of elementary econo- 
mics, that such theories are difficult to 
maintain in a world whose activities must 
depend upon the productivity of its inhabi- 

Ruskin in " Modern Painters " says : 
" What length and severity of labour may be 
ultimately found necessary for the procuring 
of the due comforts of life, I do not know ; 
neither what degree of refinement it is 
possible to unite with the so-called servile 
occupations of life ; but this I know, that 
right economy of labour will, as it is under- 
stood, assign to each man as much as will be 
healthy for him, and no more ; and that no 
refinements are desirable which cannot be 
connected with toil." 

The Nottingham system seeks to assert 
the principle that the remuneration to be 
paid must form a reasonable and relative 
share of the total amount paid to each worker 



week by week, so that the proper equilibrium 
may be maintained as between real wages 
and charity. This institution employs 8 2 
workers, and although the industrial depres- 
sion has been felt and is still most acute in 
Nottingham, the workers have been main- 
tained in full employment for many years 
past. Last year the value of the goods sold 
amounted to £23,061. 

We have often said when analysing wages 
that merely to quote averages cannot but 
be misleading ; for the purpose of strengthen- 
ing our contention, by the kind permission 
of the management we are able to quote 
figures, giving the wages for a full week's 
work in each department. These figures have 
been taken at random, so that in no sense do 
they represent carefully selected periods. 
It is perhaps necessary to observe that the 
figures include economic earnings and sub- 

Basket making : 48s. yd., 45s. yd., 
44s. 5d., 44s., 45s. 8d., 42s. 8d., 41s. yd., 
39s. 9d., 38s. id., 36s. 6d., 36s. 2d. 

Brush making : 53s. ud., 51s. 4d., 47s. 2d., 
36s. yd., 50s., 47s. 6d., 45s. 2d., 41s., 38s. 3d., 
40s., 44s. 8d., 41s. 8d., 36s., 35s. 8d., 40s. id., 
34s. ud., 40s. 5d., 34s. 3d., 37s. 2d., 33s. 6d., 
32s. 2d., 28s. gd., 30s., 30s. ud. 

Brush making (women) : 32s. 6d., 31s. 2d., 
25s., 28s. 4d., 32s. 6d., 26s. 6d., 29s. 7d., 23s. 

Mat making : 50s. 9d., 40s. 2d., 44s. 3d., 
39s., 38s. 2d., 45s., 30s. 2d., 29s. 5d., 36s. 2d., 
35s. 7d., 24s. 

Machine knitters: 35s. 8d., 35s. 4d., 29s. 8d. 

Other workers : 70s., 55s., 42s., 41s. 6d.. 
35s. 6d., 35s. 

We have already emphasised the futility 
of drawing conclusions from so-called average 
wages. This list, ranging as it does from 
20s. 1 id. to 70s., supplies the necessary proof, 
if such were needed, and accounts for the 
varying conditions in productive capacity, 
physical health, age incidence, etc. 

Under this scheme the actual wages earned 

last year are very creditable, and may be 

taken as a compliment to the workers, viz.: — 

Wages at standard rates £4,435 7 4 

Augmentation, holiday 

allowances, etc. .. 2,882 7 11 

National Health and Un- 
employment insurance 347 17 6 

One other brief reference to the facilities 
provided for holidays will be of interest to 
our readers. The board of management of 

the institution, with the consent of the 
workers, arranges to set aside is. per week 
for each employee, a like contribution is 
added to this sum, and in addition there is a 
further payment of 50s. in lieu of wages, so 
that a sum of £y 10s. per annum for holiday 
purposes is provided, £5 of which is guaran- 
teed by the management. 

This organisation is also responsible for 
the conduct of a very efficient home workers' 
scheme, under which 88 persons are em- 
ployed. Last year the amount earned in 
wages was £2,887 8s., to which must be 
added £1,663 J 6s. in the form of augmentation. 

Those who are disposed to criticise volun- 
tary organisations and to indulge in sweeping 
generalisations would do well to ponder over 
facts such as these, if they desire to be 
regarded as authoritative exponents of the 
social and industrial problems of the blind. 
(To be continued.) 

A Good Story. 

In the last generation a member of the 
Bar named Griffiths carried on a very satis- 
factory practice long after he lost his sight. 
A good story of one of his rare mistakes is 
worth repeating. While waiting for a case 
to come on he asked a man near him to 
read over his brief to him. The stranger 
consented, and at one part paused to remark 
on a tricky point of law, whereupon Griffiths, 
who was rather impatient, intimated that 
he didn't need to learn his law from any 
" damned junior." The stranger went on 
reading. It was Sir Charles Russell, after- 
wards Lord Russell of Killowen, C.J. 


Mr. William Nelson Cromwell, founder 
and President of the American Braille 
Press, has recently become a Trustee of the 
American Foundation for the Blind. 

The Rev. Gabriel Farrell, assumed 
on July 1st, the directorship of Perkins 
Institution, Watertown, Mass., U.S.A. Mr. 
Farrell is an active and advanced leader of 
thejipiscopal Church in the field of educa- 





Royal Sheffield Institution for the Blind. 

The report of the year ended 31st March, 
1931, states that a new assembly room has 
lately been opened for religious and social 
gatherings, and many successful meetings 
have been held. The house system has 
been introduced at Manchester Road School 
and is proving most encouraging in its 
results ; a school magazine has been started, 
scouting and guiding are in full swing and 
organised games make the leisure hours of 
the pupils very happy. The report is illus- 
trated with photographs of boys and girls 
at work and play, and of the Sunday service 
in the new assembly room. 

South African Library, Grahamstown. 

The seventh annual report, for 1930, states 
that owing to the receipt of a grant of £1,200 
from the Carnegie Corporation, it has been 
possible to pay off the bond on the library 
building, and also to put £700 aside as a 
reserve fund. In spite of the absence abroad 
of the hon. librarian for four and a half 
months, the work has continued steadily, 
and her account, on her return, of work for 
the blind in England forms an interesting 
part of the report. The Grahamstown 
Civilian Blind Committee continues its work, 
and is specially interesting itself in the 
provision of spectacles for children with 
defective sight. 

Indigent Blind Visiting Society. 

The ninety-sixth annual report of the 
Society states that the classes still continue 
to afford pleasant means of social intercourse 
to a large number of blind people ; it is 
interesting to read that the demand for the 
work done by the women in Stepney actually 
exceeds the supply, so high a standard 
having been reached. The Middleton Home 
at Maldon provides accommodation for 
thirty-six permanent residents, and is also 
extensively used as a holiday home in the 
summer months. 
Asile des Aveugles, Lausanne. 

Considerable repairs and alterations have 
been made in the home during the past year ; 

the hospital section has been brought up to 
date, the basket-making department has 
been moved from the basement to pleasanter 
quarters, and the bedroom accommodation 
has been enlarged. The home was invited 
to take part in a congress for the welfare of 
the blind in Nuremberg, and was represented 
at a further congress at Geneva and the 
opening of a new home at Berne. 

Henshaw's Institution for the Blind. 

The ninety-first annual report for the year 
ending March, 1931, is an account of many- 
sided work in school, training department 
and workshop. A marked increase in the 
number of contracts secured by the work- 
shops bears testimony to the excellence of 
the work carried out. A residential open-air 
school for children and an adaptation of a 
large house for accommodation of men and 
staff, both at Rhyl, are interesting new 
ventures, made possible through the gener- 
osity of the White Heather Fund. 

School for the Indigent Blind, Liverpool. 

For some years the Committee has recog- 
nised the need of a workshop for girls trained 
at the School, and this need will very shortly 
be met by the provision of salesroom, offices 
and workrooms, together with rooms for 
domestic training. The new buildings are to 
be erected on the site of the old chapel, and 
the work has already been set in hand. 

Norwich Institution for the Blind. 

" A Souvenir of the Norwich Institution 
for the Blind " gives the story of the work 
of the Institution since its foundation a 
hundred and twenty-six years ago ; the 
booklet is illustrated with photographs of the 
buildings, grounds and workers. 

The Institution undertakes the technical 
training of blind persons over sixteen, and 
the curriculum includes the making of 
baskets, mats, machine-knitting and weaving. 
With the satisfactory completion of training, 
pupils are either taken into the workshops 
or provided for under the Home Workers' 
Scheme. A further activity described in the 
booklet is the Home for aged blind men and 
women, while the Committee's plans for the 
future are also detailed ; these include 
extended training and workshop facilities 
and the provision of additional modern 




First Organ Prize at Conservatoire. 

A young blind man, named Gaston 
Litaizen, has recently been awarded the 
first organ prize in the class of Marcel 
Dupre at the Conservatoire. The new prize 
winner was born at Mesnilen-Belleville, in 
the Vosges, on August nth, 1909, and was 
educated at the School for the Blind at 
Nancy. He studied the organ for a time 
under the direction of M. Adolphe Marty. 

Successful Greek Scholar. 

Joseph Shefter, a blind boy of sixteen, 
has been graduated from the Eastern 
District High School, Brooklyn, U.S.A., 
at the head of his class, and has also won 
the Greek Scholarship prize offered by the 
New York Classical Club to the student 
achieving the highest rank in a city-wide 

Few Greek text-books in Braille were 
available, and every word and accent of 
the lessons had to be dictated to him before 
he could begin his home work. 

He expresses his indebtedness to the 
National Institute for the Blind, London, 
for the loan of Homer's Iliad in Braille. 

New Blind Mus. Bac. 

The degree of Bachelor of Music was 
conferred recently at Manchester University 
on Mr. Reuben Taylor, who is blind. 

Winner of Eisteddfod Braille Prize. 

Mr. Ernest C. Mason, of Eastbourne, 
was awarded the prize at the Royal National 
Eisteddfod of Wales last month in the 
Competition in English Braille. The com- 
petition was open to all blind people in 
England and Wales who had lost their 
sight when over 25 years of age. The test- 
piece, from a History of Wales, was dictated 
to Mr. Mason, who wrote it in Braille on a 
hand frame. 

R.S.A. Esperanto Certificate. 

This year, for the first time, the Royal 
Society of Arts included Esperanto in 
their subjects for examination, and Miss 
Edith Rogers, a blind girl of Salford, decided 
to enter in Stage 1, the examination taking 



place in June. A special Braille tran- 
scription of the paper was prepared by the 
National Institute for the Blind and Miss 
Rogers made her replies on a Braille frame. 
Notification was received last month that 
she had been awarded the Society's certificate 
for Stage 1 examination. 
Sheffield Blind Pupils' Successes. 

In the recent School Examinations of 
the Associated Board of the Royal Academy 
of Music and the Royal College of Music, 
the following pupils of the Royal Blind 
School, Sheffield, were successful in passing 
with honourable mention : — 

Piano, Primary Division : Kathleen 
Chappell, Winifred Pigott. Elementary : 
Ruth Waywell, Alfred Johnson, Charles 
Marsden, Albert Walker, Arthur Jones. 
Lower : Lilian Fearnley, Vera Sage. 

Singing, Primary : Sarah Green. 

The teacher was Mr. Arthur Littlewood, 
Blind Musician's Artistry. 

" Blind man's melodies coming from a 
blind man's hands held men and women 
spellbound in the City church of St. Law- 
rence Jewry yesterday (1st September), 
at lunch time," says the Daily Herald. 

Mr. H. V. Spanner, Mus. Bac, F.R.C.O., 
played the music of William Wolstenholme, 
the celebrated blind musician who died a 
month ago. 
Organ Recital at Preston. 

On the same day, selections from Wol- 
stenholme's compositions were also given 
at an organ recital at Preston, by Mr. John 
E. Robinson, A.R.C.O., who gained the 
first prize in last year's musical competition 
for young blind composers, organised by 
the National Institute. 

Clairvoyance and Blindness. 

Recently, in Light, a correspondent wished 
to know if there had ever been a Medium 
known to be blind from birth. He was 
especially interested in the question as to 
whether they can see and describe people 
clairvoyantly, if they have never seen at 
all with their physical eyes. The whole 
question seemed to him very interesting, 
and if it could be answered in the affirmative, 
opened up vistas of the realism of the other 
life and the power of the soul. Of course, 
the same argument applied to totally deaf 




EIGHTY years ago, that is, in 
1851, the number of blind 
persons in Great Britain was 
slightly under 21,500, or an 
average of one in every 975 
of the total population. Thirty 
years later, in 1881, the 
number had risen to 22,800, or one in every 
1,140, showing that while the actual number 
of blind had increased, there had been a 
gratifying decrease in the proportion to the 
total population. To-day, half a century 
later, it is estimated that there are no fewer 
than 56,000 blind persons in our midst, 
which is not only a startling increase in 
actual numbers, but an alarming and 
thought-challenging increase in the propor- 
tion to the population as a whole. At the 
present time roughly one in every 750 persons 
in the country is deprived of sight. 

To what causes can this enormous increase 
be attributed ? Never was more attention 
paid to sight than in recent years and now. 
In Victorian times the school child was not 
worried by visits of oculists, and as a 
consequence if anything were found to be 
unsatisfactory, hustled off to clinics and 
supplied with the proper glasses, or treat- 
ment, as the case might be. No evidence is 
available that more babies are born blind 
than formerly, and I should be surprised 
to learn that a greater number of cases of 
eye trouble occur during adolescence, or 
early manhood or womanhood. 

It is my positive conviction — a conviction 
founded not upon official statistics, but upon 
personal knowledge, that a large proportion 
of the increase that has taken place is due 
to blindness attacking those in middle life, 
and is mainly the direct result of modern 
stress and strain. Instance after instance 
of this has come under my observation — of 
men in the prime of life, or very little past 
it, who have, in some cases, almost without 
warning, succumbed to eyesight trouble. 

With regard to the great majority of us 
no period of life is burdened with greater 
responsibilities than middle-age. The home 
is at the height of its activity as a social 
and economic unit. The elder children of 

the family are growing into their teens, 
and care and thought must be bestowed 
upon them in order to ensure their future. 
The younger children are still at school. 

The cases that have specially come under 
my notice are of men in professional walks 
of life, men who have often against great 
odds succeeded in living up to a certain 
social level. They have done their best to 
provide education for their children, have 
built up and maintained comfortable homes 
on modern lines, and have, wisely or not, 
connected themselves with various social 
amenities. But in many cases this has been 
accomplished only by using income to its 
utmost limits, or, at the most, by accumulat- 
ing so small a reserve that very little would 
be available for a rainy day. 

Then, as I have stated, almost without 
warning, they have been stricken with 
blindness, and life has literally fallen to 
pieces. They are no longer employable on 
the work in which they had for years been 
engaged. Employers there are, to their 
credit be it said, who treat such cases with 
human kindness, and who find for those 
who have faithfully worked for them some 
form of activity still possible to those 
afflicted by blindness. But there are cases 
of a reverse character. " Employers," I 
have actually been told by one of them, 
" cannot be expected to pose as benevolent 
institutions." What often happens, too, is 
that an employer is only too glad of an 
excuse to say good-bye to a member of his 
staff commanding a fairly high salary, in 
order that the vacancy may be filled by a 
younger man at a much more moderate 

When such callousness occurs the situation 
becomes one of acute bitterness. The blind 
man has not only to bear his affliction, and 
be dependent upon others for quite insignifi- 
cant duties in daily life, but he has the 
mental worry forced upon him of wondering 
how he can continue to support the home. 
His house may have only been partly paid 
for, but even if it is his own, he has still 
upon him the burden of rates and repairs. 
Some of his children may be at secondary 



schools, and large demands may be made 
upon him for outfit, travelling expenses, 
meals and books. 

Such men are usually too old to be trained 
for some other form of activity — indeed, 
their bent has never been in the direction of 
the mechanical occupations in which the 
early trained blind have shown themselves 
so adept. A young man of twenty becoming 
blind can be almost certain that he has a 
useful career before him, but a man of 
middle-age is in an altogether different 
category. After spending, say, thirty years, 
in the profession of surveying, he can hardly 
be expected to obtain much success in 
basket-weaving. Yet he feels that he has 
by no means reached that stage in life in 
which he should spend day by day in an 
armchair waiting the inevitable lot of all. 
Not only is he worried in regard to the 
future of his home and family, but the 
prospect of perpetual inactivity is untold 

The problem of how to deal with such 
cases is a difficult one, far more difficult 
than that of blind babies, blind children, 
or blind adolescents. The difficulty in 
regard to these has been solved with remark- 
able success. One hundred and forty years 
have passed since the first school for the 
blind was established in this country ; for 
it was in 1791 that such a school was opened 
at Liverpool. Enormous developments have 
taken place since then in the education and 
training of the blind, and in providing them 
with such practical help as almost to place 
them on a level, socially and industrially, 
with those not similarly afflicted. But the 
problem of the man who becomes blind in 
middle life, at the very height of his respon- 
sibilities, is still to a large extent unsolved — 
and this is especially the case with the pro- 
fessional man. As a result he, his wife, and 
his children suffer to an extent almost 

Let me close, as I began, on the theme of 
statistics. In 1881 the proportion of blind 
persons was less than one per thousand of 
the total population. To-day, fifty years 
later, that proportion has risen to one in 750. 
Does that indicate that in front of us is the 
prospect that in the course of yet another 
half-century, one in every 500 persons will 
be sightless ? The thought is a terrifying 
one, but it has to be faced. Mental stress 
and eye-strain has increased in recent years 




at an unprecedented pace. The rush of 
motor vehicles along our highways is, after 
all, little more than an outward indication 
of the general tendency of modern life. 
Our fathers thought a road speed of 20 miles 
per hour sufficient for every need. Now we 
think little of 40 or 50 miles along the 
road and double that speed through the air. 
But the many crashes are the inevitable 
result ; and we must equally expect crashes 
as the complement of the rush of modern 
life as a whole — blindness among them. We 
have police regulation of traffic, subways, 
white directions upon the roads themselves, 
to deal with the traffic problem, while 
ambulances are ready to hand if an actual 
crash occurs. Are we equally prepared to 
deal with home crashes brought about 
through the general rush of modern life ? 



The prices of the following pieces of music are subject 
to a reduction of three-quarters for the blind resident 
in the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. 
The minimum price is 6d. per copy. 
ORGAN— s. d. 

10.992 Handel. Third Organ Concerto in G 

minor (arr. by W. T. Best) . . ..20 

10.993 Vergolet, Paul. Storm Fantasy (based 

on Dr. Dykes' " Melita ") .. ..20 


10.994 Craxton, Harold. A Tahitian Dance. . 2 o 

10.995 Fifer, Doreen. Ten Tuneful Pieces for 

Beginners . . . . . . ..20 

10.996 Nicholls, Frederick. Album of Minia- 

tures (Six Characteristic Pieces) . . 20 

10.997 Park Moore. Four Lyrics . . . . 20 

10.998 Schumann. Kreisleriana : Fantaisies 

Op. 16. Nos. 1 — 4 . . . . ..54 

io .999 Schumann. Kreisleriana : Fantaisies, 

Op 16. Nos. 5—8 54 


11.000 Kahal, I, and Richman, H. Moonlight 

Saving Time, Song Fox-Trot . . 20 

11.001 Lehar, F. You are my heart's delight 

(from " The Land of Smiles "), Song 
Fox-Trot . . . . ....20 

11.002 Noble, Campbell and Connelly. Good- 

night, Sweetheart, Song Fox-Trot. . 2 o 

11.003 Woods, H. When the moon comes over 

the mountain. Song- Waltz . . 20 


11.004 Brewer, A. H. Ninetta, D ; E — F 1 .. 20 

11.005 Broadwood, Lucy E., and Maitland, 

J. A. Fuller (edited by). The Golden 
Vanity (from " English County 
Songs "), A ; A— D 1 20 

1 1 006 Coates, Eric. Going to the Fair, F ; 

C— D 1 20 

11,007 Handel (arr. by A. L.).